Style Details

Name
Ame­ri­can Light Lager
Cate­go­ry
Stan­dard Ame­ri­can Beer
BJCP Style Code
1 A
Appearan­ce
Very pale straw to pale yel­low color. White, fro­thy head sel­dom per­sists. Very clear.
Aro­ma
Low to no malt aro­ma, alt­hough it can be per­cei­ved as grai­ny, sweet, or corn-like if pre­sent. Hop aro­ma is light to none, with a spi­cy or flo­ral hop cha­rac­ter if pre­sent. While a clean fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter is desi­ra­ble, a light amount of yeast cha­rac­ter (par­ti­cu­lar­ly a light apple frui­ti­ness) is not a fault. Light DMS is not a fault.
Fla­vour
Rela­tively neu­tral pala­te with a crisp and dry finish and a low to very low grai­ny or corn-like fla­vor that might be per­cei­ved as sweet­ness due to the low bit­ter­ness. Hop fla­vor ran­ges from none to low levels, and can have a flo­ral, spi­cy, or her­bal qua­li­ty (alt­hough rare­ly strong enough to detect). Low to very low hop bit­ter­ness. Balan­ce may vary from slight­ly mal­ty to slight­ly bit­ter, but is rela­tively clo­se to even. High levels of car­bo­na­ti­on may accen­tua­te the cris­pness of the dry finish. Clean lager fer­men­ta­ti­on character.
Mouth­feel
Very light (some­ti­mes wate­ry) body. Very high­ly car­bo­na­ted with slight car­bo­nic bite on the tongue.
Over­all Impression
High­ly car­bo­na­ted, very light-bodi­ed, near­ly fla­vor­less lager desi­gned to be con­su­med very cold. Very refres­hing and thirst quenching.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Two- or six-row bar­ley with high per­cen­ta­ge (up to 40%) of rice or corn as adjuncts. Addi­tio­nal enzy­mes can fur­ther ligh­ten the body and lower carbohydrates.
Histo­ry
Coors brief­ly made a light lager in the ear­ly 1940s. Modern ver­si­ons were first pro­du­ced by Rhein­gold in 1967 to appeal to diet-con­scious drin­kers, but only beca­me popu­lar star­ting in 1973 after Mil­ler Brewing acqui­red the reci­pe and mar­ke­ted the beer hea­vi­ly to sports fans with the “tas­tes gre­at, less fil­ling” cam­pai­gn. Beers of this gen­re beca­me the lar­gest sel­lers in the United Sta­tes in the 1990s.
Comments
Desi­gned to appeal to as broad a ran­ge of the gene­ral public as pos­si­ble. Strong fla­vors are a fault.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bud Light, Coors Light, Key­stone Light, Miche­lob Light, Mil­ler Lite, Old Mil­wau­kee Light
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.028 - 1.040 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.998 - 1.008 SG
Color
2 - 3 SRM
Alco­hol
2.0 - 4.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
8 - 12 IBU
Name
Ame­ri­can Lager
Cate­go­ry
Stan­dard Ame­ri­can Beer
BJCP Style Code
1 B
Appearan­ce
Very pale straw to medi­um yel­low color. White, fro­thy head sel­dom per­sists. Very clear.
Aro­ma
Low to no malt aro­ma, alt­hough it can be per­cei­ved as grai­ny, sweet or corn-like if pre­sent. Hop aro­ma may ran­ge from none to a light, spi­cy or flo­ral hop pre­sence. While a clean fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter is desi­ra­ble, a light amount of yeast cha­rac­ter (par­ti­cu­lar­ly a light apple cha­rac­ter) is not a fault. Light DMS is also not a fault.
Fla­vour
Rela­tively neu­tral pala­te with a crisp and dry finish and a moder­ate­ly-low to low grai­ny or corn-like fla­vor that might be per­cei­ved as sweet­ness due to the low bit­ter­ness. Hop fla­vor ran­ges from none to moder­ate­ly-low levels, and can have a flo­ral, spi­cy, or her­bal qua­li­ty (alt­hough often not strong enough to dis­tin­guish). Hop bit­ter­ness at low to medi­um-low level. Balan­ce may vary from slight­ly mal­ty to slight­ly bit­ter, but is rela­tively clo­se to even. High levels of car­bo­na­ti­on may accen­tua­te the cris­pness of the dry finish. Clean lager fer­men­ta­ti­on character.
Mouth­feel
Low to medi­um-low body. Very high­ly car­bo­na­ted with slight car­bo­nic bite on the tongue.
Over­all Impression
A very pale, high­ly-car­bo­na­ted, light-bodi­ed, well-atte­nua­ted lager with a very neu­tral fla­vor pro­fi­le and low bit­ter­ness. Ser­ved very cold, it can be a very refres­hing and thirst quen­ching drink.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Two- or six-row bar­ley with high per­cen­ta­ge (up to 40%) of rice or corn as adjuncts.
Histo­ry
Alt­hough Ger­man immi­grants had bre­wed tra­di­tio­nal Pils­ner-inspi­red lager beer in the United Sta­tes sin­ce the mid-late 1800s, the modern Ame­ri­can lager style was hea­vi­ly influ­en­ced by Pro­hi­bi­ti­on and World War II. Sur­vi­ving bre­we­ries con­so­li­da­ted, expan­ded dis­tri­bu­ti­on, and hea­vi­ly pro­mo­ted a beer style that was appe­aling to a broad ran­ge of the popu­la­ti­on. Beca­me the domi­nant beer style for many deca­des, and spaw­ning many inter­na­tio­nal rivals who would deve­lop simi­lar­ly bland pro­ducts for the mass mar­ket sup­por­ted by hea­vy advertising.
Comments
Strong fla­vors are a fault. Often what non-craft beer drin­kers expect to be ser­ved if they order beer in the United Sta­tes. May be mar­ke­ted as Pils­ner beers out­side of Euro­pe, but should not be con­fu­sed with tra­di­tio­nal examples.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bud­wei­ser, Coors Ori­gi­nal, Grain Belt Pre­mi­um Lager, Mil­ler High Life, Pabst Blue Rib­bon, Spe­cial Export
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.040 - 1.050 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.004 - 1.010 SG
Color
2 - 4 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
8 - 18 IBU
Name
Cream Ale
Cate­go­ry
Stan­dard Ame­ri­can Beer
BJCP Style Code
1 C
Appearan­ce
Pale straw to mode­ra­te gold color, alt­hough usual­ly on the pale side. Low to medi­um head with medi­um to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Fair head reten­ti­on. Bril­li­ant, spar­k­ling clarity.
Aro­ma
Medi­um-low to low malt notes, with a sweet, corn-like aro­ma. Low levels of DMS are allo­wa­ble, but are not requi­red. Hop aro­ma medi­um low to none, and can be of any varie­ty alt­hough flo­ral, spi­cy, or her­bal notes are most com­mon. Over­all, a sub­t­le aro­ma with neit­her hops nor malt domi­na­ting. Low frui­ty esters are optional.
Fla­vour
Low to medi­um-low hop bit­ter­ness. Low to mode­ra­te mal­ti­ness and sweet­ness, vary­ing with gra­vi­ty and atte­nua­ti­on. Usual­ly well-atte­nua­ted. Neit­her malt nor hops domi­na­te the pala­te. A low to mode­ra­te cor­ny fla­vor is com­mon­ly found, as is light DMS (optio­nal). Finish can vary from some­what dry to faint­ly sweet. Low frui­ty esters are optio­nal. Low to medi­um-low hop fla­vor (any varie­ty, but typi­cal­ly flo­ral, spi­cy, or herbal).
Mouth­feel
Gene­ral­ly light and crisp, alt­hough body can reach medi­um. Smooth mouth­feel with medi­um to high atte­nua­ti­on; hig­her atte­nua­ti­on levels can lend a “thirst quen­ching” qua­li­ty. High carbonation. 
Over­all Impression
A clean, well-atte­nua­ted, fla­vor­ful Ame­ri­can “lawn­mower” beer. Easi­ly drin­ka­ble and refres­hing, with more cha­rac­ter than typi­cal Ame­ri­can lagers.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Ame­ri­can ingre­dients most com­mon­ly used. A grain bill of six-row malt, or a com­bi­na­ti­on of six-row and North Ame­ri­can two-row, is com­mon. Adjuncts can inclu­de up to 20% mai­ze in the mash, and up to 20% glu­co­se or other sug­ars in the boil. Any varie­ty of hops can be used for bit­te­ring and finishing.
Histo­ry
A spar­k­ling or pre­sent-use ale that exis­ted in the 1800s and sur­vi­ved pro­hi­bi­ti­on. An ale ver­si­on of the Ame­ri­can lager style. Pro­du­ced by ale bre­wers to com­pe­te with lager bre­wers in Cana­da and the Nor­the­ast, Mid-Atlan­tic, and Mid­west sta­tes. Ori­gi­nal­ly known as spar­k­ling or pre­sent use ales, lager strains were (and some­ti­mes still are) used by some bre­wers, but were not his­to­ri­cal­ly mixed with ale strains. Many examp­les are kräu­se­ned to achie­ve car­bo­na­ti­on. Cold con­di­tio­ning isn’t tra­di­tio­nal, alt­hough modern bre­wers some­ti­mes use it.
Comments
Pre-pro­hi­bi­ti­on Cream Ales were slight­ly stron­ger, hop­pier (inclu­ding some dry hop­ping) and more bit­ter (25-30+ IBUs). The­se ver­si­ons should be ent­e­red in the his­to­ri­cal cate­go­ry. Most com­mer­cial examp­les are in the 1.050–1.053 OG ran­ge, and bit­ter­ness rare­ly rises abo­ve 20 IBUs.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Gene­see Cream Ale, Lie­bot­scha­ner Cream Ale, Litt­le Kings Cream Ale, New Gla­rus Spot­ted Cow, Old Style, Slee­man Cream Ale
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.042 - 1.055 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.006 - 1.012 SG
Color
2 - 5 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
8 - 20 IBU
Name
Ame­ri­can Wheat Beer
Cate­go­ry
Stan­dard Ame­ri­can Beer
BJCP Style Code
1 D
Appearan­ce
Usual­ly pale yel­low to gold. Cla­ri­ty may ran­ge from bril­li­ant to hazy with yeast appro­xi­ma­ting the Ger­man weiss­bier style of beer. Big, long-las­ting white head.
Aro­ma
Low to mode­ra­te grai­ny, brea­dy, or doughy wheat cha­rac­ter. A light to mode­ra­te mal­ty sweet­ness is accep­ta­ble. Esters can be mode­ra­te to none, alt­hough should reflect rela­tively neu­tral yeast strains; bana­na is inap­pro­pria­te. Hop aro­ma may be low to mode­ra­te, and can have a citru­sy, spi­cy, flo­ral, or frui­ty cha­rac­ter. No clove phenols.
Fla­vour
Light to moder­ate­ly-strong brea­dy, doughy, or grai­ny wheat fla­vor, which can lin­ger into the finish. May have a mode­ra­te mal­ty sweet­ness or finish qui­te dry. Low to mode­ra­te hop bit­ter­ness, which some­ti­mes lasts into the finish. Balan­ce is usual­ly even, but may be slight­ly bit­ter. Low to mode­ra­te hop fla­vor (citru­sy, spi­cy, flo­ral, or frui­ty). Esters can be mode­ra­te to none, but should not inclu­de bana­na. No clove phe­nols. May have a slight­ly crisp finish.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body. Medi­um-high to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Slight crea­m­i­ness is optio­nal; wheat beers some­ti­mes have a soft, ‘fluffy’ impression.
Over­all Impression
Refres­hing wheat beers that can dis­play more hop cha­rac­ter and less yeast cha­rac­ter than their Ger­man cou­sins. A clean fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter allows brea­dy, doughy, or grai­ny wheat fla­vors to be com­ple­men­ted by hop fla­vor and bit­ter­ness rather than yeast qualities.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Clean Ame­ri­can ale or lager yeast (Ger­man weiss­bier yeast is inap­pro­pria­te). Lar­ge pro­por­ti­on of wheat malt (often 30–50%, which is lower than is typi­cal in Ger­man weiss­biers). Ame­ri­can, Ger­man, or New World hops are typical.
Histo­ry
An Ame­ri­can craft beer adap­t­ati­on of the Ger­man weiss­bier style using a clea­ner yeast and more hops, first wide­ly popu­la­ri­zed by Wid­mer in the mid-1980s.
Comments
Dif­fe­rent varia­ti­ons exist, from an easy-drin­king fair­ly sweet beer to a dry, aggres­si­ve­ly-hop­ped beer with a strong wheat fla­vor. Ame­ri­can rye beers should be ent­e­red in the Alter­na­ti­ve Fer­men­ta­bles spe­cial­ty category.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bell’s Obe­ron, Bou­le­vard Unfil­te­red Wheat Beer, Goo­se Island 312 Urban Wheat Ale, Wid­mer Hefeweizen
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.040 - 1.055 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.013 SG
Color
3 - 6 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
15 - 30 IBU
Name
Inter­na­tio­nal Pale Lager
Cate­go­ry
Inter­na­tio­nal Lager
BJCP Style Code
2 A
Appearan­ce
Pale straw to gold color. White, fro­thy head may not be long las­ting. Very clear.
Aro­ma
Low to medi­um-low malt aro­ma, which can be grai­ny-mal­ty or slight­ly cor­ny-sweet. Hop aro­ma may ran­ge from very low to a medi­um, spi­cy or flo­ral hop pre­sence. While a clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le is gene­ral­ly most desi­ra­ble, low levels of yeast cha­rac­ter (such as a light apple frui­ti­ness) are not a fault. A light amount of DMS or corn aro­ma is not a fault.
Fla­vour
Low to mode­ra­te levels of grai­ny-malt fla­vor, with a crisp, dry, well-atte­nua­ted finish. The grain cha­rac­ter can be some­what neu­tral, or show a light brea­dy-cra­cke­ry qua­li­ty or up to mode­ra­te cor­ny or mal­ty sweet­ness. Hop fla­vor ran­ges from none to medi­um levels, and often showing a flo­ral, spi­cy, or her­bal cha­rac­ter if detec­ted. Hop bit­ter­ness at medi­um-low to medi­um level. Balan­ce may vary from slight­ly mal­ty to slight­ly bit­ter, but is rela­tively clo­se to even. Neu­tral after­tas­te with light malt and some­ti­mes hop fla­vors. A light amount of DMS is not a fault.
Mouth­feel
Light to medi­um body. Moder­ate­ly high to high­ly car­bo­na­ted. Can have a slight car­bo­nic bite on the tongue.
Over­all Impression
A high­ly-atte­nua­ted pale lager without strong fla­vors, typi­cal­ly well-balan­ced and high­ly car­bo­na­ted. Ser­ved cold, it is refres­hing and thirst-quenching.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Two- or six-row bar­ley. May use rice, corn, or sugar as adjuncts, or may be all malt.
Histo­ry
In the United Sta­tes, deve­lo­ped as a pre­mi­um ver­si­on of the stan­dard Ame­ri­can lager, with a simi­lar histo­ry. Out­side the United Sta­tes, deve­lo­ped eit­her as an imi­ta­ti­on of Ame­ri­can style lagers, or as a more acces­si­ble (and often dri­er and less bit­ter) ver­si­on of a Pils­ner-type beer. Often hea­vi­ly mar­ke­ted and expor­ted by lar­ge indus­tri­al or mul­ti-natio­nal breweries.
Comments
Inter­na­tio­nal lagers tend to have fewer adjuncts than stan­dard Ame­ri­can lagers. They may be all-malt, alt­hough strong fla­vors are still a fault. A broad cate­go­ry of inter­na­tio­nal mass-mar­ket lagers ran­ging from up-sca­le Ame­ri­can lagers to the typi­cal “import” or “green bot­t­le” inter­na­tio­nal beers found in Ame­ri­ca and many export mar­kets. Often con­fu­sin­gly labe­led as a “Pils­ner.” Any skun­ki­ness in com­mer­cial beers from being light­struck in a green bot­t­le is a mis­hand­ling fault, not a cha­rac­te­ris­tic of the style.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Asahi Super Dry, Bir­ra Moret­ti, Coro­na Extra, Devils Back­bone Gold Leaf Lager, Full Sail Ses­si­on Pre­mi­um Lager, Hei­ne­ken, Red Stri­pe, Singha
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.042 - 1.050 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.012 SG
Color
2 - 6 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
18 - 25 IBU
Name
Inter­na­tio­nal Amber Lager
Cate­go­ry
Inter­na­tio­nal Lager
BJCP Style Code
2 B
Appearan­ce
Gol­den-amber to red­dish-cop­per color. Bright cla­ri­ty. White to off-white foam stand which may not last.
Aro­ma
Low to mode­ra­te malt aro­ma which can be grai­ny, with a very low to mode­ra­te cara­mel-sweet to toas­ty-mal­ty aro­ma. Hop aro­ma can ran­ge from low to none with a mild­ly flo­ral or spi­cy cha­rac­ter. Clean lager pro­fi­le. A slight DMS or cor­ny aro­ma is acceptable.
Fla­vour
Low to mode­ra­te malt pro­fi­le which can vary from dry to grai­ny-sweet. Low to mode­ra­te levels of cara­mel and toas­ty-brea­dy notes can be evi­dent. Low to medi­um-low cor­ny sweet­ness is optio­nal, but not a fault. Hop bit­ter­ness is low to mode­ra­te, and hop fla­vor is low to mode­ra­te with a spi­cy, her­bal, or flo­ral cha­rac­ter. The balan­ce can be fair­ly mal­ty to near­ly even, with the bit­ter­ness beco­m­ing more noti­ce­ab­le but not objec­tion­ab­le. The bit­ter­ness level can incre­a­se if the malt cha­rac­ter incre­a­ses to match. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le. Finish is moder­ate­ly dry with a moder­ate­ly mal­ty aftertaste.
Mouth­feel
Light to medi­um body. Medi­um to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth; some examp­les can be creamy.
Over­all Impression
A well-atte­nua­ted mal­ty amber lager with an inte­res­ting cara­mel or toast qua­li­ty and restrai­ned bit­ter­ness. Usual­ly fair­ly well-atte­nua­ted, often with an adjunct qua­li­ty. Smooth, easi­ly-drin­ka­ble lager character.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Two-row or six-row base malt. Color mal­ts such as vic­to­ry, amber, etc. Cara­mel malt adjuncts. Euro­pean or Ame­ri­can hops or a com­bi­na­ti­on of both.
Histo­ry
Varies by coun­try, but gene­ral­ly repres­ents an adap­t­ati­on of the mass-mar­ket Inter­na­tio­nal Lager or an evo­lu­ti­on of indi­ge­nous styles into a more gene­ric product.
Comments
A wide spec­trum of mass-mar­ket Amber lagers deve­lo­ped eit­her inde­pendent­ly in various coun­tries, or describ­ing rather gene­ric amber beers that may have had more his­to­ri­cal rele­van­ce but who even­tual­ly chan­ged into an indis­tin­guis­ha­ble pro­duct in modern times.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Brook­lyn Lager, Capi­tal Win­ter Skål, Dos Equis Amber, Schell’s Okto­ber­fest, Yueng­ling Lager
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.042 - 1.055 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.014 SG
Color
7 - 14 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
8 - 25 IBU
Name
Inter­na­tio­nal Dark Lager
Cate­go­ry
Inter­na­tio­nal Lager
BJCP Style Code
2 C
Appearan­ce
Deep amber to dark brown with bright cla­ri­ty and ruby high­lights. Foam stand may not be long las­ting, and is beige to light tan in color.
Aro­ma
Litt­le to no malt aro­ma; may have a light corn cha­rac­ter. Medi­um-low to no roast and cara­mel malt aro­ma. Hop aro­ma may ran­ge from none to light spi­cy or flo­ral hop pre­sence. While a clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le is gene­ral­ly most desi­ra­ble, low levels of yeast cha­rac­ter (such as a light apple frui­ti­ness) are not a fault. A light amount of DMS or corn aro­ma is not a fault.
Fla­vour
Low to medi­um mal­ty sweet­ness with medi­um-low to no cara­mel and/or roas­ted malt fla­vors (and may inclu­de hints of cof­fee, molas­ses or cocoa). Hop fla­vor ran­ges from none to low levels, and is typi­cal­ly flo­ral, spi­cy, or her­bal. Low to medi­um hop bit­ter­ness. May have a very light frui­ti­ness. Moder­ate­ly crisp finish. The balan­ce is typi­cal­ly some­what mal­ty. Burnt or moder­ate­ly strong roas­ted malt fla­vors are a defect. 
Mouth­feel
Light to medi­um-light body. Smooth with a light crea­m­i­ness. Medi­um to high carbonation.
Over­all Impression
A dar­ker and some­what swee­ter ver­si­on of inter­na­tio­nal pale lager with a litt­le more body and fla­vor, but equal­ly restrai­ned in bit­ter­ness. The low bit­ter­ness lea­ves the malt as the pri­ma­ry fla­vor ele­ment, and the low hop levels pro­vi­de very litt­le in the way of balance.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Two- or six-row bar­ley, corn, rice, or sug­ars as adjuncts. Light use of cara­mel and dar­ker mal­ts. Com­mer­cial ver­si­ons may use colo­ring agents.
Histo­ry
Dar­ker ver­si­ons of Inter­na­tio­nal Pale Lagers often crea­ted by the same lar­ge, indus­tri­al bre­we­ries and meant to appeal to a broad audi­ence. Often eit­her a colo­red or swee­te­ned adap­t­ati­on of the stan­dard pale indus­tri­al lager, or a more broad­ly acces­si­ble (and inex­pen­si­ve) ver­si­on of more tra­di­tio­nal dark lagers.
Comments
A broad ran­ge of inter­na­tio­nal lagers that are dar­ker than pale, and not asser­tively bit­ter and/or roasted. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bal­ti­ka #4 Ori­gi­nal, Devils Back­bone Old Vir­gi­nia Dark, Dixie Bla­cke­ned Voo­doo, Saint Pau­li Girl Dark, San Miguel Dark, Ses­si­on Black Dark Lager, Shi­ner Bock
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.056 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.012 SG
Color
14 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
8 - 20 IBU
Name
Czech Pale Lager
Cate­go­ry
Czech Lager
BJCP Style Code
3 A
Appearan­ce
Light gold to deep gold color. Bril­li­ant to very clear, with a long-las­ting, crea­my white head. 
Aro­ma
Light to mode­ra­te brea­dy-rich malt com­bi­ned with light to mode­ra­te spi­cy or her­bal hop bou­quet; the balan­ce bet­ween the malt and hops may vary. Faint hint of cara­mel is accep­ta­ble. Light (but never intru­si­ve) dia­ce­tyl and light, frui­ty hop-deri­ved esters are accep­ta­ble, but need not be pre­sent. No sulfur.
Fla­vour
Medi­um-low to medi­um brea­dy-rich malt fla­vor with a roun­ded, hop­py finish. Low to medi­um-high spi­cy or her­bal hop fla­vor. Bit­ter­ness is pro­mi­nent but never har­sh. Fla­vor­ful and refres­hing. Dia­ce­tyl or frui­ty esters are accep­ta­ble at low levels, but need not be pre­sent and should never be overbearing.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body. Mode­ra­te carbonation. 
Over­all Impression
A ligh­ter-bodi­ed, rich, refres­hing, hop­py, bit­ter pale Czech lager having the fami­li­ar fla­vors of the stron­ger Czech Pre­mi­um Pale Lager (Pils­ner-type) beer but in a lower alco­hol, ligh­ter-bodi­ed, and slight­ly less inten­se format.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Soft water with low sul­fa­te and car­bo­na­te con­tent, Saa­zer-type hops, Czech Pils­ner malt, Czech lager yeast. Low ion water pro­vi­des a dis­tinc­tively soft, roun­ded hop pro­fi­le des­pi­te high hop­ping rates. 
Histo­ry
Josef Groll initi­al­ly bre­wed two types of beer in 1842–3, a vý?epní and a ležák, with the smal­ler beer having twice the pro­duc­tion; Evan Rail spe­cu­la­tes that the­se were pro­bab­ly 10 °P and 12 °P beers, but that the vý?epní could have been wea­ker. This is the most con­su­med type of beer in the Czech Repu­blic at present.
Comments
The Czech name of the style is sv?tlé vý?epní pivo. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
B?ez?ák Sv?tlé vý?epní pivo, Notch Ses­si­on Pils, Pivo­var Kout na Šumav? Kout­ská 10°, Ún?tické pivo 10°
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.028 - 1.044 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.014 SG
Color
3 - 6 SRM
Alco­hol
3.0 - 4.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 35 IBU
Name
Czech Pre­mi­um Pale Lager
Cate­go­ry
Czech Lager
BJCP Style Code
3 B
Appearan­ce
Gold to deep gold color. Bril­li­ant to very clear cla­ri­ty. Den­se, long-las­ting, crea­my white head. 
Aro­ma
Medi­um to medi­um-high brea­dy-rich malt and medi­um-low to medi­um-high spi­cy, flo­ral, or her­bal hop bou­quet; though the balan­ce bet­ween the malt and hops may vary, the inter­play is rich and com­plex. Light dia­ce­tyl, or very low frui­ty hop-deri­ved esters are accep­ta­ble, but need not be present. 
Fla­vour
Rich, com­plex, brea­dy mal­ti­ness com­bi­ned with a pro­noun­ced yet soft and roun­ded bit­ter­ness and flo­ral and spi­cy hop fla­vor. Malt and hop fla­vors are medi­um to medi­um-high, and the malt may con­tain a slight impres­si­on of cara­mel. Bit­ter­ness is pro­mi­nent but never har­sh. The long finish can be balan­ced towards hops or malt but is never aggres­si­ve­ly til­ted eit­her way. Light to mode­ra­te dia­ce­tyl and low hop-deri­ved esters are accep­ta­ble, but need not be present.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um body. Mode­ra­te to low carbonation. 
Over­all Impression
Rich, cha­rac­ter­ful, pale Czech lager, with con­si­derable malt and hop cha­rac­ter and a long, roun­ded finish. Com­plex yet well-balan­ced and refres­hing. The malt fla­vors are com­plex for a Pils­ner-type beer, and the bit­ter­ness is strong but clean and without har­sh­ness, which gives a roun­ded impres­si­on that enhan­ces drinkability.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Soft water with low sul­fa­te and car­bo­na­te con­tent, Saa­zer-type hops, Czech malt, Czech lager yeast. Low ion water pro­vi­des a dis­tinc­tively soft, roun­ded hop pro­fi­le des­pi­te high hop­ping rates. The bit­ter­ness level of some lar­ger com­mer­cial examp­les has drop­ped in recent years, alt­hough not as much as in many con­tem­pora­ry Ger­man examples.
Histo­ry
Com­mon­ly asso­cia­ted with Pils­ner Urquell, which was first bre­wed in 1842 after con­struc­tion of a new bre­w­house by burg­hers dis­sa­tis­fied with the stan­dard of beer bre­wed in Plze?. Bava­ri­an bre­wer Josef Groll is credi­ted with first brewing the beer.
Comments
Gene­ral­ly a group of pivo Plze?ského typu, or Pils­ner-type beers. This style is a com­bi­na­ti­on of the Czech styles sv?tlý ležák (11–12.9 °P) and sv?tlé spe­ciální pivo (13–14.9 °P). In the Czech Repu­blic, only Pils­ner Urquell is cal­led a Pils­ner, des­pi­te how wide­ly adop­ted this name is world­wi­de. Kvas­ni­co­vé (“yeast beer”) ver­si­ons are popu­lar in the Czech Repu­blic, and may be eit­her kräu­se­ned with yeas­ted wort or given a fresh dose of pure yeast after fer­men­ta­ti­on. The­se beers are some­ti­mes clou­dy, with sub­t­le yeas­ti­ness and enhan­ced hop cha­rac­ter. Modern examp­les vary in their malt to hop balan­ce and many are not as hop-for­ward as Pils­ner Urquell.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Ber­nard Sváte?ní ležák, Gam­bri­nus Pre­mi­um, Kout na Šumav? Kout­ská 12°, Pils­ner Urquell, Pivo­var Jihla­va Ježek 11°, Pri­má­tor Pre­mi­um, Ún?tická 12°
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.013 - 1.017 SG
Color
3 - 6 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
30 - 45 IBU
Name
Czech Amber Lager
Cate­go­ry
Czech Lager
BJCP Style Code
3 C
Appearan­ce
Deep amber to cop­per color. Clear to bright cla­ri­ty. Lar­ge, off-white, per­sis­tent head. 
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te inten­si­ty, rich malt aro­ma that can be eit­her brea­dy and Mail­lard pro­duct-domi­nant or slight­ly cara­mel­ly and can­dy-like. Spi­cy, flo­ral or her­bal hop cha­rac­ter may be mode­ra­te to none. Clean lager cha­rac­ter, though low frui­ty esters (stone fruit or ber­ries) may be pre­sent. Dia­ce­tyl is optio­nal and can ran­ge from low to none.
Fla­vour
Com­plex malt fla­vor is domi­nant (medi­um to medi­um-high), though its natu­re may vary from dry and Mail­lard pro­duct-domi­nant to cara­mel­ly and almost sweet. Some examp­les have a can­dy-like to gra­ham-cra­cker malt cha­rac­ter. Low to mode­ra­te spi­cy hop fla­vor. Pro­mi­nent but clean hop bit­ter­ness pro­vi­des a balan­ced finish. Sub­t­le plum or ber­ry esters optio­nal. Low dia­ce­tyl optio­nal. No roas­ted malt fla­vor. Finish may vary from dry and hop­py to rela­tively sweet.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-full to medi­um body. Soft and round, often with a gent­le crea­m­i­ness. Mode­ra­te to low carbonation.
Over­all Impression
Malt-dri­ven amber Czech lager with hop cha­rac­ter that can vary from low to qui­te signi­fi­cant. The malt fla­vors can vary qui­te a bit, lea­ding to dif­fe­rent inter­pre­ta­ti­ons ran­ging from dri­er, brea­dy, and slight­ly bis­cui­ty to swee­ter and some­what caramelly.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pils­ner and cara­mel mal­ts, but Vien­na and Munich mal­ts may also be used. Low mine­ral con­tent water, Saa­zer-type hops, Czech lager yeast. 
Histo­ry
A Vien­na-style lager which has con­ti­nued to be bre­wed in the Czech Repu­blic. A res­ur­gence of small bre­we­ries ope­ning in the Czech Repu­blic has incre­a­sed the num­ber of examp­les of this style. 
Comments
The Czech name of the style is polo­t­ma­vé pivo, which trans­la­tes as half dark. This style is a com­bi­na­ti­on of the Czech styles polo­t­ma­vý ležák (11–12.9 °P) and polo­t­ma­vé spe­ciální pivo (13–14.9 °P).
Com­mer­cial Examples
Ber­nard Jan­t­a­ro­vý ležák, Pivo­var Vys­o­ký Chlu­mec Démon, Pri­má­tor polo­t­ma­vý 13°, Stra­ko­nický Dudák Klos­ter­mann polo­t­ma­vý ležák 13°
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.013 - 1.017 SG
Color
10 - 16 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 35 IBU
Name
Czech Dark Lager
Cate­go­ry
Czech Lager
BJCP Style Code
3 D
Appearan­ce
Dark cop­per to almost black color, often with a red or gar­net tint. Clear to bright cla­ri­ty. Lar­ge, off-white to tan, per­sis­tent head.
Aro­ma
Medi­um to medi­um-high rich, deep, some­ti­mes sweet mal­ti­ness, with optio­nal qua­li­ties such as bread crusts, toast, nuts, cola, dark fruit, or cara­mel. Roas­ted malt cha­rac­ters such as cho­co­la­te or swee­te­ned cof­fee can vary from mode­ra­te to none but should not over­whelm the base malt cha­rac­ter. Low, spi­cy hop aro­ma is optio­nal. Low dia­ce­tyl and low frui­ty esters (plums or ber­ries) may be present.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to medi­um-high deep, com­plex mal­ti­ness domi­na­tes, typi­cal­ly with mal­ty-rich Mail­lard pro­ducts and a light to mode­ra­te resi­du­al malt sweet­ness. Malt fla­vors such as cara­mel, toast, nuts, lico­ri­ce, dried dark fruit, cho­co­la­te and cof­fee may also be pre­sent, with very low to mode­ra­te roast cha­rac­ter. Spi­cy hop fla­vor can be moder­ate­ly-low to none. Hop bit­ter­ness may be mode­ra­te to medi­um-low but should be per­cep­ti­ble. Balan­ce can vary from mal­ty to rela­tively well-balan­ced to gent­ly hop-for­ward. Low to mode­ra­te dia­ce­tyl and light plum or ber­ry esters may be present. 
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-full body, con­si­derable mouth­feel without being hea­vy or cloy­ing. Moder­ate­ly crea­my in tex­tu­re. Smooth. Mode­ra­te to low car­bo­na­ti­on. Can have a slight alco­hol warm­th in stron­ger versions.
Over­all Impression
A rich, dark, mal­ty Czech lager with a roast cha­rac­ter that can vary from almost absent to qui­te pro­mi­nent. Mal­ty with an inte­res­ting and com­plex fla­vor pro­fi­le, with varia­ble levels of hop­ping pro­vi­ding a ran­ge of pos­si­ble interpretations.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pils­ner and dark cara­mel mal­ts with the addi­ti­on of debit­te­red roas­ted mal­ts are most com­mon, but addi­ti­ons of Vien­na or Munich malt are also appro­pria­te. Low mine­ral con­tent water, Saa­zer-type hops, Czech lager yeast. Any frui­ty esters are typi­cal­ly from malt, not yeast.
Histo­ry
The U Flek? bre­we­ry has been ope­ra­ting in Pra­gue sin­ce 1499. Many small, new bre­we­ries are brewing this style.
Comments
This style is a com­bi­na­ti­on of the Czech styles tma­vý ležák (11–12.9 °P) and tma­vé spe­ciální pivo (13–14.9 °P). More modern examp­les are dri­er and have hig­her bit­ter­ness while tra­di­tio­nal ver­si­ons often have IBUs in the 18–20 ran­ge with a swee­ter balance.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bohemi­an Bre­we­ry Cher­ny Bock 4%, Bud­wei­ser Bud­var B:Dark tma­vý ležák, Devils Back­bone Mora­na, Kout na Šumav? Kout­ský tma­vý spe­ciál 14°, Notch ?erné Pivo, Pivo­var B?eznice Herold, U Flek? Fle­k­ovs­ký tma­vý 13° ležák
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.013 - 1.017 SG
Color
14 - 35 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
18 - 34 IBU
Name
Munich Hel­les
Cate­go­ry
Pale Mal­ty Euro­pean Lager
BJCP Style Code
4 A
Appearan­ce
Medi­um yel­low to pale gold. Clear. Per­sis­tent crea­my white head.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te grai­ny-sweet malt aro­ma. Low to moder­ate­ly-low spi­cy, flo­ral, or her­bal hop aro­ma. While a clean aro­ma is most desi­ra­ble, a very low back­ground note of DMS is not a fault. Plea­sant, clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le, with malt domi­na­ting the balan­ce. The fres­hest examp­les will have more of a mal­ty-sweet aroma.
Fla­vour
Moder­ate­ly mal­ty start with the sug­ges­ti­on of sweet­ness, mode­ra­te grai­ny-sweet malt fla­vor with a soft, roun­ded pala­te impres­si­on, sup­por­ted by a low to medi­um-low hop bit­ter­ness. The finish is soft and dry, not crisp and bit­ing. Low to moder­ate­ly-low spi­cy, flo­ral or her­bal hop fla­vor. The malt domi­na­tes the hops in the pala­te, finish, and after­tas­te, but the hops should be noti­ce­ab­le. The­re should not be any resi­du­al sweet­ness, sim­ply the impres­si­on of mal­ti­ness with restrai­ned bit­ter­ness. Very fresh examp­les will seem swee­ter due to the fresh, rich malt cha­rac­ter that can fade with time. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on profile.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um body. Medi­um car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth, well-lage­red character.
Over­all Impression
A clean, mal­ty, gold-colo­red Ger­man lager with a smooth grai­ny-sweet mal­ty fla­vor and a soft, dry finish. Sub­t­le spi­cy, flo­ral, or her­bal hops and restrai­ned bit­ter­ness help keep the balan­ce mal­ty but not sweet, which hel­ps make this beer a refres­hing, ever­y­day drink.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Con­ti­nen­tal Pils­ner malt, tra­di­tio­nal Ger­man Saa­zer-type hop varie­ties, clean Ger­man lager yeast.
Histo­ry
Crea­ted in Munich in 1894 at the Spa­ten bre­we­ry to com­pe­te with pale Pils­ner-type beers. Cur­r­ent­ly the most popu­lar style in Sou­thern Germany.
Comments
A ful­ly-atte­nua­ted Pils malt show­ca­se, Hel­les is a malt-accen­tua­ted beer that is not over­ly sweet, but rather focu­ses on malt fla­vor with under­ly­ing hop bit­ter­ness in a sup­por­ting role. Export examp­les can quick­ly lose some of the rich malt cha­rac­ter that often sug­gests sweet­ness. Hel­les in Munich tends to be ligh­ter in all aspects than tho­se out­side the city, which can be more asser­ti­ve with more body, fla­vor, and hop character.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Augus­ti­ner Lager­bier Hell, Bür­ger­bräu Wolz­nacher Hell Natur­trüb, Hacker-Pschorr Münch­ner Gold, Löwen­braü Ori­gi­nal, Pau­la­ner Pre­mi­um Lager, Spa­ten Pre­mi­um Lager, Wei­hen­ste­pha­ner Original
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.048 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.006 - 1.012 SG
Color
3 - 5 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
16 - 22 IBU
Name
Fest­bier
Cate­go­ry
Pale Mal­ty Euro­pean Lager
BJCP Style Code
4 B
Appearan­ce
Deep yel­low to deep gold color; should not have amber hues. Bright cla­ri­ty. Per­sis­tent white to off-white foam stand. Most com­mer­cial examp­les are medi­um gold in color.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te mal­ty rich­ness, with an empha­sis on toas­ty-doughy aro­ma­tics and an impres­si­on of sweet­ness. Low to medi­um-low flo­ral, her­bal, or spi­cy hops. The malt should not have a deeply toas­ted, cara­mel, or bis­cui­ty qua­li­ty. Clean lager fer­men­ta­ti­on character.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to medi­um-high mal­ty fla­vor initi­al­ly, with a light­ly toas­ty, bread dough qua­li­ty and an impres­si­on of soft sweet­ness. Medi­um to medi­um-low bit­ter­ness, defi­ni­te­ly mal­ty in the balan­ce. Well-atte­nua­ted and crisp, but not dry. Medi­um-low to medi­um flo­ral, her­bal, or spi­cy hop fla­vor. Clean lager fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter. The tas­te is most­ly of Pils malt, but with slight­ly toas­ty hints. The bit­ter­ness is sup­por­ti­ve, but still should yield a mal­ty, fla­vor­ful finish.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um body, with a smooth, some­what crea­my tex­tu­re. Medi­um car­bo­na­ti­on. Alco­hol strength bare­ly noti­ce­ab­le as war­ming, if at all. 
Over­all Impression
A smooth, clean, pale Ger­man lager with a moder­ate­ly strong mal­ty fla­vor and a light hop cha­rac­ter. Deft­ly balan­ces strength and drin­ka­bi­li­ty, with a pala­te impres­si­on and finish that encou­ra­ges drin­king. Show­ca­ses ele­gant Ger­man malt fla­vors without beco­m­ing too hea­vy or filling.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Majo­ri­ty Pils malt, but with some Vien­na and/or Munich malt to incre­a­se mal­ti­ness. Dif­fe­ren­ces in com­mer­cial examp­les are most­ly due to dif­fe­rent mal­ts­ters and yeast, not major grist differences.
Histo­ry
Sin­ce 1990, the majo­ri­ty of beer ser­ved at Okto­ber­fest in Munich has been this style. Export beer spe­ci­fi­cal­ly made for the United Sta­tes is still main­ly of the tra­di­tio­nal amber style, as are US-pro­du­ced inter­pre­ta­ti­ons. Pau­la­ner first crea­ted the gol­den ver­si­on in the mid-1970s becau­se they thought the tra­di­tio­nal Okto­ber­fest was too fil­ling. So they deve­lo­ped a ligh­ter, more drin­ka­ble but still mal­ty ver­si­on that they wan­ted to be “more pound­able” (accord­ing to the head bre­wer at Pau­la­ner). But the actu­al type of beer ser­ved at Okto­ber­fest is set by a Munich city committee.
Comments
This style repres­ents the modern Ger­man beer ser­ved at Okto­ber­fest (alt­hough it is not sole­ly reser­ved for Okto­ber­fest; it can be found at many other ‘fests’), and is some­ti­mes cal­led Wiesn (“the mea­dow” or local name for the Okto­ber­fest fes­ti­val). We cho­se to call this style Fest­bier sin­ce by Ger­man and EU regu­la­ti­ons, Okto­ber­fest­bier is a pro­tec­ted appel­la­ti­on for beer pro­du­ced at lar­ge bre­we­ries wit­hin the Munich city limits for con­sump­ti­on at Okto­ber­fest. Other coun­tries are not bound by the­se rules, so many craft bre­we­ries in the US pro­du­ce beer cal­led Okto­ber­fest, but based on the tra­di­tio­nal style descri­bed in the­se gui­de­li­nes as Märzen.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Augus­ti­ner Okto­ber­fest, Hacker-Pschorr Supe­ri­or Fest­bier, Hof­bräu Fest­bier, Löwen­bräu Okto­ber­fest­bier, Pau­la­ner Wiesn, Schön­ra­mer Gold, Wei­hen­ste­pha­ner Festbier
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.054 - 1.057 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.012 SG
Color
4 - 7 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
18 - 25 IBU
Name
Hel­les Bock
Cate­go­ry
Pale Mal­ty Euro­pean Lager
BJCP Style Code
4 C
Appearan­ce
Deep gold to light amber in color. Bright to clear cla­ri­ty. Lar­ge, crea­my, per­sis­tent, white head.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te to strong grai­ny-sweet malt aro­ma, often with a light­ly toas­ted qua­li­ty and low Mail­lard pro­ducts. Moder­ate­ly-low to no hop aro­ma, often with a spi­cy, her­bal, or flo­ral qua­li­ty. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le. Frui­ty esters should be low to none. Very light alco­hol may be noti­ce­ab­le. May have a light DMS aroma.
Fla­vour
Moder­ate­ly to moder­ate­ly strong grai­ny-sweet malt fla­vor domi­na­tes with some toas­ty notes and/or Mail­lard pro­ducts pro­vi­ding added inte­rest. Litt­le to no cara­mel fla­vors. May have a light DMS fla­vor. Mode­ra­te to no hop fla­vor (spi­cy, her­bal, flo­ral, pep­pe­ry). Mode­ra­te hop bit­ter­ness (more so in the balan­ce than in other bocks). Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le. Well-atte­nua­ted, not cloy­ing, with a moder­ate­ly-dry finish that may tas­te of both malt and hops.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-bodi­ed. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-high car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth and clean with no har­sh­ness or astrin­gen­cy, des­pi­te the incre­a­sed hop bit­ter­ness. A light alco­hol war­ming may be present.
Over­all Impression
A rela­tively pale, strong, mal­ty Ger­man lager beer with a nice­ly atte­nua­ted finish that enhan­ces drin­ka­bi­li­ty. The hop cha­rac­ter is gene­ral­ly more appa­rent than in other bocks.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Base of Pils and/or Vien­na malt with some Munich malt to add cha­rac­ter (alt­hough much less than in a tra­di­tio­nal bock). No non-malt adjuncts. Saa­zer-type hops. Clean lager yeast. Deco­c­tion mash is typi­cal, but boi­ling is less than in Dunk­les Bock to restrain color development.
Histo­ry
A fair­ly recent deve­lo­p­ment in com­pa­ri­son to the other mem­bers of the bock fami­ly. The ser­ving of Mai­bock is spe­ci­fi­cal­ly asso­cia­ted with spring­time and the mon­th of May.
Comments
Also known as Mai Bock, but the­re is some dis­pu­te whe­ther Hel­les (“pale”) Bock and Mai (“May”) Bock are syn­ony­mous. Most agree that they are iden­ti­cal, but some belie­ve that Mai­bock is a “fest” type beer hit­ting the upper limits of hop­ping and color for the ran­ge. Any frui­ti­ness is due to Munich and other spe­cial­ty mal­ts, not yeast-deri­ved esters deve­lo­ped during fer­men­ta­ti­on. The hops com­pen­sa­te for the lower level of Mail­lard products.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Alten­müns­ter Mai­bock, Ayin­ger Mai­bock, Capi­tal Mai­bock, Blind Tiger Mai­bock, Ein­be­cker Mai-Urbock, Hacker-Pschorr Huber­tus Bock, Mahr’s Bock
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.064 - 1.072 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.011 - 1.018 SG
Color
6 - 11 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 7.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
23 - 35 IBU
Name
Ger­man Leichtbier
Cate­go­ry
Pale Bit­ter Euro­pean Beer
BJCP Style Code
5 A
Appearan­ce
Straw to pale gold in color. Bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty. Mode­ra­te white head with average to below average persistence.
Aro­ma
Low to medi­um hop aro­ma, with a spi­cy, her­bal, or flo­ral cha­rac­ter. Low to medi­um-low grai­ny-sweet or slight­ly cra­cke­ry malt aro­ma. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on profile. 
Fla­vour
Low to medi­um grai­ny-sweet malt fla­vor initi­al­ly. Medi­um hop bit­ter­ness. Low to medi­um hop fla­vor, with a spi­cy, her­bal, or flo­ral qua­li­ty. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter, well-lage­red. Dry finish with a light mal­ty and hop­py aftertaste.
Mouth­feel
Light to very light body. Medi­um to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth, well-attenuated.
Over­all Impression
A pale, high­ly-atte­nua­ted, light-bodi­ed Ger­man lager with lower alco­hol and calo­ries than nor­mal-strength beers. Moder­ate­ly bit­ter with noti­ce­ab­le malt and hop fla­vors, the beer is still inte­res­ting to drink.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Simi­lar to a Ger­man Pils or Hel­les, con­ti­nen­tal Pils malt, Ger­man lager yeast, Saa­zer-type hops.
Histo­ry
Tra­di­tio­nal ver­si­ons exis­ted as drinks for phy­si­cal labo­rers in fac­to­ries or fiel­ds, but modern ver­si­ons are more based on popu­lar Ame­ri­can pro­ducts in the same class.
Comments
Mar­ke­ted pri­ma­ri­ly as a diet-ori­en­ted beer with lower car­bo­hy­dra­tes, alco­hol, and calo­ries. Pro­noun­ced “LYESHT-beer.” May also be known as a Diat Pils or Hel­les, this style is in the schank­bier gra­vi­ty class. Other varia­ti­ons of Leicht class beers can be made from Weiss­bier, Kölsch, and Alt­bier; tho­se beers are best ent­e­red in the Mixed-Style Beer category.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Beck’s Light, Bit­bur­ger Light, Mahr’s Leicht, Pau­la­ner Münch­ner Hell Leicht, Pau­la­ner Pre­mi­um Leicht
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.026 - 1.034 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.006 - 1.010 SG
Color
2 - 5 SRM
Alco­hol
2.0 - 3.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
15 - 28 IBU
Name
Kölsch
Cate­go­ry
Pale Bit­ter Euro­pean Beer
BJCP Style Code
5 B
Appearan­ce
Very pale gold to light gold. Very clear (authen­tic com­mer­cial ver­si­ons are fil­te­red to a bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty). Has a deli­ca­te white head that may not persist.
Aro­ma
Low to very low malt aro­ma, with a grai­ny-sweet cha­rac­ter. A plea­sant, sub­t­le fruit aro­ma from fer­men­ta­ti­on (apple, cher­ry or pear) is accep­ta­ble, but not always pre­sent. A low flo­ral, spi­cy or her­bal hop aro­ma is optio­nal but not out of style. Some yeast strains may give a slight winy or sul­fu­ry cha­rac­ter (this cha­rac­te­ris­tic is also optio­nal, but not a fault). Over­all, the inten­si­ty of aro­ma­tics is fair­ly sub­t­le but gene­ral­ly balan­ced, clean, and fresh.
Fla­vour
Soft, roun­ded pala­te com­pri­sed of a deli­ca­te fla­vor balan­ce bet­ween soft yet atte­nua­ted malt, an almost imper­cep­ti­ble frui­ty sweet­ness from fer­men­ta­ti­on, and a medi­um-low to medi­um bit­ter­ness with a deli­ca­te dry­ness and slight cris­pness in the finish (but no har­sh after­tas­te). The malt tends to be grai­ny-sweet, pos­si­b­ly with a very light brea­dy or honey qua­li­ty. The hop fla­vor is varia­ble, and can ran­ge from low to moder­ate­ly-high; most are medi­um-low to medi­um inten­si­ty and have a flo­ral, spi­cy, or her­bal cha­rac­ter. May have a mal­ty-sweet impres­si­on at the start, but this is not requi­red. No noti­ce­ab­le resi­du­al sweet­ness. May have a slight­ly winy, mine­ral­ly, or sul­fu­ry accent that accen­tua­tes the dry­ness and fla­vor balan­ce. A slight wheat tas­te is rare but not a fault. Other­wi­se, very clean.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body (most are medi­um-light). Medi­um to medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth and gene­ral­ly crisp and well-attenuated.
Over­all Impression
A clean, crisp, deli­ca­te­ly-balan­ced beer usual­ly with a very sub­t­le fruit and hop cha­rac­ter. Sub­dued mal­ti­ness throughout leads into a plea­s­ant­ly well-atte­nua­ted and refres­hing finish. Fresh­ness makes a huge dif­fe­rence with this beer, as the deli­ca­te cha­rac­ter can fade quick­ly with age. Bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty is characteristic.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Tra­di­tio­nal Ger­man hops (Hal­lertau, Tett­nang, Spalt or Hers­bru­cker). Ger­man Pils or pale malt. Atte­nua­ti­ve, clean ale yeast. Up to 20% wheat malt may be used, but this is qui­te rare in authen­tic ver­si­ons. Cur­rent com­mer­cial prac­ti­ce is to fer­ment warm, cold con­di­ti­on for a short peri­od of time, and ser­ve young.
Histo­ry
Colo­gne, Ger­ma­ny (Köln) has a top-fer­men­ting brewing tra­di­ti­on sin­ce the Midd­le Ages, but deve­lo­ped the beer now known as Kölsch in the late 1800s to com­bat encroa­ching bot­tom-fer­men­ted pale lagers. Kölsch is an appel­la­ti­on pro­tec­ted by the Kölsch Kon­ven­ti­on (1986), and is restric­ted to the 20 or so bre­we­ries in and around Köln. The Kon­ven­ti­on sim­ply defi­nes the beer as a “light, high­ly atte­nua­ted, hop-accen­tua­ted, clear, top-fer­men­ting Vollbier.” 
Comments
Cha­rac­te­ri­zed in Ger­ma­ny as a top-fer­men­ted, lage­red beer. Each Köln bre­we­ry pro­du­ces a beer of dif­fe­rent cha­rac­ter, and each inter­prets the Kölsch Kon­ven­ti­on slight­ly dif­fer­ent­ly. Allow for a ran­ge of varia­ti­on wit­hin the style when jud­ging. Note that dri­er ver­si­ons may seem hop­pier or more bit­ter than the IBU spe­ci­fi­ca­ti­ons might sug­gest. Due to its deli­ca­te fla­vor pro­fi­le, Kölsch tends to have a rela­tively short shelf-life; older examp­les and imports can easi­ly show some oxi­da­ti­on defects. Ser­ved in Köln in a tall, nar­row 200ml glass cal­led a Stange.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Früh Kölsch, Gaf­fel Kölsch, Müh­len Kölsch, Reiss­dorf Kölsch, Sion Kölsch, Sün­ner Kölsch
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.050 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.007 - 1.011 SG
Color
3 - 5 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
18 - 30 IBU
Name
Ger­man Hel­les Exportbier
Cate­go­ry
Pale Bit­ter Euro­pean Beer
BJCP Style Code
5 C
Appearan­ce
Light gold to deep gold. Clear. Per­sis­tent white head.
Aro­ma
Low to medi­um hop aro­ma, typi­cal­ly flo­ral, spi­cy, or her­bal in cha­rac­ter. Mode­ra­te grai­ny-sweet malt aro­ma. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le. A slight sul­fu­ry note at the start that dis­si­pa­tes is not a fault, neit­her is a low back­ground note of DMS.
Fla­vour
Neit­her grai­ny-sweet malt nor flo­ral, spi­cy, or her­bal hops domi­na­te, but both are in good balan­ce with a touch of mal­ty sweet­ness, pro­vi­ding a smooth yet cris­ply refres­hing beer. Balan­ce con­ti­nues through the finish and the hop bit­ter­ness lin­gers in after­tas­te (alt­hough some examp­les may finish slight­ly sweet). Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter. Some mine­ral cha­rac­ter might be noted from the water, alt­hough it usual­ly does not come across as an overt mine­ral­ly flavor.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um body, medi­um car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth but crisp.
Over­all Impression
A pale, well-balan­ced, smooth Ger­man lager that is slight­ly stron­ger than the average beer with a mode­ra­te body and a mild, aro­ma­tic hop and malt character. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Mine­ral­ly water with high levels of sul­fa­tes, car­bo­na­tes and chlo­ri­des, Ger­man or Czech noble hops, Pils­ner malt, Ger­man lager yeast. Newer com­mer­cial ver­si­ons can con­tain adjuncts and hop extract.
Histo­ry
The Dort­mun­der style deve­lo­ped in the Dort­mund indus­tri­al regi­on in the 1870s in respon­se to pale Pils­ner-type beers, it beca­me very popu­lar after World War II but decli­ned in the 1970s. Other Export-class beers deve­lo­ped inde­pendent­ly, and reflec­ted a slight­ly stron­ger ver­si­on of exis­ting beers. The modern Ger­man style is typi­cal­ly 12-13 °P.
Comments
Some­ti­mes known as Dort­mun­der or Dort­mun­der Export. Bre­wed to a slight­ly hig­her star­ting gra­vi­ty than other light lagers, pro­vi­ding a firm mal­ty body and under­ly­ing mal­ti­ness to com­ple­ment the sul­fa­te-accen­tua­ted hop bit­ter­ness. The term “Export” is a beer strength descrip­tor under Ger­man brewing tra­di­ti­on, and is not strict­ly syn­ony­mous with the “Dort­mun­der” style; beer from other cities or regi­ons can be bre­wed to Export strength, and labe­led as such (even if not necessa­ri­ly exported).
Com­mer­cial Examples
DAB Ori­gi­nal, Dort­mun­der Kro­nen, Dort­mun­der Uni­on Export, Flens­bur­ger Gold, Gor­don Biersch Gol­den Export, Gre­at Lakes Dort­mun­der Gold
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.048 - 1.056 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.015 SG
Color
4 - 7 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 30 IBU
Name
Ger­man Pils
Cate­go­ry
Pale Bit­ter Euro­pean Beer
BJCP Style Code
5 D
Appearan­ce
Straw to light gold, bril­li­ant to very clear, with a crea­my, long-las­ting white head.
Aro­ma
Medi­um-low to low grai­ny-sweet-rich malt cha­rac­ter (often with a light honey and slight­ly toas­ted cra­cker qua­li­ty) and dis­tinc­ti­ve flowe­ry, spi­cy, or her­bal hops. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le. May optio­nal­ly have a very light sul­fu­ry note that comes from water as much as yeast. The hops are moder­ate­ly-low to moder­ate­ly-high, but should not total­ly domi­na­te the malt pre­sence. One-dimen­sio­nal examp­les are infe­ri­or to the more com­plex qua­li­ties when all ingre­dients are sen­sed. May have a very low back­ground note of DMS.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to high hop bit­ter­ness domi­na­tes the pala­te and lin­gers into the after­tas­te. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-low grai­ny-sweet malt cha­rac­ter sup­ports the hop bit­ter­ness. Low to high flo­ral, spi­cy, or her­bal hop fla­vor. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le. Dry to medi­um-dry, crisp, well-atte­nua­ted finish with a bit­ter after­tas­te and light malt fla­vor. Examp­les made with water with hig­her sul­fa­te levels often will have a low sul­fu­ry fla­vor that accen­tua­tes the dry­ness and leng­t­hens the finish; this is accep­ta­ble but not man­da­to­ry. Some ver­si­ons have a soft finish with more of a malt fla­vor, but still with noti­ce­ab­le hop bit­ter­ness and fla­vor, with the balan­ce still towards bitterness.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light body. Medi­um to high carbonation.
Over­all Impression
A light-bodi­ed, high­ly-atte­nua­ted, gold-colo­red, bot­tom-fer­men­ted bit­ter Ger­man beer showing excel­lent head reten­ti­on and an ele­gant, flo­ral hop aro­ma. Crisp, clean, and refres­hing, a Ger­man Pils show­ca­ses the finest qua­li­ty Ger­man malt and hops.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Con­ti­nen­tal Pils­ner malt, Ger­man hop varie­ties (espe­cial­ly Saa­zer-type varie­ties such as Tett­nan­ger, Hal­lertau­er, and Spalt for tas­te and aro­ma; Saaz is less com­mon), Ger­man lager yeast.
Histo­ry
Adap­ted from Czech Pils­ner to suit brewing con­di­ti­ons in Ger­ma­ny, par­ti­cu­lar­ly water with hig­her mine­ral con­tent and domestic hop varie­ties. First bre­wed in Ger­ma­ny in the ear­ly 1870s. Beca­me more popu­lar after WWII as Ger­man brewing schools empha­si­zed modern tech­ni­ques. Along with its sis­ter beer, Czech Pils­ner, is the ances­tor of the most wide­ly pro­du­ced beer styles today. Average IBUs of many well-regar­ded com­mer­cial examp­les have drop­ped over time.
Comments
Modern examp­les of Pils tend to beco­me paler in color, dri­er in finish, and more bit­ter as you move from South to North in Ger­ma­ny, often mir­ro­ring the incre­a­se in sul­fa­te in the water. The Pils found in Bava­ria tend to be a bit sof­ter in bit­ter­ness with more malt fla­vor and late hop cha­rac­ter, yet still with suf­fi­ci­ent hops and cris­pness of finish to dif­fe­ren­tia­te its­elf from a Hel­les. The use of the term ‘Pils’ is more com­mon in Ger­ma­ny than ‘Pils­ner’ to dif­fe­ren­tia­te it from the Czech style, and (some say) to show respect.
Com­mer­cial Examples
König Pil­se­ner, Left Hand Pole­star Pils, Pau­la­ner Pre­mi­um Pils, Schön­ra­mer Pils, Stoudt Pils, Trö­egs Sunshi­ne Pils, Tru­mer Pils
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.050 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.013 SG
Color
2 - 5 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
22 - 40 IBU
Name
Mär­z­en
Cate­go­ry
Amber Mal­ty Euro­pean Lager
BJCP Style Code
6 A
Appearan­ce
Amber-oran­ge to deep red­dish-cop­per color; should not be gol­den. Bright cla­ri­ty, with per­sis­tent, off-white foam stand.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te inten­si­ty aro­ma of Ger­man malt, typi­cal­ly rich, brea­dy, some­what toas­ty, with light bread crust notes. Clean lager fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter. No hop aro­ma. Cara­mel, dry-bis­cui­ty, or roas­ted malt aro­mas inap­pro­pria­te. Very light alco­hol might be detec­ted, but should never be sharp. Clean, ele­gant malt rich­ness should be the pri­ma­ry aroma.
Fla­vour
Initi­al malt fla­vor often sug­gests sweet­ness, but finish is moder­ate­ly-dry to dry. Dis­tinc­ti­ve and com­plex mal­ti­ness often inclu­des a brea­dy, toas­ty aspect. Hop bit­ter­ness is mode­ra­te, and the hop fla­vor is low to none (Ger­man types: com­plex, flo­ral, her­bal, or spi­cy). Hops pro­vi­de suf­fi­ci­ent balan­ce that the mal­ty pala­te and finish do not seem sweet. The after­tas­te is mal­ty, with the same ele­gant, rich malt fla­vors lin­ge­ring. Noti­ce­ab­le cara­mel, bis­cuit, or roas­ted fla­vors are inap­pro­pria­te. Clean lager fer­men­ta­ti­on profile.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um body, with a smooth, crea­my tex­tu­re that often sug­gests a ful­ler mouth­feel. Medi­um car­bo­na­ti­on. Ful­ly atte­nua­ted, without a sweet or cloy­ing impres­si­on. May be slight­ly war­ming, but the strength should be rela­tively hidden.
Over­all Impression
An ele­gant, mal­ty Ger­man amber lager with a clean, rich, toas­ty and brea­dy malt fla­vor, restrai­ned bit­ter­ness, and a dry finish that encou­ra­ges ano­t­her drink. The over­all malt impres­si­on is soft, ele­gant, and com­plex, with a rich after­tas­te that is never cloy­ing or heavy. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Grist varies, alt­hough tra­di­tio­nal Ger­man ver­si­ons empha­si­zed Munich malt. The noti­on of ele­gan­ce is deri­ved from the finest qua­li­ty ingre­dients, par­ti­cu­lar­ly the base mal­ts. A deco­c­tion mash was tra­di­tio­nal­ly used to deve­lop the rich malt profile.
Histo­ry
As the name sug­gests, bre­wed as a stron­ger “March beer” in March and lage­red in cold caves over the sum­mer. Modern ver­si­ons trace back to the lager deve­lo­ped by Spa­ten in 1841, con­tem­pora­ne­ous to the deve­lo­p­ment of Vien­na lager. Howe­ver, the Mär­z­en name is much older than 1841; the ear­ly ones were dark brown, and in Aus­tria the name implied a strength band (14 °P) rather than a style. The Ger­man amber lager ver­si­on (in the Vien­nese style of the time) was first ser­ved at Okto­ber­fest in 1872, a tra­di­ti­on that las­ted until 1990 when the gol­den Fest­bier was adop­ted as the stan­dard fes­ti­val beer. 
Comments
Modern domestic Ger­man Okto­ber­fest ver­si­ons are gol­den – see the Fest­bier style for this ver­si­on. Export Ger­man ver­si­ons (to the United Sta­tes, at least) are typi­cal­ly oran­ge-amber in color, have a dis­tinc­ti­ve toas­ty malt cha­rac­ter, and are most often labe­led Okto­ber­fest. Ame­ri­can craft ver­si­ons of Okto­ber­fest are gene­ral­ly based on this style, and most Ame­ri­cans will reco­gni­ze this beer as Okto­ber­fest. His­to­ric ver­si­ons of the beer ten­ded to be dar­ker, towards the brown color ran­ge, but the­re have been many ‘shades’ of Mär­z­en (when the name is used as a strength); this style descrip­ti­on spe­ci­fi­cal­ly refers to the stron­ger amber lager ver­si­on. The modern Fest­bier can be thought of as a pale Mär­z­en by the­se terms.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bue­r­ger­li­ches Ur-Saal­fel­der, Hacker-Pschorr Ori­gi­nal Okto­ber­fest, Pau­la­ner Okto­ber­fest, Wel­ten­burg Klos­ter Anno 1050
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.054 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.014 SG
Color
8 - 17 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
18 - 24 IBU
Name
Rauch­bier
Cate­go­ry
Amber Mal­ty Euro­pean Lager
BJCP Style Code
6 B
Appearan­ce
This should be a very clear beer, with a lar­ge, crea­my, rich, tan- to cream-colo­red head. Medi­um amber/light cop­per to dark brown color.
Aro­ma
Blend of smo­ke and malt, with a vary­ing balan­ce and inten­si­ty. The beech­wood smo­ke cha­rac­ter can ran­ge from sub­t­le to fair­ly strong, and can seem smo­ky, woo­dy, or bacon-like. The malt cha­rac­ter can be low to mode­ra­te, and be some­what rich, toas­ty, or mal­ty-sweet. The malt and smo­ke com­pon­ents are often inver­se­ly pro­por­tio­nal (i.e., when smo­ke incre­a­ses, malt decre­a­ses, and vice ver­sa). Hop aro­ma may be very low to none. Clean lager fer­men­ta­ti­on character.
Fla­vour
Gene­ral­ly fol­lows the aro­ma pro­fi­le, with a blend of smo­ke and malt in vary­ing balan­ce and inten­si­ty, yet always com­ple­men­ta­ry. Mär­z­en-like qua­li­ties should be noti­ce­ab­le, par­ti­cu­lar­ly a mal­ty, toas­ty rich­ness, but the beech­wood smo­ke fla­vor can be low to high. At hig­her levels, the smo­ke can take on a ham- or bacon-like cha­rac­ter, which is accep­ta­ble as long as it doesn’t veer into the gre­a­sy ran­ge. The pala­te can be some­what mal­ty, rich, and sweet, yet the finish tends to be medi­um-dry to dry with the smo­ke cha­rac­ter some­ti­mes enhan­cing the dry­ness of the finish. The after­tas­te can reflect both malt rich­ness and smo­ke fla­vors, with a balan­ced pre­sen­ta­ti­on desi­ra­ble. Mode­ra­te, balan­ced, hop bit­ter­ness. Mode­ra­te to none hop fla­vor with spi­cy, flo­ral, or her­bal notes. Clean lager fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter. Har­sh, bit­ter, burnt, char­red, rub­be­ry, sul­fu­ry or phe­n­o­lic smo­ky cha­rac­te­ris­tics are inappropriate.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um body. Medi­um to medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth lager cha­rac­ter. Signi­fi­cant astrin­gent, phe­n­o­lic har­sh­ness is inappropriate.
Over­all Impression
An ele­gant, mal­ty Ger­man amber lager with a balan­ced, com­ple­men­ta­ry beech­wood smo­ke cha­rac­ter. Toas­ty-rich malt in aro­ma and fla­vor, restrai­ned bit­ter­ness, low to high smo­ke fla­vor, clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le, and an atte­nua­ted finish are characteristic. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Ger­man Rauch­malz (beech­wood-smo­ked Vien­na-type malt) typi­cal­ly makes up 20-100% of the grain bill, with the rema­in­der being Ger­man mal­ts typi­cal­ly used in a Mär­z­en. Some bre­we­ries adjust the color slight­ly with a bit of roas­ted malt. Ger­man lager yeast. Ger­man or Czech hops.
Histo­ry
A his­to­ri­cal spe­cial­ty of the city of Bam­berg, in the Fran­co­ni­an regi­on of Bava­ria in Ger­ma­ny. Beech­wood-smo­ked malt is used to make a Mär­z­en-style amber lager. The smo­ke cha­rac­ter of the malt varies by mal­ts­ter; some bre­we­ries pro­du­ce their own smo­ked malt (rauch­malz).
Comments
Liter­al­ly “smo­ke beer” in Ger­man. The inten­si­ty of smo­ke cha­rac­ter can vary wide­ly; not all examp­les are high­ly smo­ked. Allow for varia­ti­on in the style when jud­ging. Other examp­les of smo­ked beers are avail­ab­le in Ger­ma­ny based on styles such as Dunk­les Bock, Weiss­bier, Dun­kel, Schwarz­bier, and Hel­les, inclu­ding examp­les such as Spe­zi­al Lager; the­se should be ent­e­red in the Clas­sic Style Smo­ked Beer cate­go­ry. This descrip­ti­on spe­ci­fi­cal­ly refers to the smo­ked Mär­z­en version.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Eisen­bahn Rauch­bier, Kai­ser­dom Rauch­bier, Schlen­ker­la Rauch­bier Mär­z­en, Spe­zi­al Rauch­bier Mär­z­en Vic­to­ry Scar­let Fire Rauchbier
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.050 - 1.057 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.012 - 1.016 SG
Color
12 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 30 IBU
Name
Dunk­les Bock
Cate­go­ry
Amber Mal­ty Euro­pean Lager
BJCP Style Code
6 C
Appearan­ce
Light cop­per to brown color, often with attrac­ti­ve gar­net high­lights. Lage­ring should pro­vi­de good cla­ri­ty des­pi­te the dark color. Lar­ge, crea­my, per­sis­tent, off-white head.
Aro­ma
Medi­um to medi­um-high brea­dy-mal­ty-rich aro­ma, often with mode­ra­te amounts of rich Mail­lard pro­ducts and/or toas­ty over­to­nes. Vir­tual­ly no hop aro­ma. Some alco­hol may be noti­ce­ab­le. Clean lager cha­rac­ter, alt­hough the mal­ts can pro­vi­de a slight (low to none) dark fruit cha­rac­ter, par­ti­cu­lar­ly in aged examples. 
Fla­vour
Com­plex, rich mal­ti­ness is domi­na­ted by the toas­ty-rich Mail­lard pro­ducts. Some cara­mel notes may be pre­sent. Hop bit­ter­ness is gene­ral­ly only high enough to sup­port the malt fla­vors, allowing a bit of sweet­ness to lin­ger into the finish. Well-atte­nua­ted, not cloy­ing. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le, alt­hough the malt can pro­vi­de a slight dark fruit cha­rac­ter. No hop fla­vor. No roas­ted or burnt character.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-full bodi­ed. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly low car­bo­na­ti­on. Some alco­hol warm­th may be found, but should never be hot. Smooth, without har­sh­ness or astringency.
Over­all Impression
A dark, strong, mal­ty Ger­man lager beer that empha­si­zes the mal­ty-rich and some­what toas­ty qua­li­ties of con­ti­nen­tal mal­ts without being sweet in the finish.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Munich and Vien­na mal­ts, rare­ly a tiny bit of dark roas­ted mal­ts for color adjus­t­ment, never any non-malt adjuncts. Con­ti­nen­tal Euro­pean hop varie­ties are used. Clean Ger­man lager yeast. 
Histo­ry
Ori­gi­na­ted in the Nort­hern Ger­man city of Ein­beck, which was a brewing cen­ter and popu­lar exporter in the days of the Han­sea­tic League (14th to 17th cen­tu­ry). Recrea­ted in Munich star­ting in the 17th cen­tu­ry. The name “bock” is based on a cor­rup­ti­on of the name “Ein­beck” in the Bava­ri­an dialect, and was thus only used after the beer came to Munich. “Bock” also means “Ram” in Ger­man, and is often used in logos and advertisements.
Comments
Deco­c­tion mashing and long boi­ling plays an important part of fla­vor deve­lo­p­ment, as it enhan­ces the cara­mel and Mail­lard fla­vor aspects of the malt. Any frui­ti­ness is due to Munich and other spe­cial­ty mal­ts, not yeast-deri­ved esters deve­lo­ped during fermentation.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Aass Bock, Ein­be­cker Ur-Bock Dun­kel, Gre­at Lakes Rocke­fel­ler Bock, Kneit­in­ger Bock, New Gla­rus Uff-da Bock, Penn Bre­we­ry St. Niko­laus Bock
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.064 - 1.072 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.013 - 1.019 SG
Color
14 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 7.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 27 IBU
Name
Vien­na Lager
Cate­go­ry
Amber Bit­ter Euro­pean Beer
BJCP Style Code
7 A
Appearan­ce
Light red­dish amber to cop­per color. Bright cla­ri­ty. Lar­ge, off-white, per­sis­tent head.
Aro­ma
Moder­ate­ly-inten­se malt aro­ma, with toas­ty and mal­ty-rich aro­ma­tics. Clean lager cha­rac­ter. Flo­ral, spi­cy hop aro­ma may be low to none. A signi­fi­cant cara­mel or roas­ted aro­ma is inappropriate.
Fla­vour
Soft, ele­gant malt com­ple­xi­ty is in the fore­front, with a firm enough hop bit­ter­ness to pro­vi­de a balan­ced finish. The malt fla­vor tends towards a rich, toas­ty cha­rac­ter, without signi­fi­cant cara­mel or roast fla­vors. Fair­ly dry, crisp finish, with both rich malt and hop bit­ter­ness pre­sent in the after­tas­te. Flo­ral, spi­cy hop fla­vor may be low to none. Clean lager fer­men­ta­ti­on character.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body, with a gent­le crea­m­i­ness. Mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth. 
Over­all Impression
A mode­ra­te-strength amber lager with a soft, smooth mal­ti­ness and mode­ra­te bit­ter­ness, yet finis­hing rela­tively dry. The malt fla­vor is clean, brea­dy-rich, and some­what toas­ty, with an ele­gant impres­si­on deri­ved from qua­li­ty base mal­ts and pro­cess, not spe­cial­ty mal­ts and adjuncts.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Vien­na malt pro­vi­des a light­ly toas­ty and com­plex, Mail­lard-rich malt pro­fi­le. As with März­ens, only the finest qua­li­ty malt should be used, along with Con­ti­nen­tal hops (pre­fer­a­b­ly Saa­zer types or Sty­ri­ans). Can use some cara­mel mal­ts and/or dar­ker mal­ts to add color and sweet­ness, but cara­mel mal­ts shouldn’t add signi­fi­cant aro­ma and fla­vor and dark mal­ts shouldn’t pro­vi­de any roas­ted character.
Histo­ry
Deve­lo­ped by Anton Dre­her in Vien­na in 1841, beca­me popu­lar in the mid-late 1800s. Now near­ly extinct in its area of ori­gin, the style con­ti­nues in Mexi­co whe­re it was brought by Sant­ia­go Graf and other Aus­tri­an immi­grant bre­wers in the late 1800s. Authen­tic examp­les are incre­a­singly hard to find (except perhaps in the craft beer indus­try) as form­er­ly good examp­les beco­me swee­ter and use more adjuncts.
Comments
A stan­dard-strength ever­y­day beer, not a beer bre­wed for fes­ti­vals. Ame­ri­can ver­si­ons can be a bit stron­ger, dri­er and more bit­ter, while modern Euro­pean ver­si­ons tend to be swee­ter. Many Mexi­can amber and dark lagers used to be more authen­tic, but unfor­tu­n­a­te­ly are now more like sweet, adjunct-laden Amber/Dark Inter­na­tio­nal Lagers. Reg­rett­ab­ly, many modern examp­les use adjuncts which les­sen the rich malt com­ple­xi­ty cha­rac­te­ris­tic of the best examp­les of this style. This style is on the watch list to move to the His­to­ri­cal cate­go­ry in future gui­de­li­nes; that would allow the clas­sic style to be descri­bed while moving the swee­ter modern ver­si­ons to the Inter­na­tio­nal Amber or Dark Lager styles.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Cuau­h­té­moc Noche Buena, Chucka­nut Vien­na Lager, Devils Back­bone Vien­na Lager, Figuer­oa Moun­tain Danish-style Red Lager, Hea­vy Seas Cut­lass Amber Lager, Schell’s Firebrick
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.048 - 1.055 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.014 SG
Color
9 - 15 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
18 - 30 IBU
Name
Alt­bier
Cate­go­ry
Amber Bit­ter Euro­pean Beer
BJCP Style Code
7 B
Appearan­ce
The color ran­ges from light amber to deep cop­per color, stop­ping short of brown; bron­ze-oran­ge is most com­mon. Bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty. Thick, crea­my, long-las­ting off-white head.
Aro­ma
Clean yet robust and com­plex aro­ma of grai­ny-rich malt and spi­cy hops with restrai­ned (low to medi­um-low) frui­ty esters. The malt cha­rac­ter reflects Ger­man base malt varie­ties, with rich baked bread and nut­ty-toas­ty bread crust notes. The hop aro­ma may vary from mode­ra­te to low, and can have a pep­pe­ry, spi­cy, flo­ral, her­bal or per­fu­my cha­rac­ter asso­cia­ted with Saa­zer-type hops. 
Fla­vour
Asser­ti­ve hop bit­ter­ness well balan­ced by a stur­dy yet clean and crisp malt cha­rac­ter. The malt pre­sence is mode­ra­ted by medi­um-high to high atte­nua­ti­on, but con­si­derable rich, com­plex, and some­what grai­ny malt fla­vors can remain. Some frui­ty esters (espe­cial­ly cher­ry-like) may sur­vi­ve the lage­ring peri­od. A long-las­ting, medi­um-dry to dry, bit­ters­weet or nut­ty finish reflects both the hop bit­ter­ness and malt com­ple­xi­ty. Spi­cy, pep­pe­ry or flo­ral hop fla­vor can be mode­ra­te to low. No roas­ted malt fla­vors or har­sh­ness. The appa­rent bit­ter­ness level is some­ti­mes mas­ked by the malt cha­rac­ter; the bit­ter­ness can seem as low as mode­ra­te if the finish is not very dry. Light sul­fu­ry or mine­ral­ly cha­rac­ter optional.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-bodi­ed. Smooth. Medi­um to medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on, alt­hough can be lower when ser­ved from the cask. Astrin­gen­cy low to none. Des­pi­te being very full of fla­vor, is light-bodi­ed enough to be con­su­med as a gra­vi­ty-fed ses­si­on beer in its home brew­pubs in Düsseldorf.
Over­all Impression
A well-balan­ced, well-atte­nua­ted, bit­ter yet mal­ty, clean, and smooth, amber- to cop­per-colo­red Ger­man beer. The bit­ter­ness is balan­ced by the malt rich­ness, but the malt inten­si­ty and cha­rac­ter can ran­ge from mode­ra­te to high (the bit­ter­ness incre­a­ses with the malt richness). 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Grists vary, but usual­ly con­sist of Ger­man base mal­ts (usual­ly Pils, some­ti­mes Munich) with small amounts of crys­tal, cho­co­la­te, and/or black mal­ts used to adjust color. Occa­sio­nal­ly will inclu­de some wheat, inclu­ding roas­ted wheat. Spalt hops are tra­di­tio­nal, but other Saa­zer-type hops can also be used. Clean, high­ly atte­nua­ti­ve ale yeast. A step mash or deco­c­tion mash pro­gram is traditional.
Histo­ry
The tra­di­tio­nal style of beer from Düs­sel­dorf. “Alt” refers to the “old” style of brewing (i.e., using top-fer­men­ting yeast) that was com­mon befo­re bot­tom-fer­men­ting lager brewing beca­me popu­lar. Pre­da­tes the iso­la­ti­on of bot­tom-fer­men­ting yeast strains, though it appro­xi­ma­tes many cha­rac­te­ris­tics of bot­tom-fer­men­ting lager beers. Many of the clas­sic examp­les can be found in brew­pubs in the Alt­stadt (“old town”) sec­tion of Düsseldorf.
Comments
A top-fer­men­ted lage­red beer, fer­men­ted at cool ale tem­pe­ra­tu­re (59–68 °F), often con­di­tio­ned at bot­tom-fer­men­ta­ti­on tem­pe­ra­tures (about 50 °F) and then lage­red at cold tem­pe­ra­tures to pro­du­ce a clea­ner, smoot­her pala­te than is typi­cal for most ales. Zum Ueri­ge is a won­der­ful beer, but much more aggres­si­ve­ly bit­ter and com­plex than most other Ger­man examp­les. It may be like the Fuller’s ESB of the strong bit­ter cate­go­ry – well-known but some­what of a sty­listic out­lier. Do not judge all Alt­biers as if they were Zum Ueri­ge clo­nes; allow for a more balan­ced bit­ter­ness in the beer (25–35 IBUs is more typi­cal for most other Ger­man examp­les). Stron­ger sti­cke and dop­pel­sti­cke beers should not be ent­e­red here.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bol­ten Alt, Die­bels Alt, Füchs­chen Alt, Ori­gi­nal Schlüs­sel Alt, Schlös­ser Alt, Schu­ma­cher Alt, Ueri­ge Altbier
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.052 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.014 SG
Color
11 - 17 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 50 IBU
Name
Munich Dun­kel
Cate­go­ry
Dark Euro­pean Lager
BJCP Style Code
8 A
Appearan­ce
Deep cop­per to dark brown, often with a red or gar­net tint. Crea­my, light to medi­um tan head. Usual­ly clear, alt­hough mur­ky unfil­te­red ver­si­ons exist.
Aro­ma
Rich, ele­gant, deep malt sweet­ness, typi­cal­ly like bread crusts (often toas­ted bread crusts). Hints of cho­co­la­te, nuts, cara­mel, and/or tof­fee are also accep­ta­ble, with fresh tra­di­tio­nal ver­si­ons often showing hig­her levels of cho­co­la­te. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le. A slight spi­cy, flo­ral, or her­bal hop aro­ma is acceptable.
Fla­vour
Domi­na­ted by the soft, rich, and com­plex fla­vor of dar­ker Munich mal­ts, usual­ly with over­to­nes remi­nis­cent of toas­ted bread crusts, but without a burnt-har­sh-grai­ny toas­ti­ness. The pala­te can be moder­ate­ly mal­ty, alt­hough it should not be over­whel­ming or cloyin­gly sweet. Mild cara­mel, toast or nut­ti­ness may be pre­sent. Very fresh examp­les often have a plea­sant mal­ty-cho­co­la­te cha­rac­ter that isn’t roas­ty or sweet. Burnt or bit­ter fla­vors from roas­ted mal­ts are inap­pro­pria­te, as are pro­noun­ced cara­mel fla­vors from crys­tal malt. Hop bit­ter­ness is moder­ate­ly low but per­cep­ti­ble, with the balan­ce tip­ped firm­ly towards mal­ti­ness. Hop fla­vor is low to none; if noted, should reflect flo­ral, spi­cy, or her­bal Ger­man-type varie­ties. After­tas­te remains mal­ty, alt­hough the hop bit­ter­ness may beco­me more appa­rent in the medi­um-dry finish. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le and lager character.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-full body, pro­vi­ding a soft and dex­tri­no­us mouth­feel without being hea­vy or cloy­ing. Mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on. The use of con­ti­nen­tal Munich-type mal­ts should pro­vi­de a rich­ness, not a har­sh or bit­ing astringency.
Over­all Impression
Cha­rac­te­ri­zed by depth, rich­ness and com­ple­xi­ty typi­cal of dar­ker Munich mal­ts with the accom­pany­ing Mail­lard pro­ducts. Deeply brea­dy-toas­ty, often with cho­co­la­te-like fla­vors in the fres­hest examp­les, but never har­sh, roas­ty, or astrin­gent; a deci­ded­ly malt-balan­ced beer, yet still easi­ly drinkable.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Grist is tra­di­tio­nal­ly made up of Ger­man Munich malt (up to 100% in some cases) with the rema­in­der Ger­man Pils­ner malt. Small amounts of crys­tal malt can add dex­trins and color but should not intro­du­ce exces­si­ve resi­du­al sweet­ness. Slight addi­ti­ons of roas­ted mal­ts (such as Cara­fa or cho­co­la­te) may be used to impro­ve color but should not add strong fla­vors. Tra­di­tio­nal Ger­man hop varie­ties and Ger­man lager yeast strains should be used. Often deco­c­tion mas­hed (up to a trip­le deco­c­tion) to enhan­ce the malt fla­vors and crea­te the depth of color.
Histo­ry
The clas­sic brown lager style of Munich which deve­lo­ped as a dar­ker, more malt-accen­ted beer than other regio­nal lagers. While ori­gi­na­ting in Munich, the style beca­me popu­lar throughout Bava­ria (espe­cial­ly Fran­co­nia). Fran­co­ni­an ver­si­ons are often dar­ker and more bitter.
Comments
Unfil­te­red ver­si­ons from Ger­ma­ny can tas­te like liquid bread, with a yeas­ty, ear­thy rich­ness not found in expor­ted fil­te­red examples.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Ayin­ger Alt­bai­risch Dun­kel, Chucka­nut Dun­kel Lager, Etta­ler Klos­ter Dun­kel, Hacker-Pschorr Alt Munich Dark, Wel­ten­bur­ger Klos­ter Barock-Dunkel
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.048 - 1.056 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.016 SG
Color
14 - 28 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
18 - 28 IBU
Name
Schwarz­bier
Cate­go­ry
Dark Euro­pean Lager
BJCP Style Code
8 B
Appearan­ce
Medi­um to very dark brown in color, often with deep ruby to gar­net high­lights, yet almost never tru­ly black. Very clear. Lar­ge, per­sis­tent, tan-colo­red head.
Aro­ma
Low to mode­ra­te malt, with low aro­ma­tic mal­ty sweet­ness and/or hints of roast malt often appa­rent. The malt can be clean and neu­tral or moder­ate­ly rich and brea­dy, and may have a hint of dark cara­mel. The roast cha­rac­ter can be some­what dark cho­co­la­te- or cof­fee-like but should never be burnt. A low spi­cy, flo­ral, or her­bal hop aro­ma is optio­nal. Clean lager yeast cha­rac­ter, alt­hough a light sul­fur is possible.
Fla­vour
Light to mode­ra­te malt fla­vor, which can have a clean, neu­tral cha­rac­ter to a moder­ate­ly rich, bread-mal­ty qua­li­ty. Light to mode­ra­te roas­ted malt fla­vors can give a bit­ter-cho­co­la­te pala­te that lasts into the finish, but which are never burnt. Medi­um-low to medi­um bit­ter­ness, which can last into the finish. Light to mode­ra­te spi­cy, flo­ral, or her­bal hop fla­vor. Clean lager cha­rac­ter. After­tas­te tends to dry out slow­ly and lin­ger, fea­turing hop bit­ter­ness with a com­ple­men­ta­ry but sub­t­le roas­ti­ness in the back­ground. Some resi­du­al sweet­ness is accep­ta­ble but not required.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-high car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth. No har­sh­ness or astrin­gen­cy, des­pi­te the use of dark, roas­ted malts.
Over­all Impression
A dark Ger­man lager that balan­ces roas­ted yet smooth malt fla­vors with mode­ra­te hop bit­ter­ness. The ligh­ter body, dry­ness, and lack of a har­sh, burnt, or hea­vy after­tas­te hel­ps make this beer qui­te drinkable.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Ger­man Munich malt and/or Pils­ner mal­ts for the base, sup­ple­men­ted by a judi­cious use of roas­ted mal­ts (such as Cara­fa types) for the dark color and sub­t­le roast fla­vors. Hus­kless dark roas­ted mal­ts can add roast fla­vors without burnt fla­vors. Ger­man hop varie­ties and clean Ger­man lager yeasts are traditional.
Histo­ry
A regio­nal spe­cial­ty from Thu­rin­gia, Sax­o­ny and Fran­co­nia in Ger­ma­ny. Histo­ry is a bit sket­chy, but is suspec­ted of being ori­gi­nal­ly a top-fer­men­ted beer. Popu­la­ri­ty grew after Ger­man reuni­fi­ca­ti­on. Ser­ved as the inspi­ra­ti­on for black lagers bre­wed in Japan.
Comments
Liter­al­ly means “black beer” in Ger­man. While some­ti­mes cal­led a “black Pils,” the beer is rare­ly as dark as black or as bit­ter as a Pils; don’t expect stron­gly roas­ted, por­ter-like flavors. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
Devils Back­bone Schwartz Bier, Ein­be­cker Schwarz­bier, Eisen­bahn Dun­kel, Kös­trit­zer Schwarz­bier, Mönchs­hof Schwarz­bier, Nue­zel­ler Ori­gi­nal Badebier
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.046 - 1.052 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.016 SG
Color
17 - 30 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 30 IBU
Name
Dop­pel­bock
Cate­go­ry
Strong Euro­pean Beer
BJCP Style Code
9 A
Appearan­ce
Deep gold to dark brown in color. Dar­ker ver­si­ons often have ruby high­lights. Lage­ring should pro­vi­de good cla­ri­ty. Lar­ge, crea­my, per­sis­tent head (color varies with base style: white for pale ver­si­ons, off-white for dark varie­ties). Stron­ger ver­si­ons might have impai­red head reten­ti­on, and can dis­play noti­ce­ab­le legs.
Aro­ma
Very strong mal­ti­ness. Dar­ker ver­si­ons will have signi­fi­cant Mail­lard pro­ducts and often some toas­ty aro­mas. A light cara­mel aro­ma is accep­ta­ble. Ligh­ter ver­si­ons will have a strong malt pre­sence with some Mail­lard pro­ducts and toas­ty notes. Vir­tual­ly no hop aro­ma, alt­hough a light noble hop aro­ma is accep­ta­ble in pale ver­si­ons. A moder­ate­ly low malt-deri­ved dark fruit cha­rac­ter may be pre­sent (but is optio­nal) in dark ver­si­ons. A very slight cho­co­la­te-like aro­ma may be pre­sent in dar­ker ver­si­ons, but no roas­ted or bur­ned aro­ma­tics should ever be pre­sent. Mode­ra­te alco­hol aro­ma may be present.
Fla­vour
Very rich and mal­ty. Dar­ker ver­si­ons will have signi­fi­cant Mail­lard pro­ducts and often some toas­ty fla­vors. Ligh­ter ver­si­ons will have a strong malt fla­vor with some Mail­lard pro­ducts and toas­ty notes. A very slight cho­co­la­te fla­vor is optio­nal in dar­ker ver­si­ons, but should never be per­cei­ved as roas­ty or burnt. Clean lager cha­rac­ter. A moder­ate­ly low malt-deri­ved dark fruit cha­rac­ter is optio­nal in dar­ker ver­si­ons. Inva­ria­b­ly the­re will be an impres­si­on of alco­ho­lic strength, but this should be smooth and war­ming rather than har­sh or bur­ning. Litt­le to no hop fla­vor (more is accep­ta­ble in pale ver­si­ons). Hop bit­ter­ness varies from mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly low but always allows malt to domi­na­te the fla­vor. Most ver­si­ons are fair­ly mal­ty-sweet, but should have an impres­si­on of atte­nua­ti­on. The sweet­ness comes from low hop­ping, not from incom­ple­te fer­men­ta­ti­on. Paler ver­si­ons gene­ral­ly have a dri­er finish.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-full to full body. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-low car­bo­na­ti­on. Very smooth without har­sh­ness, astrin­gen­cy. A light alco­hol warm­th may be noted, but it should never burn.
Over­all Impression
A strong, rich, and very mal­ty Ger­man lager that can have both pale and dark vari­ants. The dar­ker ver­si­ons have more rich­ly-deve­lo­ped, deeper malt fla­vors, while the paler ver­si­ons have slight­ly more hops and dryness.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pils and/or Vien­na malt for pale ver­si­ons (with some Munich), Munich and Vien­na mal­ts for dar­ker ones and occa­sio­nal­ly a tiny bit of dar­ker color mal­ts (such as Cara­fa). Saa­zer-type hops. Clean lager yeast. Deco­c­tion mashing is traditional.
Histo­ry
A Bava­ri­an spe­cial­ty first bre­wed in Munich by the mon­ks of St. Fran­cis of Pau­la. His­to­ri­cal ver­si­ons were less well-atte­nua­ted than modern inter­pre­ta­ti­ons, with con­se­quent­ly hig­her sweet­ness and lower alco­hol levels (and hence was con­si­de­red “liquid bread” by the mon­ks). The term “dop­pel (dou­ble) bock” was coi­ned by Munich con­su­mers. Many com­mer­cial dop­pel­bocks have names ending in “-ator,” eit­her as a tri­bu­te to the pro­to­ty­pi­cal Sal­va­tor or to take advan­ta­ge of the beer’s popu­la­ri­ty. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly dark brown in color; paler examp­les are a more recent development.
Comments
Most ver­si­ons are dark colo­red and may dis­play the cara­me­li­zing and Mail­lard pro­ducts of deco­c­tion mashing, but excel­lent pale ver­si­ons also exist. The pale ver­si­ons will not have the same rich­ness and dar­ker malt fla­vors of the dark ver­si­ons, and may be a bit dri­er, hop­pier and more bit­ter. While most tra­di­tio­nal examp­les are in the lower end of the ran­ges cited, the style can be con­si­de­red to have no upper limit for gra­vi­ty, alco­hol and bit­ter­ness (thus pro­vi­ding a home for very strong lagers). 
Com­mer­cial Examples
Dark Ver­si­ons –Andech­ser Dop­pel­bock Dun­kel, Ayin­ger Cele­bra­tor, Pau­la­ner Sal­va­tor, Spa­ten Opti­ma­tor, Trö­egs Tro­e­gena­tor, Wei­hen­ste­pha­ner Kor­bi­ni­an,; Pale Ver­si­ons – Eggen­berg Urbock 23º, EKU 28, Plank Bava­ri­an Hel­ler Doppelbock
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.072 - 1.112 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.016 - 1.024 SG
Color
6 - 25 SRM
Alco­hol
7.0 - 10.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
16 - 26 IBU
Name
Eis­bock
Cate­go­ry
Strong Euro­pean Beer
BJCP Style Code
9 B
Appearan­ce
Deep cop­per to dark brown in color, often with attrac­ti­ve ruby high­lights. Lage­ring should pro­vi­de good cla­ri­ty. Head reten­ti­on may be mode­ra­te to poor. Off-white to deep ivory colo­red head. Pro­noun­ced legs are often evident.
Aro­ma
Domi­na­ted by a balan­ce of rich, inten­se malt and a defi­ni­te alco­hol pre­sence. No hop aro­ma. May have signi­fi­cant malt-deri­ved dark fruit esters. Alco­hol aro­mas should not be har­sh or solventy.
Fla­vour
Rich, sweet malt balan­ced by a signi­fi­cant alco­hol pre­sence. The malt can have Mail­lard pro­ducts, toas­ty qua­li­ties, some cara­mel, and occa­sio­nal­ly a slight cho­co­la­te fla­vor. No hop fla­vor. Hop bit­ter­ness just off­sets the malt sweet­ness enough to avoid a cloy­ing cha­rac­ter. May have signi­fi­cant malt-deri­ved dark fruit esters. The alco­hol should be smooth, not har­sh or hot, and should help the hop bit­ter­ness balan­ce the strong malt pre­sence. The finish should be of malt and alco­hol, and can have a cer­tain dry­ness from the alco­hol. It should not by sti­cky, syru­py or cloyin­gly sweet. Clean lager character.
Mouth­feel
Full to very full-bodi­ed. Low car­bo­na­ti­on. Signi­fi­cant alco­hol warm­th without sharp hot­ness. Very smooth without har­sh edges from alco­hol, bit­ter­ness, fusels, or other con­cen­tra­ted flavors.
Over­all Impression
A strong, full-bodi­ed, rich, and mal­ty dark Ger­man lager often with a vis­cous qua­li­ty and strong fla­vors. Even though fla­vors are con­cen­tra­ted, the alco­hol should be smooth and war­ming, not burning. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Same as dop­pel­bock. Com­mer­cial eis­bocks are gene­ral­ly con­cen­tra­ted any­whe­re from 7% to 33% (by volume).
Histo­ry
A tra­di­tio­nal Kulm­bach spe­cial­ty bre­wed by free­zing a dop­pel­bock and remo­ving the ice to con­cen­tra­te the fla­vor and alco­hol con­tent (as well as any defects).
Comments
Exten­ded lage­ring is often nee­ded post-free­zing to smooth the alco­hol and enhan­ce the malt and alco­hol balan­ce. Pro­noun­ced “ICE-bock.”
Com­mer­cial Examples
Kulm­ba­cher Eisbock
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.078 - 1.120 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.020 - 1.035 SG
Color
18 - 30 SRM
Alco­hol
9.0 - 14.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 35 IBU
Name
Bal­tic Porter
Cate­go­ry
Strong Euro­pean Beer
BJCP Style Code
9 C
Appearan­ce
Dark red­dish-cop­per to opa­que dark brown (not black). Thick, per­sis­tent tan-colo­red head. Clear, alt­hough dar­ker ver­si­ons can be opaque.
Aro­ma
Rich mal­ty sweet­ness often con­tai­ning cara­mel, tof­fee, nut­ty to deep toast, and/or lico­ri­ce notes. Com­plex alco­hol and ester pro­fi­le of mode­ra­te strength, and remi­nis­cent of plums, pru­nes, raisins, cher­ries or cur­rants, occa­sio­nal­ly with a vin­ous Port-like qua­li­ty. Some dar­ker malt cha­rac­ter that is deep cho­co­la­te, cof­fee or molas­ses but never burnt. No hops. No sour­ness. Very smooth.
Fla­vour
As with aro­ma, has a rich mal­ty sweet­ness with a com­plex blend of deep malt, dried fruit esters, and alco­hol. Has a pro­mi­nent yet smooth schwarz­bier-like roas­ted fla­vor that stops short of burnt. Mouth-fil­ling and very smooth. Clean lager cha­rac­ter. Starts sweet but dar­ker malt fla­vors quick­ly domi­na­tes and per­sists through finish. Just a touch dry with a hint of roast cof­fee or lico­ri­ce in the finish. Malt can have a cara­mel, tof­fee, nut­ty, molas­ses and/or lico­ri­ce com­ple­xi­ty. Light hints of black cur­rant and dark fruits. Medi­um-low to medi­um bit­ter­ness from malt and hops, just to pro­vi­de balan­ce. Hop fla­vor from slight­ly spi­cy hops ran­ges from none to medium-low.
Mouth­feel
Gene­ral­ly qui­te full-bodi­ed and smooth, with a well-aged alco­hol warm­th. Medi­um to medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on, making it seem even more mouth-fil­ling. Not hea­vy on the tongue due to car­bo­na­ti­on level. 
Over­all Impression
A Bal­tic Por­ter often has the malt fla­vors remi­nis­cent of an Eng­lish por­ter and the restrai­ned roast of a schwarz­bier, but with a hig­her OG and alco­hol con­tent than eit­her. Very com­plex, with mul­ti-laye­red malt and dark fruit flavors.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Gene­ral­ly lager yeast (cold fer­men­ted if using ale yeast, as is requi­red when bre­wed in Rus­sia). Debit­te­red cho­co­la­te or black malt. Munich or Vien­na base malt. Con­ti­nen­tal hops (Saa­zer-type, typi­cal­ly). May con­tain crys­tal mal­ts and/or adjuncts. Brown or amber malt com­mon in his­to­ri­cal recipes.
Histo­ry
Tra­di­tio­nal beer from coun­tries bor­de­ring the Bal­tic Sea, deve­lo­ped indi­ge­nous­ly after hig­her-gra­vi­ty export brown or impe­ri­al stouts from Eng­land were estab­lis­hed. His­to­ri­cal­ly top-fer­men­ted, many bre­we­ries adap­ted the reci­pes for bot­tom-fer­men­ting yeast along with the rest of their production.
Comments
May also be descri­bed today as an Impe­ri­al Por­ter, alt­hough hea­vi­ly roas­ted or hop­ped ver­si­ons are not appro­pria­te for this style. Most ver­si­ons are in the 7–8.5% ABV ran­ge. Danish bre­we­ries often refer to them as Stouts, which indi­ca­tes their his­to­ric lineage from the days when Por­ter was used as a gene­ric name for Por­ter and Stout.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Alda­ris Por­te­ris, Bal­ti­ka #6 Por­ter, Devils Back­bone Dan­zig, Oko­cim Por­ter, Sine­brych­off Por­ter, Zywiec Porter
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.060 - 1.090 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.016 - 1.024 SG
Color
17 - 30 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 9.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 40 IBU
Name
Weiss­bier
Cate­go­ry
Ger­man Wheat Beer
BJCP Style Code
10 A
Appearan­ce
Pale straw to gold in color. A very thick, mous­sy, long-las­ting white head is cha­rac­te­ris­tic. The high pro­te­in con­tent of wheat impairs cla­ri­ty in an unfil­te­red beer, alt­hough the level of haze is some­what variable. 
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te to strong phe­nols (usual­ly clove) and frui­ty esters (typi­cal­ly bana­na). The balan­ce and inten­si­ty of the phe­nol and ester com­pon­ents can vary but the best examp­les are rea­son­ab­ly balan­ced and fair­ly pro­mi­nent. The hop cha­rac­ter ran­ges from low to none. A light to mode­ra­te wheat aro­ma (which might be per­cei­ved as brea­dy or grai­ny) may be pre­sent but other malt cha­rac­te­ris­tics should not. Optio­nal, but accep­ta­ble, aro­ma­tics can inclu­de a light to mode­ra­te vanil­la cha­rac­ter, and/or a faint bub­ble­gum aro­ma. None of the­se optio­nal cha­rac­te­ris­tics should be high or domi­nant, but often can add to the com­ple­xi­ty and balance.
Fla­vour
Low to moder­ate­ly strong bana­na and clove fla­vor. The balan­ce and inten­si­ty of the phe­nol and ester com­pon­ents can vary but the best examp­les are rea­son­ab­ly balan­ced and fair­ly pro­mi­nent. Optio­nal­ly, a very light to mode­ra­te vanil­la cha­rac­ter and/or faint bub­ble­gum notes can accen­tua­te the bana­na fla­vor, sweet­ness and round­ness; neit­her should be domi­nant if pre­sent. The soft, some­what brea­dy or grai­ny fla­vor of wheat is com­ple­men­ta­ry, as is a slight­ly grai­ny-sweet malt cha­rac­ter. Hop fla­vor is very low to none, and hop bit­ter­ness is very low to moder­ate­ly low. Well-roun­ded, fla­vor­ful pala­te with a rela­tively dry finish. The per­cep­ti­on of sweet­ness is more due to the absence of hop bit­ter­ness than actu­al resi­du­al sweet­ness; a sweet or hea­vy finish would signi­fi­cant­ly impair drinkability.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body; never hea­vy. Sus­pen­ded yeast may incre­a­se the per­cep­ti­on of body. The tex­tu­re of wheat imparts the sen­sa­ti­on of a fluffy, crea­my full­ness that may pro­gress to a light, sprit­zy finish aided by high to very high car­bo­na­ti­on. Always effervescent.
Over­all Impression
A pale, refres­hing Ger­man wheat beer with high car­bo­na­ti­on, dry finish, a fluffy mouth­feel, and a dis­tinc­ti­ve bana­na-and-clove yeast character.
Typi­cal Ingredients
By Ger­man brewing tra­di­ti­on, at least 50% of the grist must be mal­ted wheat, alt­hough some ver­si­ons use up to 70%; the rema­in­der is typi­cal­ly Pils­ner malt. A deco­c­tion mash is tra­di­tio­nal, alt­hough modern bre­wers typi­cal­ly don’t fol­low this prac­ti­ce. Wei­zen ale yeast pro­du­ces the typi­cal spi­cy and frui­ty cha­rac­ter, alt­hough high fer­men­ta­ti­on tem­pe­ra­tures can affect the balan­ce and pro­du­ce off-flavors. 
Histo­ry
While Bava­ria has a wheat beer tra­di­ti­on dating back hund­reds of years, brewing wheat beer used to be a mono­po­ly reser­ved for Bava­ri­an royal­ty. Modern weiss­bier dates from 1872 when Schnei­der began pro­duc­tion. Howe­ver, pale weiss­bier only beca­me popu­lar sin­ce the 1960s. It is qui­te popu­lar today, par­ti­cu­lar­ly in sou­thern Germany.
Comments
The­se are refres­hing, fast-matu­ring beers that are light­ly hop­ped and show a uni­que bana­na-and-clove yeast cha­rac­ter. The­se beers often don’t age well and are best enjoy­ed while young and fresh. The ver­si­on mit hefe is ser­ved with sus­pen­ded yeast; the krys­tal ver­si­on is fil­te­red for excel­lent cla­ri­ty. The cha­rac­ter of a krys­tal wei­zen is gene­ral­ly frui­tier and less phe­n­o­lic than that of the weiss­bier mit hefe. May be known as hefe­wei­zen, par­ti­cu­lar­ly in the United States. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
Ayin­ger Bräu Weis­se, Hacker-Pschorr Weis­se, Pau­la­ner Hefe-Wei­zen Natur­trüb, Schnei­der Weis­se Unser Ori­gi­nal, Wei­hen­ste­pha­ner Hefeweissbier
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.052 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.014 SG
Color
2 - 6 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
8 - 15 IBU
Name
Dunk­les Weissbier
Cate­go­ry
Ger­man Wheat Beer
BJCP Style Code
10 B
Appearan­ce
Light cop­per to maho­ga­ny brown in color. A very thick, mous­sy, long-las­ting off-white head is cha­rac­te­ris­tic. The high pro­te­in con­tent of wheat impairs cla­ri­ty in this tra­di­tio­nal­ly unfil­te­red style, alt­hough the level of haze is some­what varia­ble. Sus­pen­ded yeast sedi­ment can con­tri­bu­te to cloudiness.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te phe­nols (usual­ly clove) and frui­ty esters (usual­ly bana­na). The balan­ce and inten­si­ty of the phe­nol and ester com­pon­ents can vary but the best examp­les are rea­son­ab­ly balan­ced. Optio­nal­ly, a low to mode­ra­te vanil­la cha­rac­ter and/or faint bub­ble­gum notes may be pre­sent, but should not domi­na­te. Hop aro­ma ran­ges from low to none, and may be light­ly flo­ral, spi­cy, or her­bal. A light to mode­ra­te wheat aro­ma (which might be per­cei­ved as brea­dy, doughy or grai­ny) may be pre­sent and is often accom­pa­nied by a cara­mel, bread crust, or richer malt aro­ma. The malt aro­ma may mode­ra­te the phe­nols and esters somewhat.
Fla­vour
Low to moder­ate­ly strong bana­na and clove fla­vor. The balan­ce and inten­si­ty of the phe­nol and ester com­pon­ents can vary but the best examp­les are rea­son­ab­ly balan­ced and fair­ly pro­mi­nent. Optio­nal­ly, a very light to mode­ra­te vanil­la cha­rac­ter and/or faint bub­ble­gum notes can accen­tua­te the bana­na fla­vor, sweet­ness and round­ness; neit­her should be domi­nant if pre­sent. The soft, some­what brea­dy, doughy, or grai­ny fla­vor of wheat is com­ple­men­ta­ry, as is a richer cara­mel, toast, or bread crust fla­vor. The mal­ty rich­ness can be low to medi­um-high, and sup­ports the yeast cha­rac­ter. A roas­ted malt cha­rac­ter is inap­pro­pria­te. A spi­cy, her­bal, or flo­ral hop fla­vor is very low to none, and hop bit­ter­ness is very low to low. Well-roun­ded, fla­vor­ful, often some­what mal­ty pala­te with a rela­tively dry finish.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um-full body. The tex­tu­re of wheat as well as yeast in sus­pen­si­on imparts the sen­sa­ti­on of a fluffy, crea­my full­ness that may pro­gress to a ligh­ter finish, aided by mode­ra­te to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Effervescent. 
Over­all Impression
A moder­ate­ly dark Ger­man wheat beer with a dis­tinc­ti­ve bana­na-and-clove yeast cha­rac­ter, sup­por­ted by a toas­ted bread or cara­mel malt fla­vor. High­ly car­bo­na­ted and refres­hing, with a crea­my, fluffy tex­tu­re and light finish that encou­ra­ges drinking.
Typi­cal Ingredients
By Ger­man brewing tra­di­ti­on, at least 50% of the grist must be mal­ted wheat, alt­hough some ver­si­ons use up to 70%; the rema­in­der is usual­ly Munich, Vien­na, or dark or cara­mel wheat mal­ts, or Pils­ner malt with color malt. A deco­c­tion mash is tra­di­tio­nal, but infre­quent­ly used today. Wei­zen ale yeasts pro­du­ce the typi­cal spi­cy and frui­ty cha­rac­ter, alt­hough extre­me fer­men­ta­ti­on tem­pe­ra­tures can affect the balan­ce and pro­du­ce off-flavors. 
Histo­ry
Bava­ria has a wheat beer brewing tra­di­tio­nal hund­reds of years old, but the brewing right was reser­ved for Bava­ri­an royal­ty until the late 1700s. Old-fashio­ned Bava­ri­an wheat beer was often dark, as were most beer of the day. Pale weiss­bier star­ted to beco­me popu­lar in the 1960s, but tra­di­tio­nal dark wheat beer remai­ned some­what of an old person’s drink.
Comments
The pre­sence of Munich and/or Vien­na-type bar­ley mal­ts gives this style a deep, rich bar­ley malt cha­rac­ter not found in a weiss­bier. Often known as dun­kel­wei­zen, par­ti­cu­lar­ly in the United States.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Ayin­ger Ur-Weis­se, Etta­ler Weiss­bier Dun­kel, Fran­zis­ka­ner Hefe-Weis­se Dun­kel, Hacker-Pschorr Weis­se Dark, Tucher Dunk­les Hefe Wei­zen, Wei­hen­ste­pha­ner Hefe­weiss­bier Dunkel
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.056 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.014 SG
Color
14 - 23 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
10 - 18 IBU
Name
Wei­zen­bock
Cate­go­ry
Ger­man Wheat Beer
BJCP Style Code
10 C
Appearan­ce
Pale and dark ver­si­ons exist, with pale ver­si­ons being light gold to light amber, and dark ver­si­ons being dark amber to dark ruby-brown in color. A very thick, mous­sy, long-las­ting white to off-white (pale ver­si­ons) or light tan (dark ver­si­ons) head is cha­rac­te­ris­tic. The high pro­te­in con­tent of wheat impairs cla­ri­ty in this tra­di­tio­nal­ly unfil­te­red style, alt­hough the level of haze is some­what varia­ble. Sus­pen­ded yeast sedi­ment can con­tri­bu­te to the cloudiness.
Aro­ma
Medi­um-high to high mal­ty-rich cha­rac­ter with a signi­fi­cant brea­dy-grai­ny wheat com­po­nent. Paler ver­si­ons will have a brea­dy-toas­ty mal­ty rich­ness, while dar­ker ver­si­ons will have a deeper, richer malt pre­sence with signi­fi­cant Mail­lard pro­ducts. The malt com­po­nent is simi­lar to a hel­les bock for pale ver­si­ons (grai­ny-sweet-rich, light­ly toas­ted) or a dunk­les bock for dark ver­si­ons (brea­dy-mal­ty-rich, high­ly toas­ted, optio­nal cara­mel). The yeast con­tri­bu­tes a typi­cal wei­zen cha­rac­ter of bana­na and spi­ce (clove, vanil­la), which can be medi­um-low to medi­um-high. Dar­ker ver­si­ons can have some dark fruit aro­ma (plums, pru­nes, gra­pes, raisins), par­ti­cu­lar­ly as they age. A low to mode­ra­te alco­hol aro­ma is accep­ta­ble, but shouldn’t be hot or sol­ven­ty. No hop aro­ma. The malt, yeast, and alco­hol intert­wi­ne to pro­du­ce a com­plex, invi­t­ing, pro­mi­nent bouquet.
Fla­vour
Simi­lar to the aro­ma, a medi­um-high to high mal­ty-rich fla­vor tog­e­ther with a signi­fi­cant brea­dy-grai­ny wheat fla­vor. Paler ver­si­ons will have a brea­dy, toas­ty, grai­ny-sweet malt rich­ness, while dar­ker ver­si­ons will have deeper, brea­dy-rich or toas­ted malt fla­vors with signi­fi­cant Mail­lard pro­ducts, optio­nal cara­mel. Low to mode­ra­te bana­na and spi­ce (clove, vanil­la) yeast cha­rac­ter. Dar­ker ver­si­ons can have some dark fruit fla­vor (plums, pru­nes, gra­pes, raisins), par­ti­cu­lar­ly as they age. A light cho­co­la­te cha­rac­ter (but not roast) is optio­nal in dar­ker ver­si­ons. No hop fla­vor. A low hop bit­ter­ness can give a slight­ly sweet pala­te impres­si­on, but the beer typi­cal­ly finis­hes dry (some­ti­mes enhan­ced by a light alco­hol cha­rac­ter). The inter­play bet­ween the malt, yeast, and alco­hol adds com­ple­xi­ty and inte­rest, which is often enhan­ced with age. 
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-full to full body. A fluffy or crea­my tex­tu­re is typi­cal, as is the mild war­ming sen­sa­ti­on of sub­stan­ti­al alco­hol con­tent. Mode­ra­te to high carbonation.
Over­all Impression
A strong, mal­ty, frui­ty, wheat-based ale com­bi­ning the best malt and yeast fla­vors of a weiss­bier (pale or dark) with the mal­ty-rich fla­vor, strength, and body of a Dunk­les Bock or Doppelbock.
Typi­cal Ingredients
A high per­cen­ta­ge of mal­ted wheat is used (by Ger­man brewing tra­di­ti­on must be at least 50%, alt­hough it may con­tain up to 70%), with the rema­in­der being Munich- and/or Vien­na-type bar­ley mal­ts in dar­ker ver­si­ons, and more Pils malt in paler ver­si­ons. Some color mal­ts may be used spa­rin­gly. A tra­di­tio­nal deco­c­tion mash can give the appro­pria­te body without cloy­ing sweet­ness. Wei­zen ale yeasts pro­du­ce the typi­cal spi­cy and frui­ty cha­rac­ter. Too warm or too cold fer­men­ta­ti­on will cau­se the phe­nols and esters to be out of balan­ce and may crea­te off-fla­vors. Hop choice is essen­ti­al­ly irrele­vant, but Ger­man varie­ties are most traditional.
Histo­ry
Aven­ti­nus, the world’s oldest top-fer­men­ted wheat dop­pel­bock, was crea­ted in 1907 at the Schnei­der Weis­se Brau­haus in Munich. 
Comments
A Weiss­bier bre­wed to bock or dop­pel­bock strength. Schnei­der also pro­du­ces an Eis­bock ver­si­on. Pale and dark ver­si­ons exist, alt­hough dark are more com­mon. Pale ver­si­ons have less rich malt com­ple­xi­ty and often more hops, as with dop­pel­bocks. Light­ly oxi­di­zed Mail­lard pro­ducts can pro­du­ce some rich, inten­se fla­vors and aro­mas that are often seen in aged impor­ted com­mer­cial pro­ducts; fres­her ver­si­ons will not have this cha­rac­ter. Well-aged examp­les might also take on a slight sher­ry-like complexity.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Dark –Eisen­bahn Wei­zen­bock, Plank Bava­ri­an Dunk­ler Wei­zen­bock, Penn Wei­zen­bock, Schnei­der Unser Aven­ti­nus; Pale –Plank Bava­ri­an Hel­ler Wei­zen­bock, Wei­hen­ste­pha­ner Vitus
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.064 - 1.090 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.015 - 1.022 SG
Color
6 - 25 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 9.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
15 - 30 IBU
Name
Ordi­na­ry Bitter
Cate­go­ry
Bri­tish Bitter
BJCP Style Code
11 A
Appearan­ce
Pale amber to light cop­per color. Good to bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty. Low to mode­ra­te white to off-white head. May have very litt­le head due to low carbonation.
Aro­ma
Low to mode­ra­te malt aro­ma, often (but not always) with a light cara­mel qua­li­ty. Brea­dy, bis­cui­ty, or light­ly toas­ty malt com­ple­xi­ty is com­mon. Mild to mode­ra­te frui­ti­ness. Hop aro­ma can ran­ge from mode­ra­te to none, typi­cal­ly with a flo­ral, ear­thy, resi­ny, and/or frui­ty cha­rac­ter. Gene­ral­ly no dia­ce­tyl, alt­hough very low levels are allowed. 
Fla­vour
Medi­um to moder­ate­ly high bit­ter­ness. Moder­ate­ly low to moder­ate­ly high frui­ty esters. Mode­ra­te to low hop fla­vor, typi­cal­ly with an ear­thy, resi­ny, frui­ty, and/or flo­ral cha­rac­ter. Low to medi­um mal­ti­ness with a dry finish. The malt pro­fi­le is typi­cal­ly brea­dy, bis­cui­ty, or light­ly toas­ty. Low to mode­ra­te cara­mel or tof­fee fla­vors are optio­nal. Balan­ce is often deci­ded­ly bit­ter, alt­hough the bit­ter­ness should not com­ple­te­ly over­power the malt fla­vor, esters and hop fla­vor. Gene­ral­ly no dia­ce­tyl, alt­hough very low levels are allowed.
Mouth­feel
Light to medi­um-light body. Low car­bo­na­ti­on, alt­hough bot­t­led examp­les can have mode­ra­te carbonation.
Over­all Impression
Low gra­vi­ty, low alco­hol levels, and low car­bo­na­ti­on make this an easy-drin­king ses­si­on beer. The malt pro­fi­le can vary in fla­vor and inten­si­ty, but should never over­ri­de the over­all bit­ter impres­si­on. Drin­ka­bi­li­ty is a cri­ti­cal com­po­nent of the style 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pale ale, amber, and/or crys­tal mal­ts. May use a touch of dark malt for color adjus­t­ment. May use sugar adjuncts, corn, or wheat. Eng­lish finis­hing hops are most tra­di­tio­nal, but any hops are fair game; if Ame­ri­can hops are used, a light touch is requi­red. Cha­rac­ter­ful Bri­tish yeast. 
Histo­ry
See comments in cate­go­ry introduction.
Comments
The lowest gra­vi­ty mem­ber of the Bri­tish Bit­ter fami­ly, typi­cal­ly known to con­su­mers sim­ply as “bit­ter” (alt­hough bre­wers tend to refer to it as Ordi­na­ry Bit­ter to dis­tin­guish it from other mem­bers of the family). 
Com­mer­cial Examples
Adnams Sou­thwold Bit­ter, Brains Bit­ter, Fuller’s Chis­wick Bit­ter, Gree­ne King IPA, Tetley’s Ori­gi­nal Bit­ter, Young’s Bitter
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.030 - 1.039 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.007 - 1.011 SG
Color
8 - 14 SRM
Alco­hol
3.0 - 3.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 35 IBU
Name
Best Bit­ter
Cate­go­ry
Bri­tish Bitter
BJCP Style Code
11 B
Appearan­ce
Pale amber to medi­um cop­per color. Good to bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty. Low to mode­ra­te white to off-white head. May have very litt­le head due to low carbonation.
Aro­ma
Low to mode­ra­te malt aro­ma, often (but not always) with a low to medi­um-low cara­mel qua­li­ty. Brea­dy, bis­cuit, or light­ly toas­ty malt com­ple­xi­ty is com­mon. Mild to mode­ra­te frui­ti­ness. Hop aro­ma can ran­ge from mode­ra­te to none, typi­cal­ly with a flo­ral, ear­thy, resi­ny, and/or frui­ty cha­rac­ter. Gene­ral­ly no dia­ce­tyl, alt­hough very low levels are allowed.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to moder­ate­ly high bit­ter­ness. Moder­ate­ly low to moder­ate­ly high frui­ty esters. Mode­ra­te to low hop fla­vor, typi­cal­ly with an ear­thy, resi­ny, frui­ty, and/or flo­ral cha­rac­ter. Low to medi­um mal­ti­ness with a dry finish. The malt pro­fi­le is typi­cal­ly brea­dy, bis­cui­ty, or light­ly toas­ty. Low to mode­ra­te cara­mel or tof­fee fla­vors are optio­nal. Balan­ce is often deci­ded­ly bit­ter, alt­hough the bit­ter­ness should not com­ple­te­ly over­power the malt fla­vor, esters and hop fla­vor. Gene­ral­ly no dia­ce­tyl, alt­hough very low levels are allowed.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body. Low car­bo­na­ti­on, alt­hough bot­t­led examp­les can have mode­ra­te carbonation.
Over­all Impression
A fla­vor­ful, yet refres­hing, ses­si­on beer. Some examp­les can be more malt balan­ced, but this should not over­ri­de the over­all bit­ter impres­si­on. Drin­ka­bi­li­ty is a cri­ti­cal com­po­nent of the style.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pale ale, amber, and/or crys­tal mal­ts. May use a touch of dark malt for color adjus­t­ment. May use sugar adjuncts, corn or wheat. Eng­lish finis­hing hops are most tra­di­tio­nal, but any hops are fair game; if Ame­ri­can hops are used, a light touch is requi­red. Cha­rac­ter­ful Bri­tish yeast.
Histo­ry
See comments in cate­go­ry introduction.
Comments
More evi­dent malt fla­vor than in an ordi­na­ry bit­ter, this is a stron­ger, ses­si­on-strength ale. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
Adnams SSB, Conis­ton Blue­bird Bit­ter, Fuller’s Lon­don Pri­de, Harvey’s Sus­sex Best Bit­ter, She­pherd Nea­me Mas­ter Brew Ken­tish Ale, Timo­thy Tay­lor Landlord, Young’s Special
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.040 - 1.048 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.012 SG
Color
8 - 16 SRM
Alco­hol
3.0 - 4.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 40 IBU
Name
Strong Bit­ter
Cate­go­ry
Bri­tish Bitter
BJCP Style Code
11 C
Appearan­ce
Light amber to deep cop­per color. Good to bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty. Low to mode­ra­te white to off-white head. A low head is accep­ta­ble when car­bo­na­ti­on is also low.
Aro­ma
Hop aro­ma moder­ate­ly-high to moder­ate­ly-low, typi­cal­ly with a flo­ral, ear­thy, resi­ny, and/or frui­ty cha­rac­ter. Medi­um to medi­um-high malt aro­ma, optio­nal­ly with a low to mode­ra­te cara­mel com­po­nent. Medi­um-low to medi­um-high frui­ty esters. Gene­ral­ly no dia­ce­tyl, alt­hough very low levels are allowed. 
Fla­vour
Medi­um to medi­um-high bit­ter­ness with sup­por­ting malt fla­vors evi­dent. The malt pro­fi­le is typi­cal­ly brea­dy, bis­cui­ty, nut­ty, or light­ly toas­ty, and optio­nal­ly has a moder­ate­ly low to mode­ra­te cara­mel or tof­fee fla­vor. Hop fla­vor mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly high, typi­cal­ly with a flo­ral, ear­thy, resi­ny, and/or frui­ty cha­rac­ter. Hop bit­ter­ness and fla­vor should be noti­ce­ab­le, but should not total­ly domi­na­te malt fla­vors. Moder­ate­ly-low to high frui­ty esters. Optio­nal­ly may have low amounts of alco­hol. Medi­um-dry to dry finish. Gene­ral­ly no dia­ce­tyl, alt­hough very low levels are allowed.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um-full body. Low to mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on, alt­hough bot­t­led ver­si­ons will be hig­her. Stron­ger ver­si­ons may have a slight alco­hol warm­th but this cha­rac­ter should not be too high.
Over­all Impression
An average-strength to moder­ate­ly-strong Bri­tish bit­ter ale. The balan­ce may be fair­ly even bet­ween malt and hops to some­what bit­ter. Drin­ka­bi­li­ty is a cri­ti­cal com­po­nent of the style. A rather broad style that allows for con­si­derable inter­pre­ta­ti­on by the brewer.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pale ale, amber, and/or crys­tal mal­ts, may use a touch of black malt for color adjus­t­ment. May use sugar adjuncts, corn or wheat. Eng­lish finis­hing hops are most tra­di­tio­nal, but any hops are fair game; if Ame­ri­can hops are used, a light touch is requi­red. Cha­rac­ter­ful Bri­tish yeast. Bur­ton ver­si­ons use medi­um to high sul­fa­te water, which can incre­a­se the per­cep­ti­on of dry­ness and add a mine­ral­ly or sul­fu­ry aro­ma and flavor.
Histo­ry
See comments in cate­go­ry intro­duc­tion. Strong bit­ters can be seen as a hig­her-gra­vi­ty ver­si­on of best bit­ters (alt­hough not necessa­ri­ly “more pre­mi­um” sin­ce best bit­ters are tra­di­tio­nal­ly the brewer’s finest pro­duct). Bri­tish pale ales are gene­ral­ly con­si­de­red a pre­mi­um, export-strength pale, bit­ter beer that rough­ly appro­xi­ma­tes a strong bit­ter, alt­hough refor­mu­la­ted for bott­ling (inclu­ding incre­a­sing car­bo­na­ti­on levels). While modern Bri­tish pale ale is con­si­de­red a bot­t­led bit­ter, his­to­ri­cal­ly the styles were different.
Comments
In Eng­land today, “ESB” is a Ful­lers trade­mark, and no one thinks of it as a gene­ric class of beer. It is a uni­que (but very well-known) beer that has a very strong, com­plex malt pro­fi­le not found in other examp­les, often lea­ding jud­ges to over­ly pena­li­ze tra­di­tio­nal Eng­lish strong bit­ters. In Ame­ri­ca, ESB has been co-opted to descri­be a mal­ty, bit­ter, red­dish, stan­dard-strength (for the US) Bri­tish-type ale, and is a popu­lar craft beer style. This may cau­se some jud­ges to think of US brew­pub ESBs as repre­sen­ta­ti­ve of this style. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bass Ale, High­land Ork­ney Blast, Samu­el Smith’s Old Bre­we­ry Pale Ale, She­pherd Nea­me Bishop’s Fin­ger, She­pherd Nea­me Spit­fire, West Berkshire Dr. Hexter’s Hea­ler, Whit­bread Pale Ale, Young’s Ram Rod
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.048 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.016 SG
Color
8 - 18 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
30 - 50 IBU
Name
Bri­tish Gol­den Ale
Cate­go­ry
Pale Com­mon­wealth Beer
BJCP Style Code
12 A
Appearan­ce
Straw to gol­den in color. Good to bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty. Low to mode­ra­te white head. A low head is accep­ta­ble when car­bo­na­ti­on is also low.
Aro­ma
Hop aro­ma is moder­ate­ly low to moder­ate­ly high, and can use any varie­ty of hops – flo­ral, her­bal, or ear­thy Eng­lish hops and citru­sy Ame­ri­can hops are most com­mon. Fre­quent­ly a sin­gle hop varie­tal will be show­ca­sed. Litt­le to no malt aro­ma; no cara­mel. Medi­um-low to low frui­ty aro­ma from the hops rather than esters. Litt­le to no diacetyl.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to medi­um-high bit­ter­ness. Hop fla­vor is mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly high of any hop varie­ty, alt­hough citrus fla­vors are incre­a­singly com­mon. Medi­um-low to low malt cha­rac­ter, gene­ral­ly brea­dy with perhaps a litt­le bis­cui­ty fla­vor. Cara­mel fla­vors are typi­cal­ly absent. Litt­le to no dia­ce­tyl. Hop bit­ter­ness and fla­vor should be pro­noun­ced. Moder­ate­ly-low to low esters. Medi­um-dry to dry finish. Bit­ter­ness incre­a­ses with alco­hol level, but is always balanced.
Mouth­feel
Light to medi­um body. Low to mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on on drau­ght, alt­hough bot­t­led com­mer­cial ver­si­ons will be hig­her. Stron­ger ver­si­ons may have a slight alco­hol warm­th, but this cha­rac­ter should not be too high.
Over­all Impression
A hop-for­ward, average-strength to moder­ate­ly-strong pale bit­ter. Drin­ka­bi­li­ty and a refres­hing qua­li­ty are cri­ti­cal com­pon­ents of the style. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Low-color pale or lager malt acting as a blank can­vas for the hop cha­rac­ter. May use sugar adjuncts, corn or wheat. Eng­lish hops fre­quent­ly used, alt­hough citru­sy Ame­ri­can varie­tals are beco­m­ing more com­mon. Some­what clean-fer­men­ting Bri­tish yeast.
Histo­ry
Modern gol­den ales were deve­lo­ped in Eng­land to take on stron­gly-mar­ke­ted lagers. While it is dif­fi­cult to iden­ti­fy the first, Hop Back’s Sum­mer Light­ning, first bre­wed in 1986, is thought by many to have got the style off the ground.
Comments
Well-hop­ped, quen­ching beer with an empha­sis on show­ca­sing hops. Ser­ved col­der than tra­di­tio­nal bit­ters, this style was ori­gi­nal­ly posi­tio­ned as a refres­hing sum­mer beer, but is now often bre­wed year-round. Alt­hough ear­ly on the beers were bre­wed with Eng­lish hops, incre­a­singly Ame­ri­can citrus-fla­vo­r­ed hops are used. Gol­den Ales are also cal­led Gol­den Bit­ters, Sum­mer Ales, or Bri­tish Blon­de Ales. Can be found in cask, keg, and bottle.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Crouch Vale Bre­wers Gold, Fuller’s Dis­co­very, Gol­den Hill Exmoor Gold, Hop Back Sum­mer Light­ning, Kel­ham Island Pale Rider, Mor­land Old Gol­den Hen, Oak­ham JHB
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.038 - 1.053 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.006 - 1.012 SG
Color
2 - 6 SRM
Alco­hol
3.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 45 IBU
Name
Aus­tra­li­an Spar­k­ling Ale
Cate­go­ry
Pale Com­mon­wealth Beer
BJCP Style Code
12 B
Appearan­ce
Deep yel­low to light amber in color, often medi­um gold. Tall, fro­thy, per­sis­tent white head with tiny bub­bles. Noti­ce­ab­le efferve­scence due to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty if decan­ted, but typi­cal­ly pou­red with yeast to have a clou­dy appearan­ce. Not typi­cal­ly clou­dy unless yeast rou­sed during the pour.
Aro­ma
Fair­ly soft, clean aro­ma with a balan­ced mix of esters, hops, malt, and yeast – all mode­ra­te to low in inten­si­ty. The esters are fre­quent­ly pears and app­les, pos­si­b­ly with a very light touch of bana­na (optio­nal). The hops are ear­thy, her­bace­ous, or might show the cha­rac­te­ris­tic iron-like Pri­de of Ring­wood nose. The malt can ran­ge from neu­tral grai­ny to moder­ate­ly sweet to light­ly brea­dy; no cara­mel should be evi­dent. Very fresh examp­les can have a light­ly yeas­ty, sul­fu­ry nose.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to low roun­ded, grai­ny to brea­dy malt fla­vor, initi­al­ly mild to mal­ty-sweet but a medi­um to medi­um-high bit­ter­ness rises mid-pala­te to balan­ce the malt. Cara­mel fla­vors typi­cal­ly absent. High­ly atte­nua­ted, giving a dry finish with lin­ge­ring bit­ter­ness, alt­hough the body gives an impres­si­on of full­ness. Medi­um to medi­um-high hop fla­vor, some­what ear­thy and pos­si­b­ly her­bal, resin­ous, pep­pe­ry, or iron-like but not flo­ral, las­ting into after­tas­te. Medi­um-high to medi­um-low esters, often pears and app­les. Bana­na is optio­nal, but should never domi­na­te. May be light­ly mine­ral­ly or sul­fu­ry, espe­cial­ly if yeast is pre­sent. Should not be bland.
Mouth­feel
High to very high car­bo­na­ti­on, giving mouth-fil­ling bub­bles and a crisp, sprit­zy car­bo­nic bite. Medi­um to medi­um-full body, ten­ding to the hig­her side if pou­red with yeast. Smooth but gas­sy. Stron­ger ver­si­ons may have a light alco­hol warm­th, but lower alco­hol ver­si­ons will not. Very well-atte­nua­ted; should not have any resi­du­al sweetness.
Over­all Impression
Smooth and balan­ced, all com­pon­ents mer­ge tog­e­ther with simi­lar inten­si­ties. Mode­ra­te fla­vors show­ca­sing Aus­tra­li­an ingre­dients. Lar­ge fla­vor dimen­si­on. Very drin­ka­ble, sui­ted to a hot cli­ma­te. Reli­es on yeast character.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Light­ly kil­ned Aus­tra­li­an 2-row pale malt, lager varie­ties may be used. Small amounts of crys­tal malt for color adjus­t­ment only. Modern examp­les use no adjuncts, cane sugar for pri­ming only. His­to­ri­cal examp­les using 45% 2 row, 30% hig­her pro­te­in malt (6 row) would use around 25% sugar to dilu­te the nitro­gen con­tent. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly used Aus­tra­li­an hops, Clus­ter, and Gol­dings until repla­ced from mid-1960s by Pri­de of Ring­wood. High­ly atte­nua­ti­ve Bur­ton-type yeast (Aus­tra­li­an-type strain typi­cal). Varia­ble water pro­fi­le, typi­cal­ly with low car­bo­na­te and mode­ra­te sulfate.
Histo­ry
Brewing records show that the majo­ri­ty of Aus­tra­li­an beer bre­wed in the 19th cen­tu­ry was drau­ght XXX (Mild) and por­ter. Ale in bot­t­le was ori­gi­nal­ly deve­lo­ped to com­pe­te with impor­ted bot­t­led pale ales from Bri­tish bre­we­ries, such as Bass and Wm Youn­ger’ Monk. By the ear­ly 20th cen­tu­ry, bot­t­led pale ale went out of fashion and “ligh­ter” lager beers were in vogue. Many Aus­tra­li­an Spar­k­ling and Pale Ales were labe­led as ales, but were actual­ly bot­tom-fer­men­ted lagers with very simi­lar grists to the ales that they repla­ced. Coo­pers of Ade­lai­de, South Aus­tra­lia is the only sur­vi­ving bre­wer pro­du­cing the Spar­k­ling Ale style.
Comments
Coo­pers has been making their flagship Spar­k­ling Ale sin­ce 1862, alt­hough the for­mu­la­ti­on has chan­ged over the years. Pre­sent­ly the beer will have bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty if decan­ted, but publi­cans often pour most of the beer into a glass then swirl the bot­t­le and dump in all the yeast. In some bars, the bot­t­le is rol­led along the bar! When ser­ved on drau­ght, the bre­we­ry inst­ructs publi­cans to invert the keg to rou­se the yeast. A clou­dy appearan­ce for the style seems to be a modern con­su­mer pre­fe­rence. Always natu­ral­ly car­bo­na­ted, even in the keg. A pre­sent-use ale, best enjoy­ed fresh.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Coo­pers Ori­gi­nal Pale Ale, Coo­pers Spar­k­ling Ale
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.038 - 1.050 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.004 - 1.006 SG
Color
4 - 7 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 35 IBU
Name
Eng­lish IPA
Cate­go­ry
Pale Com­mon­wealth Beer
BJCP Style Code
12 C
Appearan­ce
Color ran­ges from gol­den to deep amber, but most are fair­ly pale. Should be clear, alt­hough unfil­te­red dry-hop­ped ver­si­ons may be a bit hazy. Mode­ra­te-sized, per­sis­tent head stand with off-white color.
Aro­ma
A mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-high hop aro­ma of flo­ral, spi­cy-pep­pe­ry or citrus-oran­ge in natu­re is typi­cal. A slight­ly gras­sy dry-hop aro­ma is accep­ta­ble, but not requi­red. A moder­ate­ly-low cara­mel-like or toas­ty malt pre­sence is optio­nal. Low to mode­ra­te frui­ti­ness is accep­ta­ble. Some ver­si­ons may have a sul­fu­ry note, alt­hough this cha­rac­ter is not mandatory.
Fla­vour
Hop fla­vor is medi­um to high, with a mode­ra­te to asser­ti­ve hop bit­ter­ness. The hop fla­vor should be simi­lar to the aro­ma (flo­ral, spi­cy-pep­pe­ry, citrus-oran­ge, and/or slight­ly gras­sy). Malt fla­vor should be medi­um-low to medi­um, and be some­what brea­dy, optio­nal­ly with light to medi­um-light bis­cuit-like, toas­ty, tof­fee-like and/or cara­mel­ly aspects. Medi­um-low to medi­um frui­ti­ness. Finish is medi­um-dry to very dry, and the bit­ter­ness may lin­ger into the after­tas­te but should not be har­sh. The balan­ce is toward the hops, but the malt should still be noti­ce­ab­le in sup­port. If high sul­fa­te water is used, a dis­tinc­tively mine­ral­ly, dry finish, some sul­fur fla­vor, and a lin­ge­ring bit­ter­ness are usual­ly pre­sent. Some clean alco­hol fla­vor can be noted in stron­ger ver­si­ons. Oak is inap­pro­pria­te in this style.
Mouth­feel
Smooth, medi­um-light to medi­um-bodi­ed mouth­feel without hop-deri­ved astrin­gen­cy, alt­hough mode­ra­te to medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on can com­bi­ne to ren­der an over­all dry sen­sa­ti­on des­pi­te a sup­por­ti­ve malt pre­sence. A low, smooth alco­hol war­ming can and should be sen­sed in stron­ger (but not all) versions.
Over­all Impression
A hop­py, moder­ate­ly-strong, very well-atte­nua­ted pale Bri­tish ale with a dry finish and a hop­py aro­ma and fla­vor. Clas­sic Bri­tish ingre­dients pro­vi­de the best fla­vor profile. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pale ale malt. Eng­lish hops are tra­di­tio­nal, par­ti­cu­lar­ly as finis­hing hops. Atte­nua­ti­ve Bri­tish ale yeast. Refi­ned sugar may be used in some ver­si­ons. Some ver­si­ons may show a sul­fa­te cha­rac­ter from Bur­ton-type water, but this is not essen­ti­al to the style.
Histo­ry
Accounts of its ori­gins vary, but most agree that what beca­me later known as IPA was pale ale pre­pa­red for ship­ment to India in the late 1700s and ear­ly 1800s. Geor­ge Hodg­son of the Bow Bre­we­ry beca­me well-known as an exporter of IPA during the ear­ly 1800s, and is the first name fre­quent­ly men­tio­ned with its popu­la­ri­ty. As with all Eng­lish beers with a long histo­ry, the popu­la­ri­ty and for­mu­la­ti­on of the pro­duct chan­ged over time. Bur­ton bre­we­ries with their high-sul­fa­te water were able to suc­cess­ful­ly brew IPA and began their domi­na­ti­on of this mar­ket by the 1830s, around the time the name India Pale Ale was first used. Strength and popu­la­ri­ty decli­ned over time, and the style vir­tual­ly disap­peared in the second half of the 20th cen­tu­ry. The name was often used to descri­be pale ales and bit­ters, not anything spe­cial (a trend that con­ti­nues in some modern Bri­tish examp­les). The style under­went a craft beer redis­co­very in the 1980s, and is what is descri­bed in the­se gui­de­li­nes. Modern examp­les are inspi­red by clas­sic ver­si­ons, but shouldn’t be assu­med to have an unbro­ken lineage with the exact same pro­fi­le. White Shield is pro­bab­ly the examp­le with the lon­gest lineage, tra­cing to the strong Bur­ton IPAs of old and first bre­wed in 1829.
Comments
The attri­bu­tes of IPA that were important to its arri­val in good con­di­ti­on in India were that it was very well-atte­nua­ted, and hea­vi­ly hop­ped. Sim­ply becau­se this is how IPA was ship­ped, doesn’t mean that other beers such as Por­ter weren’t also sent to India, that IPA was inven­ted to be sent to India, that IPA was more hea­vi­ly hop­ped than other kee­ping beers, or that the alco­hol level was unusu­al for the time. Many modern examp­les labe­led IPA are qui­te weak in strength. Accord­ing to CAMRA, “so-cal­led IPAs with strengths of around 3.5% are not true to style.” Eng­lish beer his­to­ri­an Mar­tyn Cor­nell has com­men­ted that beers like this are “not real­ly dis­tin­guis­ha­ble from an ordi­na­ry bit­ter.” So we choo­se to agree with the­se sources for our gui­de­li­nes rather than what some modern Bri­tish bre­we­ries are cal­ling an IPA; just be awa­re of the­se two main types of IPAs in the Bri­tish mar­ket today.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Free­mi­ner Tra­fal­gar IPA, Fuller’s Ben­gal Lan­cer IPA, Mean­ti­me India Pale Ale, Rid­ge­way IPA, Sum­mit True Brit IPA, Thorn­bridge Jaipur, Wort­hing­ton White Shield
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.050 - 1.075 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.018 SG
Color
6 - 14 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 7.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
40 - 60 IBU
Name
Dark Mild
Cate­go­ry
Brown Bri­tish Beer
BJCP Style Code
13 A
Appearan­ce
Cop­per to dark brown or maho­ga­ny color. A few paler examp­les (medi­um amber to light brown) exist. Gene­ral­ly clear, alt­hough is tra­di­tio­nal­ly unfil­te­red. Low to mode­ra­te off-white to tan head; reten­ti­on may be poor.
Aro­ma
Low to mode­ra­te malt aro­ma, and may have some frui­ti­ness. The malt expres­si­on can take on a wide ran­ge of cha­rac­ter, which can inclu­de cara­mel, tof­fee, grai­ny, toas­ted, nut­ty, cho­co­la­te, or light­ly roas­ted. Litt­le to no hop aro­ma, ear­thy or flo­ral if pre­sent. Very low to no diacetyl.
Fla­vour
Gene­ral­ly a mal­ty beer, alt­hough may have a very wide ran­ge of malt- and yeast-based fla­vors (e.g., mal­ty, sweet, cara­mel, tof­fee, toast, nut­ty, cho­co­la­te, cof­fee, roast, fruit, lico­ri­ce, plum, rai­sin). Can finish sweet to dry. Ver­si­ons with dar­ker mal­ts may have a dry, roas­ted finish. Low to mode­ra­te bit­ter­ness, enough to pro­vi­de some balan­ce but not enough to over­power the malt. Frui­ty esters mode­ra­te to none. Dia­ce­tyl and hop fla­vor low to none.
Mouth­feel
Light to medi­um body. Gene­ral­ly low to medi­um-low car­bo­na­ti­on. Roast-based ver­si­ons may have a light astrin­gen­cy. Swee­ter ver­si­ons may seem to have a rather full mouth­feel for the gravity.
Over­all Impression
A dark, low-gra­vi­ty, malt-focu­sed Bri­tish ses­si­on ale rea­di­ly sui­ted to drin­king in quan­ti­ty. Refres­hing, yet fla­vor­ful, with a wide ran­ge of dark malt or dark sugar expression.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Style Com­pa­ri­son: Some ver­si­ons may seem like lower-gra­vi­ty modern Eng­lish por­ters. Much less sweet than Lon­don Brown Ale.
Histo­ry
His­to­ri­cal­ly, ‘mild’ was sim­ply an unaged beer, and could be used as an adjec­ti­ve to dis­tin­guish bet­ween aged or more high­ly hop­ped kee­ping beers. Modern milds trace their roots to the wea­ker X-type ales of the 1800s, alt­hough dark milds did not appe­ar until the 20th cen­tu­ry. In cur­rent usa­ge, the term implies a lower-strength beer with less hop bit­ter­ness than bit­ters. The gui­de­li­nes descri­be the modern Bri­tish ver­si­on. The term ‘mild’ is cur­r­ent­ly some­what out of favor with con­su­mers, and many bre­we­ries no lon­ger use it. Incre­a­singly rare. The­re is no his­to­ric con­nec­tion or rela­ti­ons­hip bet­ween Mild and Porter.
Comments
Most are low-gra­vi­ty ses­si­on beers around 3.2%, alt­hough some ver­si­ons may be made in the stron­ger (4%+) ran­ge for export, fes­ti­vals, sea­so­nal and/or spe­cial occa­si­ons. Gene­ral­ly ser­ved on cask; ses­si­on-strength bot­t­led ver­si­ons don’t often tra­vel well. A wide ran­ge of inter­pre­ta­ti­ons are pos­si­ble. Pale ver­si­ons exist, but the­se are even more rare than dark milds; the­se gui­de­li­nes only descri­be the modern dark version.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Banks’s Mild, Cain’s Dark Mild, High­ga­te Dark Mild, Brain’s Dark, Moor­house Black Cat, Rud­ga­te Ruby Mild, Theaks­ton Tra­di­tio­nal Mild
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.030 - 1.038 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.013 SG
Color
12 - 25 SRM
Alco­hol
3.0 - 3.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
10 - 25 IBU
Name
Bri­tish Brown Ale
Cate­go­ry
Brown Bri­tish Beer
BJCP Style Code
13 B
Appearan­ce
Dark amber to dark red­dish-brown color. Clear. Low to mode­ra­te off-white to light tan head.
Aro­ma
Light, sweet malt aro­ma with tof­fee, nut­ty, or light cho­co­la­te notes, and a light to hea­vy cara­mel qua­li­ty. A light but appe­aling flo­ral or ear­thy hop aro­ma may also be noti­ced. A light frui­ty aro­ma may be evi­dent, but should not dominate. 
Fla­vour
Gent­le to mode­ra­te malt sweet­ness, with a light to hea­vy cara­mel cha­rac­ter and a medi­um to dry finish. Malt may also have a nut­ty, toas­ted, bis­cui­ty, tof­fee, or light cho­co­la­te cha­rac­ter. Medi­um to medi­um-low bit­ter­ness. Malt-hop balan­ce ran­ges from even to malt-focu­sed; hop fla­vor low to none (flo­ral or ear­thy qua­li­ties). Low to mode­ra­te frui­ty esters can be present.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body. Medi­um to medi­um-high carbonation.
Over­all Impression
A mal­ty, brown cara­mel-centric Bri­tish ale without the roas­ted fla­vors of a Porter. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Bri­tish mild ale or pale ale malt base with cara­mel mal­ts. May also have small amounts dar­ker mal­ts (e.g., cho­co­la­te) to pro­vi­de color and the nut­ty cha­rac­ter. Eng­lish hop varie­ties are most authentic. 
Histo­ry
Brown ale has a long histo­ry in Gre­at Bri­tain, alt­hough several dif­fe­rent types of pro­ducts used that name at various times. Modern brown ale is a 20th cen­tu­ry crea­ti­on as a bot­t­led pro­duct; it is not the same as his­to­ri­cal pro­ducts of the same name. A wide ran­ge of gra­vi­ties were bre­wed, but modern brown ales are gene­ral­ly of the stron­ger (by cur­rent UK stan­dards) inter­pre­ta­ti­on. This style is based on the modern stron­ger Bri­tish brown ales, not his­to­ri­cal ver­si­ons or the swee­ter Lon­don Brown Ale. Pre­do­mi­na­te­ly but not exclu­si­ve­ly a bot­t­led pro­duct currently.
Comments
A wide-ran­ging cate­go­ry with dif­fe­rent inter­pre­ta­ti­ons pos­si­ble, ran­ging from ligh­ter-colo­red to hop­py to deeper, dar­ker, and cara­mel-focu­sed; howe­ver, none of the ver­si­ons have stron­gly roas­ted fla­vors. A stron­ger Dou­ble Brown Ale was more popu­lar in the past, but is very hard to find now. While Lon­don Brown Ales are mar­ke­ted using the name Brown Ale, we list tho­se as a dif­fe­rent jud­ging style due to the signi­fi­cant dif­fe­rence in balan­ce (espe­cial­ly sweet­ness) and alco­hol strength; that doesn’t mean that they aren’t in the same fami­ly, though.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Maxim Dou­ble Maxim, New­cast­le Brown Ale, Rigg­wel­ter York­shire Ale, Samu­el Smith’s Nut Brown Ale, Wychwood Hobgoblin
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.040 - 1.052 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.013 SG
Color
12 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 30 IBU
Name
Eng­lish Porter
Cate­go­ry
Brown Bri­tish Beer
BJCP Style Code
13 C
Appearan­ce
Light brown to dark brown in color, often with ruby high­lights when held up to light. Good cla­ri­ty, alt­hough may approach being opa­que. Mode­ra­te off-white to light tan head with good to fair retention.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly low brea­dy, bis­cui­ty, and toas­ty malt aro­ma with mild roas­ti­ness, and may have a cho­co­la­te qua­li­ty. May also show some non-roas­ted malt cha­rac­ter in sup­port (cara­mel­ly, nut­ty, tof­fee-like and/or sweet). May have up to a mode­ra­te level of flo­ral or ear­thy hops. Frui­ty esters mode­ra­te to none. Dia­ce­tyl low to none.
Fla­vour
Mode­ra­te brea­dy, bis­cui­ty, and toas­ty malt fla­vor inclu­des a mild to mode­ra­te roas­ti­ness (fre­quent­ly with a cho­co­la­te cha­rac­ter) and often a signi­fi­cant cara­mel, nut­ty, and/or tof­fee cha­rac­ter. May have other secon­da­ry fla­vors such as cof­fee, lico­ri­ce, bis­cuits or toast in sup­port. Should not have a signi­fi­cant burnt or har­sh roas­ted fla­vor, alt­hough small amounts may con­tri­bu­te a bit­ter cho­co­la­te com­ple­xi­ty. Ear­thy or flo­ral hop fla­vor mode­ra­te to none. Medi­um-low to medi­um hop bit­ter­ness will vary the balan­ce from slight­ly mal­ty to slight­ly bit­ter. Usual­ly fair­ly well-atte­nua­ted, alt­hough can be some­what sweet. Dia­ce­tyl moder­ate­ly-low to none. Mode­ra­te to low frui­ty esters.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body. Moder­ate­ly-low to moder­ate­ly-high car­bo­na­ti­on. Light to mode­ra­te crea­my texture.
Over­all Impression
A mode­ra­te-strength brown beer with a restrai­ned roas­ty cha­rac­ter and bit­ter­ness. May have a ran­ge of roas­ted fla­vors, gene­ral­ly without burnt qua­li­ties, and often has a cho­co­la­te-cara­mel-mal­ty profile.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Grists vary, but some­thing pro­du­cing a dark color is always invol­ved. Cho­co­la­te or other dark-roas­ted mal­ts, cara­mel malt, brewing sug­ars, and the like are com­mon. Lon­don-type por­ters often use brown malt as a cha­rac­te­ris­tic flavor. 
Histo­ry
Ori­gi­na­ting in Lon­don around 300 years ago, por­ter evol­ved from ear­lier sweet, Brown Beer popu­lar at the time. Evol­ved many times with various tech­no­lo­gi­cal and ingre­dient deve­lo­p­ments and con­su­mer pre­fe­ren­ces dri­ving the­se chan­ges. Beca­me a high­ly-popu­lar, wide­ly-expor­ted style in the 1800s befo­re decli­ning around WWI and disap­pearing in the 1950s. It was re-intro­du­ced in the mid-1970s with the start of the craft beer era. The name is said to have been deri­ved from its popu­la­ri­ty with the Lon­don working class per­forming various load-car­ry­ing tasks of the day. Parent of various regio­nal inter­pre­ta­ti­ons over time, and a pre­de­ces­sor to all stouts (which were ori­gi­nal­ly cal­led “stout por­ters”). The­re is no his­to­ric con­nec­tion or rela­ti­ons­hip bet­ween Mild and Porter.
Comments
This style descrip­ti­on descri­bes the modern ver­si­on of Eng­lish por­ter, not every pos­si­ble varia­ti­on over time in every regi­on whe­re it exis­ted. His­to­ri­cal re-crea­ti­ons should be ent­e­red in the His­to­ri­cal style cate­go­ry, with an appro­pria­te descrip­ti­on describ­ing the pro­fi­le of the beer. Modern craft examp­les in the UK are big­ger and hoppier.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bur­ton Bridge Bur­ton Por­ter, Fuller’s Lon­don Por­ter, Nether­ga­te Old Grow­ler Por­ter, RCH Old Slug Por­ter, Samu­el Smith Tad­dy Porter
Notes
Sim­ply cal­led “Por­ter” in Bri­tain, the name “Eng­lish Por­ter” is used to dif­fe­ren­tia­te it from other por­ters descri­bed in the­se guidelines. 
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.040 - 1.052 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.014 SG
Color
20 - 30 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
18 - 35 IBU
Name
Scot­tish Light
Cate­go­ry
Scot­tish Ale
BJCP Style Code
14 A
Appearan­ce
Pale cop­per to very dark brown. Clear. Low to mode­ra­te, crea­my off-white.
Aro­ma
Low to medi­um mal­ti­ness, often with fla­vors of toas­ted bre­ad­crumbs, lady fin­gers, and Eng­lish bis­cuits. Low to medi­um cara­mel and low but­ters­cotch is allo­wa­ble. Light pome frui­ti­ness in best examp­les. May have low tra­di­tio­nal Eng­lish hop aro­ma (ear­thy, flo­ral, oran­ge-citrus, spi­cy, etc.). Peat smo­ke is inappropriate.
Fla­vour
Ent­i­re­ly malt-focu­sed, with fla­vors ran­ging from pale, brea­dy malt with cara­mel over­to­nes to rich-toas­ty malt with roas­ted accents (but never roas­ty) or a com­bi­na­ti­on the­re­of. Frui­ty esters are not requi­red but add depth yet are never high. Hop bit­ter­ness to balan­ce the malt. No to low hop fla­vor is also allo­wed and should of tra­di­tio­nal Eng­lish cha­rac­ter (ear­thy, flo­ral, oran­ge-citrus, spi­cy, etc.). Finish ran­ges from rich and mal­ty to dry and grai­ny. A sub­t­le but­ters­cotch cha­rac­ter is accep­ta­ble; howe­ver, burnt sug­ars are not. The malt-hop balan­ce tilts toward malt. Peat smo­ke is inappropriate.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-low to medi­um body. Low to mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on. Can be rela­tively rich and crea­my to dry and grainy.
Over­all Impression
A malt-focu­sed, gene­ral­ly cara­mel­ly beer with perhaps a few esters and occa­sio­nal­ly a but­ters­cotch after­tas­te. Hops only to balan­ce and sup­port the malt. The malt cha­rac­ter can ran­ge from dry and grai­ny to rich, toas­ty, and cara­mel­ly, but is never roas­ty and espe­cial­ly never has a peat smo­ke cha­rac­ter. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly the dar­kest of the Scot­tish ales, some­ti­mes near­ly black but lacking any burnt, overtly roas­ted character.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Ori­gi­nal­ly used Scot­tish pale malt, grits or fla­ked mai­ze, and bre­wers cara­mel for color. Later adap­ted to use addi­tio­nal ingre­dients, such as amber and brown mal­ts, crys­tal and wheat mal­ts, and roas­ted grains or dark sug­ars for color but not for the ‘roas­ty’ fla­vor. Sugar adjuncts are tra­di­tio­nal. Clean or slight­ly frui­ty yeast. Peat-smo­ked malt is inau­then­tic and inappropriate.
Comments
Malt-focu­sed ales that gain the vast majo­ri­ty of their cha­rac­ter from spe­cial­ty mal­ts, never the pro­cess. Bur­ning malt or wort sug­ars via ‘kett­le cara­me­liz­a­ti­on’ is not tra­di­tio­nal nor is any bla­tant­ly ‘but­ters­cotch’ cha­rac­ter. Most fre­quent­ly a drau­ght pro­duct. Smo­ke cha­rac­ter is inap­pro­pria­te as any found tra­di­tio­nal­ly would have come from the peat in the source water. Scot­tish ales with smo­ke cha­rac­ter should be ent­e­red as a Clas­sic Style Smo­ked Beer.
Com­mer­cial Examples
McEwan’s 60
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.030 - 1.035 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.013 SG
Color
17 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
2.0 - 3.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
10 - 20 IBU
Name
Scot­tish Heavy
Cate­go­ry
Scot­tish Ale
BJCP Style Code
14 B
Appearan­ce
Pale cop­per to very dark brown. Clear. Low to mode­ra­te, crea­my off-white.
Aro­ma
Low to medi­um mal­ti­ness, often with fla­vors of toas­ted bre­ad­crumbs, lady fin­gers, and Eng­lish bis­cuits. Low to medi­um cara­mel and low but­ters­cotch is allo­wa­ble. Light pome frui­ti­ness in best examp­les. May have low tra­di­tio­nal Eng­lish hop aro­ma (ear­thy, flo­ral, oran­ge-citrus, spi­cy, etc.). Peat smo­ke is inappropriate.
Fla­vour
Ent­i­re­ly malt-focu­sed, with fla­vors ran­ging from pale, brea­dy malt with cara­mel over­to­nes to rich-toas­ty malt with roas­ted accents (but never roas­ty) or a com­bi­na­ti­on the­re­of. Frui­ty esters are not requi­red but add depth yet are never high. Hop bit­ter­ness to balan­ce the malt. No to low hop fla­vor is also allo­wed and should of tra­di­tio­nal Eng­lish cha­rac­ter (ear­thy, flo­ral, oran­ge-citrus, spi­cy, etc.). Finish ran­ges from rich and mal­ty to dry and grai­ny. A sub­t­le but­ters­cotch cha­rac­ter is accep­ta­ble; howe­ver, burnt sug­ars are not. The malt-hop balan­ce tilts toward malt. Peat smo­ke is inappropriate.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-low to medi­um body. Low to mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on. Can be rela­tively rich and crea­my to dry and grainy. 
Over­all Impression
A malt-focu­sed, gene­ral­ly cara­mel­ly beer with perhaps a few esters and occa­sio­nal­ly a but­ters­cotch after­tas­te. Hops only to balan­ce and sup­port the malt. The malt cha­rac­ter can ran­ge from dry and grai­ny to rich, toas­ty, and cara­mel­ly, but is never roas­ty and espe­cial­ly never has a peat smo­ke character.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Ori­gi­nal­ly used Scot­tish pale malt, grits or fla­ked mai­ze, and bre­wers cara­mel for color. Later adap­ted to use addi­tio­nal ingre­dients, such as amber and brown mal­ts, crys­tal and wheat mal­ts, and roas­ted grains or dark sug­ars for color but not for the ‘roas­ty’ fla­vor. Sugar adjuncts are tra­di­tio­nal. Clean or slight­ly frui­ty yeast. Peat-smo­ked malt is inau­then­tic and inappropriate.
Comments
Malt-focu­sed ales that gain the vast majo­ri­ty of their cha­rac­ter from spe­cial­ty mal­ts, never the pro­cess. Bur­ning malt or wort sug­ars via ‘kett­le cara­me­liz­a­ti­on’ is not tra­di­tio­nal nor is any bla­tant­ly ‘but­ters­cotch’ cha­rac­ter. Most fre­quent­ly a drau­ght pro­duct. Smo­ke cha­rac­ter is inap­pro­pria­te as any found tra­di­tio­nal­ly would have come from the peat in the source water. Scot­tish ales with smo­ke cha­rac­ter should be ent­e­red as a Clas­sic Style Smo­ked Beer.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Broughton Green­mant­le Ale, Cale­do­nia Smooth, McEwan’s 70, Ork­ney Raven Ale, Tennent’s Spe­cial Ale
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.035 - 1.040 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.015 SG
Color
13 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
3.0 - 3.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
10 - 20 IBU
Name
Scot­tish Export
Cate­go­ry
Scot­tish Ale
BJCP Style Code
14 C
Appearan­ce
Pale cop­per to very dark brown. Clear. Low to mode­ra­te, crea­my off-white.
Aro­ma
Low to medi­um mal­ti­ness, often with fla­vors of toas­ted bre­ad­crumbs, lady fin­gers, and Eng­lish bis­cuits. Low to medi­um cara­mel and low but­ters­cotch is allo­wa­ble. Light pome frui­ti­ness in best examp­les. May have low tra­di­tio­nal Eng­lish hop aro­ma (ear­thy, flo­ral, oran­ge-citrus, spi­cy, etc.). Peat smo­ke is inappropriate.
Fla­vour
Ent­i­re­ly malt-focu­sed, with fla­vors ran­ging from pale, brea­dy malt with cara­mel over­to­nes to rich-toas­ty malt with roas­ted accents (but never roas­ty) or a com­bi­na­ti­on the­re­of. Frui­ty esters are not requi­red but add depth yet are never high. Hop bit­ter­ness to balan­ce the malt. No to low hop fla­vor is also allo­wed and should of tra­di­tio­nal Eng­lish cha­rac­ter (ear­thy, flo­ral, oran­ge-citrus, spi­cy, etc.). Finish ran­ges from rich and mal­ty to dry and grai­ny. A sub­t­le but­ters­cotch cha­rac­ter is accep­ta­ble; howe­ver, burnt sug­ars are not. The malt-hop balan­ce tilts toward malt. Peat smo­ke is inappropriate.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-low to medi­um body. Low to mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on. Can be rela­tively rich and crea­my to dry and grainy. 
Over­all Impression
A malt-focu­sed, gene­ral­ly cara­mel­ly beer with perhaps a few esters and occa­sio­nal­ly a but­ters­cotch after­tas­te. Hops only to balan­ce and sup­port the malt. The malt cha­rac­ter can ran­ge from dry and grai­ny to rich, toas­ty, and cara­mel­ly, but is never roas­ty and espe­cial­ly never has a peat smo­ke character.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Ori­gi­nal­ly used Scot­tish pale malt, grits or fla­ked mai­ze, and bre­wers cara­mel for color. Later adap­ted to use addi­tio­nal ingre­dients, such as amber and brown mal­ts, crys­tal and wheat mal­ts, and roas­ted grains or dark sug­ars for color but not for the ‘roas­ty’ fla­vor. Sugar adjuncts are tra­di­tio­nal. Clean or slight­ly frui­ty yeast. Peat-smo­ked malt is inau­then­tic and inappropriate.
Comments
Malt-focu­sed ales that gain the vast majo­ri­ty of their cha­rac­ter from spe­cial­ty mal­ts, never the pro­cess. Bur­ning malt or wort sug­ars via ‘kett­le cara­me­liz­a­ti­on’ is not tra­di­tio­nal nor is any bla­tant­ly ‘but­ters­cotch’ cha­rac­ter. Most fre­quent­ly a drau­ght pro­duct. Smo­ke cha­rac­ter is inap­pro­pria­te as any found tra­di­tio­nal­ly would have come from the peat in the source water. Scot­tish ales with smo­ke cha­rac­ter should be ent­e­red as a Clas­sic Style Smo­ked Beer.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bel­ha­ven Scot­tish Ale, Broughton Exciseman’s Ale, Ork­ney Dark Island, Peli­can MacPelican’s Scot­tish Style Ale, Wea­sel Boy Plaid Fer­ret Scot­tish Ale
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.040 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.016 SG
Color
13 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
3.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
15 - 30 IBU
Name
Irish Red Ale
Cate­go­ry
Irish Beer
BJCP Style Code
15 A
Appearan­ce
Medi­um amber to medi­um red­dish-cop­per color. Clear. Low off-white to tan colo­red head, average persistence.
Aro­ma
Low to mode­ra­te malt aro­ma, eit­her neu­tral-grai­ny or with a light­ly cara­mel­ly-toas­ty-tof­fee cha­rac­ter. May have a very light but­te­ry cha­rac­ter (alt­hough this is not requi­red). Hop aro­ma is low ear­thy or flo­ral to none (usual­ly not pre­sent). Qui­te clean.
Fla­vour
Mode­ra­te to very litt­le cara­mel malt fla­vor and sweet­ness, rare­ly with a light but­te­red toast or tof­fee-like qua­li­ty. The pala­te often is fair­ly neu­tral and grai­ny, or can take on a light­ly toas­ty or bis­cui­ty note as it finis­hes with a light tas­te of roas­ted grain, which lends a cha­rac­te­ris­tic dry­ness to the finish. A light ear­thy or flo­ral hop fla­vor is optio­nal. Medi­um to medi­um-low hop bit­ter­ness. Medi­um-dry to dry finish. Clean and smooth. Litt­le to no esters. The balan­ce tends to be slight­ly towards the malt, alt­hough light use of roas­ted grains may incre­a­se the per­cep­ti­on of bit­ter­ness slightly.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body, alt­hough examp­les con­tai­ning low levels of dia­ce­tyl may have a slight­ly slick mouth­feel (not requi­red). Mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth. Moder­ate­ly attenuated.
Over­all Impression
An easy-drin­king pint, often with sub­t­le fla­vors. Slight­ly mal­ty in the balan­ce some­ti­mes with an initi­al soft toffee/caramel sweet­ness, a slight­ly grai­ny-bis­cui­ty pala­te, and a touch of roas­ted dry­ness in the finish. Some ver­si­ons can empha­si­ze the cara­mel and sweet­ness more, while others will favor the grai­ny pala­te and roas­ted dryness.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Gene­ral­ly has a bit of roas­ted bar­ley or black malt to pro­vi­de red­dish color and dry roas­ted finish. Pale base malt. Cara­mel mal­ts were his­to­ri­cal­ly impor­ted and more expen­si­ve, so not all bre­wers would use them. 
Histo­ry
While Ire­land has a long ale brewing heri­ta­ge, the modern Irish Red Ale style is essen­ti­al­ly an adap­t­ati­on or inter­pre­ta­ti­on of the popu­lar Eng­lish Bit­ter style with less hop­ping and a bit of roast to add color and dry­ness. Redis­co­ve­r­ed as a craft beer style in Ire­land, today it is an essen­ti­al part of most bre­we­ry lin­eu­ps, along with a pale ale and a stout.
Comments
Several varia­ti­ons exist wit­hin the style, which cau­ses the gui­de­li­nes to be some­what broad to accom­mo­da­te them. Tra­di­tio­nal Irish examp­les are rela­tively low in hops, are grai­ny with a slight roast dry­ness in the finish, fair­ly neu­tral in gene­ral. Modern export Irish examp­les are more cara­mel­ly and sweet, and might have more esters. Ame­ri­can craft ver­si­ons are often more alco­ho­lic ver­si­ons of the Irish export examp­les. An emer­ging Irish craft beer sce­ne is explo­ring more bit­ter ver­si­ons of tra­di­tio­nal examp­les. Final­ly, the­re are some com­mer­cial examp­les that sound Irish but are essen­ti­al­ly Inter­na­tio­nal Amber Lagers, with sweetish pala­tes and litt­le bit­ter­ness. The­se gui­de­li­nes are writ­ten around the tra­di­tio­nal Irish examp­les, with slight exten­si­ons for export Irish ver­si­ons and modern craft Irish versions.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Caffrey’s Irish Ale, Fran­ciscan Well Rebel Red, Kil­ken­ny Irish Beer, O’Hara’s Irish Red Ale, Por­ter­house Red Ale, Samu­el Adams Irish Red, Smithwick’s Irish Ale
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.036 - 1.046 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.014 SG
Color
9 - 14 SRM
Alco­hol
3.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
18 - 28 IBU
Name
Irish Stout
Cate­go­ry
Irish Beer
BJCP Style Code
15 B
Appearan­ce
Jet black to very deep brown with gar­net high­lights in color. Accord­ing to Guin­ness, “Guin­ness beer may appe­ar black, but it is actual­ly a very dark shade of ruby.” Opa­que. A thick, crea­my, long-las­ting, tan- to brown-colo­red head is cha­rac­te­ris­tic when ser­ved on nitro, but don’t expect the tight, crea­my head on a bot­t­led beer. 
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te cof­fee-like aro­ma typi­cal­ly domi­na­tes; may have slight dark cho­co­la­te, cocoa and/or roas­ted grain secon­da­ry notes. Esters medi­um-low to none. Hop aro­ma low to none, may be light­ly ear­thy or flo­ral, but is typi­cal­ly absent.
Fla­vour
Mode­ra­te roas­ted grain or malt fla­vor with a medi­um to high hop bit­ter­ness. The finish can be dry and cof­fee-like to moder­ate­ly balan­ced with a touch of cara­mel or mal­ty sweet­ness. Typi­cal­ly has cof­fee-like fla­vors, but also may have a bit­ters­weet or uns­wee­te­ned cho­co­la­te cha­rac­ter in the pala­te, las­ting into the finish. Balan­cing fac­tors may inclu­de some crea­m­i­ness, medi­um-low to no frui­ti­ness, and medi­um to no hop fla­vor (often ear­thy). The level of bit­ter­ness is some­what varia­ble, as is the roas­ted cha­rac­ter and the dry­ness of the finish; allow for inter­pre­ta­ti­on by brewers.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um-full body, with a some­what crea­my cha­rac­ter (par­ti­cu­lar­ly when ser­ved with a nitro pour). Low to mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on. For the high hop bit­ter­ness and signi­fi­cant pro­por­ti­on of dark grains pre­sent, this beer is remar­kab­ly smooth. May have a light astrin­gen­cy from the roas­ted grains, alt­hough har­sh­ness is undesirable.
Over­all Impression
A black beer with a pro­noun­ced roas­ted fla­vor, often simi­lar to cof­fee. The balan­ce can ran­ge from fair­ly even to qui­te bit­ter, with the more balan­ced ver­si­ons having a litt­le mal­ty sweet­ness and the bit­ter ver­si­ons being qui­te dry. Drau­ght ver­si­ons typi­cal­ly are crea­my from a nitro pour, but bot­t­led ver­si­ons will not have this dis­pen­se-deri­ved cha­rac­ter. The roas­ted fla­vor can be dry and cof­fee-like to some­what chocolaty. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Guin­ness is made using roas­ted bar­ley, fla­ked bar­ley, and pale malt, but other bre­we­ries don’t necessa­ri­ly use roas­ted bar­ley; they can use cho­co­la­te or other dark and spe­cial­ty mal­ts. Wha­te­ver com­bi­na­ti­on of mal­ts or grains is used, the resul­ting pro­duct should be black. Cork-type stouts are perhaps clo­ser to his­to­ri­cal Lon­don-type stouts in com­po­si­ti­on with a varied grist not domi­na­ted by roas­ted barley.
Histo­ry
The style evol­ved from attempts to capi­ta­li­ze on the suc­cess of Lon­don por­ters, but ori­gi­nal­ly reflec­ted a ful­ler, crea­m­ier, more “stout” body and strength. Guin­ness began brewing only por­ter in 1799, and a “stou­ter kind of por­ter” around 1810. Irish stout diver­ged from Lon­don sin­gle stout (or sim­ply por­ter) in the late 1800s, with an empha­sis on dar­ker mal­ts. Guin­ness was among the first bre­we­ries to use black patent malt for por­ters and stouts in the 1820s. Guin­ness began using roas­ted bar­ley after WWII, while Lon­don bre­wers con­ti­nued to use brown malt. Guin­ness star­ted using fla­ked bar­ley in the 1950s, also incre­a­sing atte­nua­ti­on great­ly. Guin­ness Drau­ght was laun­ched as a brand in 1959. Drau­ght cans and bot­t­les were deve­lo­ped in the late 1980s and 1990s. 
Comments
When a bre­we­ry offe­red a stout and a por­ter, the stout was always the stron­ger beer (it was ori­gi­nal­ly cal­led a “Stout Por­ter”). Modern ver­si­ons are bre­wed from a lower OG and no lon­ger necessa­ri­ly reflect a hig­her strength than por­ters. This is typi­cal­ly a drau­ght pro­duct today; bot­t­led ver­si­ons are typi­cal­ly bre­wed from a hig­her OG and are usual­ly cal­led Extra Stouts. Regio­nal dif­fe­ren­ces exist in Ire­land, simi­lar to varia­bi­li­ty in Eng­lish Bit­ters. Dub­lin-type stouts use roas­ted bar­ley, are more bit­ter, and are dri­er. Cork-type stouts are swee­ter, less bit­ter, and have fla­vors from cho­co­la­te and spe­cial­ty mal­ts. Com­mer­cial examp­les of this style are almost always asso­cia­ted with a nitro pour. Do not expect tra­di­tio­nal bot­t­le-con­di­tio­ned beers to have the full, crea­my tex­tu­re or very long-las­ting head tra­di­tio­nal­ly asso­cia­ted with nitro­gen dispense. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bea­m­ish Irish Stout, Guin­ness Drau­ght, Har­poon Bos­ton Irish Stout, Murphy’s Irish Stout, O’Hara’s Irish Stout, Por­ter­house Wrass­lers 4X
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.036 - 1.044 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.007 - 1.011 SG
Color
25 - 40 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 4.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 45 IBU
Name
Irish Extra Stout
Cate­go­ry
Irish Beer
BJCP Style Code
15 C
Appearan­ce
Jet black. Opa­que. A thick, crea­my, tan head is characteristic. 
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly high cof­fee-like aro­ma, often with slight dark cho­co­la­te, cocoa, bis­cuit, vanil­la and/or roas­ted grain secon­da­ry notes. Esters medi­um-low to none. Hop aro­ma low to none, may be light­ly ear­thy or spi­cy, but is typi­cal­ly absent. Malt and roast domi­na­te the aroma.
Fla­vour
Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly high dark-roas­ted grain or malt fla­vor with a medi­um to medi­um-high hop bit­ter­ness. The finish can be dry and cof­fee-like to moder­ate­ly balan­ced with up to mode­ra­te cara­mel or mal­ty sweet­ness. Typi­cal­ly has roas­ted cof­fee-like fla­vors, but also often has a dark cho­co­la­te cha­rac­ter in the pala­te, las­ting into the finish. Back­ground mocha, bis­cuit, or vanil­la fla­vors are often pre­sent and add com­ple­xi­ty. Medi­um-low to no frui­ti­ness. Medi­um to no hop fla­vor (often ear­thy or spi­cy). The level of bit­ter­ness is some­what varia­ble, as is the roas­ted cha­rac­ter and the dry­ness of the finish; allow for inter­pre­ta­ti­on by brewers.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-full to full body, with a some­what crea­my cha­rac­ter. Mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on. Very smooth. May have a light astrin­gen­cy from the roas­ted grains, alt­hough har­sh­ness is unde­s­i­ra­ble. A slight­ly war­ming cha­rac­ter may be detected.
Over­all Impression
A ful­ler-bodi­ed black beer with a pro­noun­ced roas­ted fla­vor, often simi­lar to cof­fee and dark cho­co­la­te with some mal­ty com­ple­xi­ty. The balan­ce can ran­ge from moder­ate­ly bit­ters­weet to bit­ter, with the more balan­ced ver­si­ons having up to mode­ra­te mal­ty rich­ness and the bit­ter ver­si­ons being qui­te dry.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Simi­lar to Irish Stout.
Histo­ry
Same roots as Irish stout, but as a stron­ger pro­duct. Guin­ness Extra Stout (Extra Supe­ri­or Por­ter, later Dou­ble Stout) was first bre­wed in 1821, and was pri­ma­ri­ly a bot­t­led pro­duct. Descri­bed by Guin­ness as a “more full-bodi­ed beer with a deeper cha­rac­te­ris­tic roas­ted bit­ter­ness and a rich, matu­re tex­tu­re. Of all the types of Guin­ness avail­ab­le today, this is the clo­sest to the por­ter ori­gi­nal­ly bre­wed by Arthur Guin­ness.” Note that in modern times, Guin­ness Extra Stout has dif­fe­rent strengths in dif­fe­rent regi­ons; the Euro­pean ver­si­on is around 4.2% and fits in the Irish Stout style.
Comments
Tra­di­tio­nal­ly a bot­t­led pro­duct. Con­su­mers expect a stout to always have a black color; the fla­vor inten­si­ty from wha­te­ver made it black is what con­su­mers expect in their beer. Not all bre­we­ries make a dry, roas­ty ver­si­on typi­cal of Guin­ness; a more balan­ced and cho­co­la­ty ver­si­on is equal­ly acceptable. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
Guin­ness Extra Stout (US ver­si­on), O’Hara’s Leann Fol­láin, She­af Stout
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.052 - 1.062 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.014 SG
Color
25 - 40 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
35 - 50 IBU
Name
Sweet Stout
Cate­go­ry
Dark Bri­tish Beer
BJCP Style Code
16 A
Appearan­ce
Very dark brown to black in color. Can be opa­que (if not, it should be clear). Crea­my tan to brown head.
Aro­ma
Mild roas­ted grain aro­ma, some­ti­mes with cof­fee and/or cho­co­la­te notes. An impres­si­on of cream-like sweet­ness often exists. Frui­ti­ness can be low to moder­ate­ly high. Dia­ce­tyl low to none. Hop aro­ma low to none, with flo­ral or ear­thy notes.
Fla­vour
Dark roas­ted grain/malt impres­si­on with cof­fee and/or cho­co­la­te fla­vors domi­na­te the pala­te. Hop bit­ter­ness is mode­ra­te. Medi­um to high sweet­ness pro­vi­des a coun­ter­point to the roas­ted cha­rac­ter and hop bit­ter­ness, and lasts into the finish. Low to mode­ra­te frui­ty esters. Dia­ce­tyl low to none. The balan­ce bet­ween dark grains/malts and sweet­ness can vary, from qui­te sweet to moder­ate­ly dry and some­what roasty.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-full to full-bodi­ed and crea­my. Low to mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on. High resi­du­al sweet­ness from unfer­men­ted sug­ars enhan­ces the full-tas­ting mouthfeel.
Over­all Impression
A very dark, sweet, full-bodi­ed, slight­ly roas­ty ale that can sug­gest cof­fee-and-cream, or swee­te­ned espresso.
Typi­cal Ingredients
The sweet­ness in most Sweet Stouts comes from a lower bit­ter­ness level than most other stouts and a high per­cen­ta­ge of unfer­men­ta­ble dex­trins. Lac­to­se, an unfer­men­ta­ble sugar, is fre­quent­ly added to pro­vi­de addi­tio­nal resi­du­al sweet­ness. Base of pale malt, and may use roas­ted bar­ley, black malt, cho­co­la­te malt, crys­tal malt, and adjuncts such as mai­ze or brewing sugars.
Histo­ry
An Eng­lish style of stout deve­lo­ped in the ear­ly 1900s. His­to­ri­cal­ly known as “Milk” or “Cream” stouts, legal­ly this desi­gna­ti­on is no lon­ger per­mit­ted in Eng­land (but is accep­ta­ble else­whe­re). The “milk” name is deri­ved from the use of lac­to­se, or milk sugar, as a swee­te­ner. Ori­gi­nal­ly mar­ke­ted as a tonic for inva­lids and nur­sing mothers.
Comments
Gra­vi­ties are low in Eng­land, hig­her in expor­ted and US pro­ducts. Varia­ti­ons exist, with the level of resi­du­al sweet­ness, the inten­si­ty of the roast cha­rac­ter, and the balan­ce bet­ween the two being the varia­bles most sub­ject to inter­pre­ta­ti­on. Some ver­si­ons in Eng­land are very sweet (low atte­nua­ti­on) and also low in ABV (Tennent’s Swee­the­art Stout is 2%), but is an out­lier com­pa­red to the other examp­les. The­se gui­de­li­nes most­ly descri­be the hig­her gra­vi­ty, more balan­ced, export ver­si­ons rather than the low alco­hol, very sweet ver­si­ons that many find qui­te dif­fi­cult to drink.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bris­tol Beer Fac­to­ry Milk Stout, Left Hand Milk Stout, Lan­cas­ter Milk Stout, Mackeson’s XXX Stout, Marston’s Oys­ter Stout, Samu­el Adams Cream Stout
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.012 - 1.024 SG
Color
30 - 40 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 40 IBU
Name
Oat­me­al Stout
Cate­go­ry
Dark Bri­tish Beer
BJCP Style Code
16 B
Appearan­ce
Medi­um brown to black in color. Thick, crea­my, per­sis­tent tan- to brown-colo­red head. Can be opa­que (if not, it should be clear).
Aro­ma
Mild roas­ted grain aro­mas, gene­ral­ly with a cof­fee-like cha­rac­ter. A light mal­ty sweet­ness can sug­gest a cof­fee-and-cream impres­si­on. Frui­ti­ness should be low to medi­um-high. Dia­ce­tyl medi­um-low to none. Hop aro­ma medi­um-low to none, ear­thy or flo­ral. A light grai­ny-nut­ty oat­me­al aro­ma is optional.
Fla­vour
Simi­lar to the aro­ma, with a mild roas­ted cof­fee to cof­fee-and-cream fla­vor, and low to moder­ate­ly-high frui­ti­ness. Oats and dark roas­ted grains pro­vi­de some fla­vor com­ple­xi­ty; the oats can add a nut­ty, grai­ny or ear­thy fla­vor. Dark grains can com­bi­ne with malt sweet­ness to give the impres­si­on of milk cho­co­la­te or cof­fee with cream. Medi­um hop bit­ter­ness with the balan­ce toward malt. Medi­um-sweet to medi­um-dry finish. Dia­ce­tyl medi­um-low to none. Hop fla­vor medi­um-low to none, typi­cal­ly ear­thy or floral.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-full to full body, with a smooth, sil­ky, vel­ve­ty, some­ti­mes an almost oily slick­ness from the oat­me­al. Crea­my. Medi­um to medi­um-high carbonation. 
Over­all Impression
A very dark, full-bodi­ed, roas­ty, mal­ty ale with a com­ple­men­ta­ry oat­me­al fla­vor. The sweet­ness, balan­ce, and oat­me­al impres­si­on can vary considerably.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pale, cara­mel and dark roas­ted mal­ts (often cho­co­la­te) and grains. Oat­me­al or mal­ted oats (5-20% or more) used to enhan­ce full­ness of body and com­ple­xi­ty of fla­vor. Hops pri­ma­ri­ly for bit­te­ring. Can use brewing sug­ars or syrups. Eng­lish ale yeast.
Histo­ry
A vari­ant of nou­ris­hing or inva­lid stouts of the late 1800s using oat­me­al in the grist, simi­lar to the deve­lo­p­ment of sweet stout that used lac­to­se. An ori­gi­nal Scot­tish ver­si­on used a signi­fi­cant amount of oat malt. Later went through a shady pha­se whe­re some Eng­lish bre­wers would throw a hand­ful of oats into their par­ti-gyled stouts in order to legal­ly pro­du­ce a ‘healt­hy’ Oat­me­al Stout for mar­ke­ting pur­po­ses. Most popu­lar in Eng­land bet­ween the World Wars, was revi­ved in the craft beer era for export, which hel­ped lead to its adop­ti­on as a popu­lar modern Ame­ri­can craft beer style that uses a noti­ce­ab­le (not sym­bo­lic) quan­ti­ty of oats.
Comments
Gene­ral­ly bet­ween Sweet and Irish Stouts in sweet­ness. Varia­ti­ons exist, from fair­ly sweet to qui­te dry, as well as Eng­lish and Ame­ri­can ver­si­ons (Ame­ri­can ver­si­ons tend to be more hop­py, less sweet, and less frui­ty). The level of bit­ter­ness also varies, as does the oat­me­al impres­si­on. Light use of oat­me­al may give a cer­tain sil­ki­ness of body and rich­ness of fla­vor, while hea­vy use of oat­me­al can be fair­ly inten­se in fla­vor with an almost oily mouth­feel, dryish finish, and slight grai­ny astrin­gen­cy. When jud­ging, allow for dif­fe­ren­ces in interpretation.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Ander­son Val­ley Bar­ney Flats Oat­me­al Stout, Broughton Scot­tish Oat­me­al Stout, Figuer­oa Moun­tain Sta­ge­coach Stout, St-Ambroi­se Oat­me­al Stout, Samu­el Smith Oat­me­al Stout, Young’s Oat­me­al Stout
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.045 - 1.065 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.018 SG
Color
22 - 40 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 40 IBU
Name
Tro­pi­cal Stout
Cate­go­ry
Dark Bri­tish Beer
BJCP Style Code
16 C
Appearan­ce
Very deep brown to black in color. Cla­ri­ty usual­ly obscu­red by deep color (if not opa­que, should be clear). Lar­ge tan to brown head with good retention.
Aro­ma
Sweet­ness evi­dent, mode­ra­te to high inten­si­ty. Roas­ted grain aro­mas mode­ra­te to high, and can have cof­fee or cho­co­la­te notes. Frui­ti­ness medi­um to high. May have a molas­ses, lico­ri­ce, dried fruit, and/or vin­ous aro­ma­tics. Stron­ger ver­si­ons can have a sub­t­le clean aro­ma of alco­hol. Hop aro­ma low to none. Dia­ce­tyl low to none.
Fla­vour
Qui­te sweet with a smooth dark grain fla­vors, and restrai­ned bit­ter­ness. Roas­ted grain and malt cha­rac­ter can be mode­ra­te to high with a smooth cof­fee or cho­co­la­te fla­vor, alt­hough the roast cha­rac­ter is mode­ra­ted in the balan­ce by the sweet finish. Mode­ra­te to high frui­ty esters. Can have a sweet, dark rum-like qua­li­ty. Litt­le to no hop fla­vor. Medi­um-low to no diacetyl.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-full to full body, often with a smooth, crea­my cha­rac­ter. May give a war­ming (but never hot) impres­si­on from alco­hol pre­sence. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-high carbonation.
Over­all Impression
A very dark, sweet, frui­ty, moder­ate­ly strong ale with smooth roas­ty fla­vors without a burnt harshness.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Simi­lar to a sweet stout, but with more gra­vi­ty. Pale and dark roas­ted mal­ts and grains. Hops most­ly for bit­ter­ness. May use adjuncts and sugar to boost gra­vi­ty. Typi­cal­ly made with warm-fer­men­ted lager yeast.
Histo­ry
Ori­gi­nal­ly high-gra­vi­ty stouts bre­wed for tro­pi­cal mar­kets, beca­me popu­lar and imi­ta­ted by local bre­wers often using local sug­ars and ingredients.
Comments
Sweet­ness levels can vary signi­fi­cant­ly. Sur­pri­sin­gly refres­hing in a hot climate.
Com­mer­cial Examples
ABC Extra Stout, Dra­gon Stout, Jamai­ca Stout, Lion Stout, Roy­al Extra Stout
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.056 - 1.075 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.018 SG
Color
30 - 40 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 8.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
30 - 50 IBU
Name
For­eign Extra Stout
Cate­go­ry
Dark Bri­tish Beer
BJCP Style Code
16 D
Appearan­ce
Very deep brown to black in color. Cla­ri­ty usual­ly obscu­red by deep color (if not opa­que, should be clear). Lar­ge tan to brown head with good retention.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te to high roas­ted grain aro­mas, often with cof­fee, cho­co­la­te and/or light­ly burnt notes. Low to medi­um frui­ti­ness. May have a sweet aro­ma, or molas­ses, lico­ri­ce, dried fruit, and/or vin­ous aro­ma­tics. Stron­ger ver­si­ons can have a sub­t­le, clean aro­ma of alco­hol. Hop aro­ma moder­ate­ly low to none, can be ear­thy, her­bal or flo­ral. Dia­ce­tyl low to none.
Fla­vour
Mode­ra­te to high roas­ted grain and malt fla­vor with a cof­fee, cho­co­la­te, or light­ly burnt grain cha­rac­ter, alt­hough without a sharp bite. Moder­ate­ly dry. Low to medi­um esters. Medi­um to high bit­ter­ness. Mode­ra­te to no hop fla­vor, can be ear­thy, her­bal, or flo­ral. Dia­ce­tyl medi­um-low to none.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-full to full body, often with a smooth, some­ti­mes crea­my cha­rac­ter. May give a war­ming (but never hot) impres­si­on from alco­hol pre­sence. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-high carbonation.
Over­all Impression
A very dark, moder­ate­ly strong, fair­ly dry, stout with pro­mi­nent roast flavors.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pale and dark roas­ted mal­ts and grains, his­to­ri­cal­ly also could have used brown and amber mal­ts. Hops most­ly for bit­ter­ness, typi­cal­ly Eng­lish varie­ties. May use adjuncts and sugar to boost gravity.
Histo­ry
Stron­ger stouts bre­wed for the export mar­ket today, but with a histo­ry stret­ching back to the 18th and 19th cen­tu­ries when they were more hea­vi­ly-hop­ped ver­si­ons of stron­ger export stouts. Guin­ness For­eign Extra Stout (ori­gi­nal­ly, West India Por­ter, later For­eign Extra Dou­ble Stout) was first bre­wed in 1801 accord­ing to Guin­ness with “extra hops to give it a dis­tinc­ti­ve tas­te and a lon­ger shelf life in hot wea­ther, this is bre­wed [today] in Afri­ca, Asia and the Carib­be­an. It [cur­r­ent­ly] makes up 40% of all the Guin­ness bre­wed around the world.” 
Comments
Also known as For­eign Stout, Export Stout, For­eign Export Stout. His­to­ric ver­si­ons (befo­re WWI, at least) had the same OG as domestic Extra Stouts, but had a hig­her ABV becau­se it had a long secon­da­ry with Brett­ano­my­ces chewing away at it. The dif­fe­rence bet­ween domestic and for­eign ver­si­ons were the hop­ping and length of maturation. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
Coo­pers Best Extra Stout, Guin­ness For­eign Extra Stout, The Ker­nel Export Stout, Rid­ge­way For­eign Export Stout, Sou­thwark Old Stout
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.056 - 1.075 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.018 SG
Color
30 - 40 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 8.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
50 - 70 IBU
Name
Bri­tish Strong Ale
Cate­go­ry
Strong Bri­tish Ale
BJCP Style Code
17 A
Appearan­ce
Deep gold to dark red­dish-brown color (many are fair­ly dark). Gene­ral­ly clear, alt­hough dar­ker ver­si­ons may be almost opa­que. Mode­ra­te to low cream- to light tan-colo­red head; average retention.
Aro­ma
Mal­ty-sweet with frui­ty esters, often with a com­plex blend of dried-fruit, cara­mel, nuts, tof­fee, and/or other spe­cial­ty malt aro­mas. Some alco­hol notes are accep­ta­ble, but shouldn’t be hot or sol­ven­ty. Hop aro­mas can vary wide­ly, but typi­cal­ly have ear­thy, resi­ny, frui­ty, and/or flo­ral notes. The balan­ce can vary wide­ly, but most examp­les will have a blend of malt, fruit, hops, and alco­hol in vary­ing intensities.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to high malt cha­rac­ter often rich with nut­ty, tof­fee, or cara­mel fla­vors. Light cho­co­la­te notes are some­ti­mes found in dar­ker beers. May have inte­res­ting fla­vor com­ple­xi­ty from brewing sug­ars. Balan­ce is often mal­ty, but may be well hop­ped, which affects the impres­si­on of mal­ti­ness. Mode­ra­te frui­ty esters are com­mon, often with a dark fruit or dried fruit cha­rac­ter. The finish may vary from medi­um dry to some­what sweet. Alco­ho­lic strength should be evi­dent, though not over­whel­ming. Dia­ce­tyl low to none, and is gene­ral­ly not desirable. 
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to full, che­wy body. Alco­hol warm­th is often evi­dent and always wel­co­me. Low to mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth texture.
Over­all Impression
An ale of respec­ta­ble alco­ho­lic strength, tra­di­tio­nal­ly bot­t­led-con­di­tio­ned and cel­la­red. Can have a wide ran­ge of inter­pre­ta­ti­ons, but most will have vary­ing degrees of mal­ty rich­ness, late hops and bit­ter­ness, frui­ty esters, and alco­hol warm­th. Jud­ges should allow for a signi­fi­cant ran­ge in cha­rac­ter, as long as the beer is wit­hin the alco­hol strength ran­ge and has an inte­res­ting ‘Bri­tish’ cha­rac­ter, it likely fits the style. The malt and adjunct fla­vors and inten­si­ty can vary wide­ly, but any com­bi­na­ti­on should result in an agree­ab­le pala­te experience.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Grists vary, often based on pale malt with cara­mel and spe­cial­ty mal­ts. Some dar­ker examp­les sug­gest that dark mal­ts (e.g., cho­co­la­te, black malt) may be appro­pria­te, though spa­rin­gly so as to avoid an over­ly roas­ted cha­rac­ter. Suga­ry adjuncts are com­mon, as are star­chy adjuncts (mai­ze, fla­ked bar­ley, wheat). Finis­hing hops are tra­di­tio­nal­ly English. 
Histo­ry
The heri­ta­ge varies sin­ce this cate­go­ry gene­ral­ly reflects a grou­ping of unre­la­ted minor styles with limi­ted pro­duc­tion. Some are his­to­ri­cal recrea­ti­ons while others are modern. Some direct­ly descend from older styles such as Bur­ton ales, while others main­tain a his­to­ri­cal con­nec­tion with older beers. As a grou­ping, the noti­on is rela­tively modern sin­ce beers of this strength cate­go­ry would not have been abnor­mal in past cen­tu­ries. Do not use this cate­go­ry grou­ping to infer his­to­ri­cal rela­ti­ons­hips bet­ween examp­les; this is almost a modern Bri­tish spe­cial­ty cate­go­ry whe­re the ‘spe­cial’ attri­bu­te is alco­hol level. 
Comments
As an ent­ry cate­go­ry more than a style, the strength and cha­rac­ter of examp­les can vary wide­ly. Fits in the style space bet­ween nor­mal gra­vi­ty beers (strong bit­ters, brown ales, Eng­lish por­ters) and bar­ley­wi­nes. Can inclu­de pale mal­ty-hop­py beers, Eng­lish win­ter war­mers, strong dark milds, smal­ler Bur­ton ales, and other uni­que beers in the gene­ral gra­vi­ty ran­ge that don’t fit other cate­go­ries. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly a bot­t­le-con­di­tio­ned pro­duct sui­ta­ble for cellaring.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Fuller’s 1845, Harvey’s Eliza­be­than Ale, J.W. Lees Man­ches­ter Star, Samu­el Smith’s Win­ter Wel­co­me, Young’s Win­ter Warmer
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.055 - 1.080 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.015 - 1.022 SG
Color
8 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 8.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
30 - 60 IBU
Name
Old Ale
Cate­go­ry
Strong Bri­tish Ale
BJCP Style Code
17 B
Appearan­ce
Light amber to very dark red­dish-brown color (most are fair­ly dark). Age and oxi­da­ti­on may dar­ken the beer fur­ther. May be almost opa­que (if not, should be clear). Mode­ra­te to low cream- to light tan-colo­red head; may be adver­se­ly affec­ted by alco­hol and age.
Aro­ma
Mal­ty-sweet with frui­ty esters, often with a com­plex blend of dried-fruit, vin­ous, cara­mel­ly, molas­ses, nut­ty, tof­fee, light treacle, and/or other spe­cial­ty malt aro­mas. Some alco­hol and oxi­da­ti­ve notes are accep­ta­ble, akin to tho­se found in Sher­ry or Port. Hop aro­mas not usual­ly pre­sent due to exten­ded aging.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to high malt cha­rac­ter with a luscious malt com­ple­xi­ty, often with nut­ty, cara­mel­ly and/or molas­ses-like fla­vors. Light cho­co­la­te or roas­ted malt fla­vors are optio­nal, but should never be pro­mi­nent. Balan­ce is often mal­ty-sweet, but may be well hop­ped (the impres­si­on of bit­ter­ness often depends on amount of aging). Mode­ra­te to high frui­ty esters are com­mon, and may take on a dried-fruit or vin­ous cha­rac­ter. The finish may vary from dry to some­what sweet. Exten­ded aging may con­tri­bu­te oxi­da­ti­ve fla­vors simi­lar to a fine old Sher­ry, Port or Madei­ra. Alco­ho­lic strength should be evi­dent, though not over­whel­ming. Dia­ce­tyl low to none. Some wood-aged or blen­ded ver­si­ons may have a lac­tic or Brett­ano­my­ces cha­rac­ter; but this is optio­nal and should not be too strong. Any aci­di­ty or tan­nin from age should be well-inte­gra­ted and con­tri­bu­te to com­ple­xi­ty in the fla­vor pro­fi­le, not be a domi­nant experience.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to full, che­wy body, alt­hough older examp­les may be lower in body due to con­ti­nued atte­nua­ti­on during con­di­tio­ning. Alco­hol warm­th is often evi­dent and always wel­co­me. Low to mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on, depen­ding on age and con­di­tio­ning. Light aci­di­ty may be pre­sent, as well as some tan­nin if wood-aged; both are optional.
Over­all Impression
An ale of mode­ra­te to fair­ly signi­fi­cant alco­ho­lic strength, big­ger than stan­dard beers, though usual­ly not as strong or rich as bar­ley­wi­ne. Often til­ted towards a mal­tier balan­ce. “It should be a war­ming beer of the type that is best drunk in half pints by a warm fire on a cold winter’s night” – Micha­el Jackson.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Com­po­si­ti­on varies, alt­hough gene­ral­ly simi­lar to Bri­tish Strong Ales. The age cha­rac­ter is the big­gest dri­ver of the final style pro­fi­le, which is more hand­ling than brewing. May be aged in wood, but should not have a strong wood character.
Histo­ry
His­to­ri­cal­ly, an aged ale used as stock ales for blen­ding or enjoy­ed at full strength (sta­le or stock refers to beers that were aged or stored for a signi­fi­cant peri­od of time). The­re are at least two defi­ni­te types in Bri­tain today, wea­ker drau­ght ones that are simi­lar aged milds of around 4.5%, and stron­ger ones that are often 6-8% or more.
Comments
Strength and cha­rac­ter varies wide­ly. The pre­do­mi­nant defi­ning qua­li­ty for this style is the impres­si­on of age, which can mani­fest its­elf in dif­fe­rent ways (com­ple­xi­ty, lac­tic, Brett, oxi­da­ti­on, lea­ther, vin­ous qua­li­ties, etc.). Even if the­se qua­li­ties are other­wi­se faults, if the resul­ting cha­rac­ter of the beer is still plea­s­ant­ly drin­ka­ble and com­plex, then tho­se cha­rac­te­ris­tics are accep­ta­ble. In no way should tho­se allo­wa­ble cha­rac­te­ris­tics be inter­pre­ted as making an und­rin­ka­b­ly off beer as somehow in style. Old Pecu­lier is a fair­ly uni­que type of beer that is qui­te dif­fe­rent than other Old Ales.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bur­ton Bridge Olde Expen­si­ve, Gale’s Pri­ze Old Ale, Gree­ne King Strong Suf­folk Ale, Mars­ton Owd Roger, Theaks­ton Old Peculier
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.055 - 1.088 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.015 - 1.022 SG
Color
10 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 9.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
30 - 60 IBU
Name
Wee Hea­vy
Cate­go­ry
Strong Bri­tish Ale
BJCP Style Code
17 C
Appearan­ce
Light cop­per to dark brown color, often with deep ruby high­lights. Clear. Usual­ly has a lar­ge tan head, which may not per­sist. Legs may be evi­dent in stron­ger versions.
Aro­ma
Deeply mal­ty, with a strong cara­mel com­po­nent. Light­ly smo­ky secon­da­ry aro­mas may also be pre­sent, adding com­ple­xi­ty; peat smo­ke is inap­pro­pria­te. Dia­ce­tyl should be low to none. Low to mode­ra­te esters and alco­hol are often pre­sent in stron­ger ver­si­ons. Hops are very low to none, and can be slight­ly ear­thy or floral.
Fla­vour
Rich­ly mal­ty with signi­fi­cant cara­mel (par­ti­cu­lar­ly in stron­ger ver­si­ons). Hints of roas­ted malt may be pre­sent (some­ti­mes per­cei­ved as a faint smo­ke cha­rac­ter), as may some nut­ty cha­rac­ter, all of which may last into the finish. Peat smo­ke is inap­pro­pria­te. Hop fla­vors and bit­ter­ness are low to medi­um-low, so the malt pre­sence should domi­na­te the balan­ce. Dia­ce­tyl should be low to none. Low to mode­ra­te esters and alco­hol are usual­ly pre­sent. Esters may sug­gest plums, raisins or dried fruit. The pala­te is usual­ly full and sweet, but the finish may be sweet to medi­um-dry, some­ti­mes with a light roas­ty-grai­ny note.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-full to full-bodi­ed, with some ver­si­ons (but not all) having a thick, che­wy vis­co­si­ty. A smooth, alco­ho­lic warm­th is usual­ly pre­sent and is qui­te wel­co­me sin­ce it balan­ces the mal­ty sweet­ness. Mode­ra­te carbonation.
Over­all Impression
Rich, mal­ty, dex­tri­no­us, and usual­ly cara­mel-sweet, the­se beers can give an impres­si­on that is sug­ges­ti­ve of a des­sert. Com­plex secon­da­ry malt and alco­hol fla­vors pre­vent a one-dimen­sio­nal qua­li­ty. Strength and mal­ti­ness can vary, but should not be cloy­ing or syrupy.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Well-modi­fied pale malt, with roas­ted bar­ley for color. May use some crys­tal malt for color adjus­t­ment. Slight smo­ke cha­rac­ter may be pre­sent in some ver­si­ons, but deri­ves from roas­ted grains or from the boil. Peated malt is abso­lute­ly not traditional.
Histo­ry
More rela­ted to his­to­ri­cal brews than modern lower-strength Scot­tish ales, the­se beers have their roots in the strong ales of the 1700s and 1800s, alt­hough for­mu­la­ti­ons and methods have chan­ged. A pre­mi­um pro­duct, often pro­du­ced for export. Modern ver­si­ons have lower star­ting and finis­hing gra­vi­ties than their his­to­ri­cal ancestors.
Comments
Also known as “strong Scotch ale.” The term “wee hea­vy” means “small strong” and traces to the beer that made the term famous, Fowler’s Wee Hea­vy, a 12 Gui­nea Ale. His­to­ri­cal­ly, the stron­gest beer from a Scot­tish ale parti-gyle.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bel­ha­ven Wee Hea­vy, Gor­don High­land Scotch Ale, Inver­al­mond Black­fri­ar, McEwan’s Scotch Ale, Ork­ney Skull Split­ter, Traquair House Ale
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.070 - 1.130 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.018 - 1.040 SG
Color
14 - 25 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 10.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
17 - 35 IBU
Name
Eng­lish Barleywine
Cate­go­ry
Strong Bri­tish Ale
BJCP Style Code
17 D
Appearan­ce
Color may ran­ge from rich gold to very dark amber or even dark brown (often has ruby high­lights, but should not be opa­que). Low to mode­ra­te off-white head; may have low head reten­ti­on. May be clou­dy with chill haze at coo­ler tem­pe­ra­tures, but gene­ral­ly clears to good to bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty as it warms. The color may appe­ar to have gre­at depth, as if view­ed through a thick glass lens. High alco­hol and vis­co­si­ty may be visi­ble in “legs” when beer is swir­led in a glass.
Aro­ma
Very rich and stron­gly mal­ty, often with a cara­mel-like aro­ma in dar­ker ver­si­ons or a light tof­fee cha­rac­ter in paler ver­si­ons. May have mode­ra­te to strong frui­ti­ness, often with a dark- or dried-fruit cha­rac­ter, par­ti­cu­lar­ly in dark ver­si­ons. The hop aro­ma may ran­ge from mild to asser­ti­ve, and is typi­cal­ly flo­ral, ear­thy, or mar­mala­de-like. Alco­hol aro­ma­tics may be low to mode­ra­te, but are soft and roun­ded. The inten­si­ty of the­se aro­ma­tics often sub­si­des with age. The aro­ma may have a rich cha­rac­ter inclu­ding brea­dy, toas­ty, tof­fee, and/or molas­ses notes. Aged ver­si­ons may have a sher­ry-like qua­li­ty, pos­si­b­ly vin­ous or port-like aro­ma­tics, and gene­ral­ly more mut­ed malt aromas.
Fla­vour
Strong, inten­se, com­plex, mul­ti-laye­red malt fla­vors ran­ging from brea­dy, tof­fee, and bis­cui­ty in paler ver­si­ons through nut­ty, deep toast, dark cara­mel, and/or molas­ses in dar­ker ver­si­ons. Mode­ra­te to high mal­ty sweet­ness on the pala­te, alt­hough the finish may be moder­ate­ly sweet to moder­ate­ly dry (depen­ding on aging). Some oxi­da­ti­ve or vin­ous fla­vors may be pre­sent, and often com­plex alco­hol fla­vors should be evi­dent. Mode­ra­te to fair­ly high frui­ti­ness, often with a dark- or dried-fruit cha­rac­ter. Hop bit­ter­ness may ran­ge from just enough for balan­ce to a firm pre­sence; balan­ce the­re­fo­re ran­ges from mal­ty to some­what bit­ter. Pale ver­si­ons are often more bit­ter, bet­ter atte­nua­ted, and might show more hop cha­rac­ter than dar­ker ver­si­ons; howe­ver, all ver­si­ons are mal­ty in the balan­ce. Low to moder­ate­ly high hop fla­vor, often flo­ral, ear­thy, or mar­mala­de-like Eng­lish varieties.
Mouth­feel
Full-bodi­ed and che­wy, with a vel­ve­ty, luscious tex­tu­re (alt­hough the body may decli­ne with long con­di­tio­ning). A smooth warm­th from aged alco­hol should be pre­sent. Car­bo­na­ti­on may be low to mode­ra­te, depen­ding on age and conditioning.
Over­all Impression
A show­ca­se of mal­ty rich­ness and com­plex, inten­se fla­vors. Che­wy and rich in body, with war­ming alco­hol and a plea­sant frui­ty or hop­py inte­rest. When aged, it can take on port-like fla­vors. A win­ter­ti­me sipper.
Typi­cal Ingredients
High-qua­li­ty, well-modi­fied pale malt should form the back­bone of the grist, with judi­cious amounts of cara­mel mal­ts. Dark mal­ts should be used with gre­at restraint, if at all, as most of the color ari­ses from a leng­thy boil. Eng­lish hops such as Nor­th­down, Tar­get, East Kent Gol­dings and Fug­gles are typi­cal. Cha­rac­ter­ful Bri­tish yeast.
Histo­ry
Strong ales of various for­mu­la­ti­ons have long been bre­wed in Eng­land, and were known by several names. The modern bar­ley­wi­ne traces back to Bass No. 1, which was first cal­led a bar­ley­wi­ne in 1872. Bar­ley­wi­nes were dar­ker beers until Tennant (now Whit­bread) first pro­du­ced Gold Label, a gold-colo­red bar­ley­wi­ne in 1951. Usual­ly the stron­gest ale offe­red by a bre­we­ry, and in recent years many com­mer­cial examp­les are now vin­ta­ge-dated and offe­red as a limi­ted-release win­ter sea­so­nal spe­cial­ty. The ori­gi­nal bar­ley­wi­ne style that inspi­red deri­va­ti­ve varia­ti­ons in Bel­gi­um, the United Sta­tes, and else­whe­re in the world.
Comments
The richest and stron­gest of modern Eng­lish Ales. The cha­rac­ter of the­se ales can chan­ge signi­fi­cant­ly over time; both young and old ver­si­ons should be appre­cia­ted for what they are. The malt pro­fi­le can vary wide­ly; not all examp­les will have all pos­si­ble fla­vors or aro­mas. Paler varie­ties won’t have the cara­mel and richer malt fla­vors, nor will they typi­cal­ly have the dar­ker dried fruits – don’t expect fla­vors and aro­ma­tics that are impos­si­ble from a beer of that color. Typi­cal­ly writ­ten as “Bar­ley Wine” in the UK, and “Bar­ley­wi­ne” in the US.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Adnams Tal­ly-Ho, Bur­ton Bridge Tho­mas Sykes Old Ale, Conis­ton No. 9 Bar­ley Wine, Fuller’s Gol­den Pri­de, J.W. Lee’s Vin­ta­ge Har­vest Ale, Robinson’s Old Tom
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.080 - 1.120 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.018 - 1.030 SG
Color
8 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
8.0 - 12.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
35 - 70 IBU
Name
Blon­de Ale
Cate­go­ry
Pale Ame­ri­can Ale
BJCP Style Code
18 A
Appearan­ce
Light yel­low to deep gold in color. Clear to bril­li­ant. Low to medi­um white head with fair to good retention.
Aro­ma
Light to mode­ra­te sweet mal­ty aro­ma, pos­si­b­ly with a light brea­dy or cara­mel­ly note. Low to mode­ra­te frui­ti­ness is optio­nal, but accep­ta­ble. May have a low to medi­um hop aro­ma, and can reflect almost any hop varie­ty alt­hough citru­sy, flo­ral, frui­ty, and spi­cy notes are common.
Fla­vour
Initi­al soft mal­ty sweet­ness, but optio­nal­ly some light cha­rac­ter malt fla­vor (e.g., bread, toast, bis­cuit, wheat) can also be pre­sent. Cara­mel fla­vors typi­cal­ly absent; if pre­sent, they are typi­cal­ly low-color cara­mel notes. Low to medi­um frui­ty esters optio­nal, but are wel­co­me. Light to mode­ra­te hop fla­vor (any varie­ty), but shouldn’t be over­ly aggres­si­ve. Medi­um-low to medi­um bit­ter­ness, but the balan­ce is nor­mal­ly towards the malt or even bet­ween malt and hops. Finis­hes medi­um-dry to slight­ly mal­ty-sweet; impres­si­on of sweet­ness is often an expres­si­on of lower bit­ter­ness than actu­al resi­du­al sweetness.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body. Medi­um to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth without being heavy.
Over­all Impression
Easy-drin­king, approach­a­ble, malt-ori­en­ted Ame­ri­can craft beer, often with inte­res­ting fruit, hop, or cha­rac­ter malt notes. Well-balan­ced and clean, is a refres­hing pint without aggres­si­ve flavors.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Gene­ral­ly all malt, but can inclu­de up to 25% wheat malt and some sugar adjuncts. Any hop varie­ty can be used. Clean Ame­ri­can, light­ly frui­ty Eng­lish, or Kölsch yeast. May also be made with lager yeast, or cold-con­di­tio­ned. Some ver­si­ons may have honey, spi­ces and/or fruit added, alt­hough if any of the­se ingre­dients are stron­ger than a back­ground fla­vor they should be ent­e­red in tho­se spe­cial­ty cate­go­ries instead. 
Histo­ry
An Ame­ri­can craft beer style pro­du­ced by many microbre­we­ries and brew­pubs, par­ti­cu­lar­ly tho­se who can­not pro­du­ce lagers. Regio­nal varia­ti­ons exist (many US West Coast brew­pub examp­les are more asser­ti­ve, like pale ales) but in most are­as this beer is desi­gned as the least chal­len­ging beer in their lineup.
Comments
Brew­pub alter­na­ti­ve to stan­dard Ame­ri­can lagers, typi­cal­ly offe­red as an ent­ry-level craft beer.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Kona Big Wave Gol­den Ale, Peli­can Kiwan­da Cream Ale, Rus­si­an River Aud Blon­de, Vic­to­ry Sum­mer Love, Wid­mer Citra Sum­mer Blon­de Brew
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.038 - 1.054 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.013 SG
Color
3 - 6 SRM
Alco­hol
3.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
15 - 28 IBU
Name
Ame­ri­can Pale Ale
Cate­go­ry
Pale Ame­ri­can Ale
BJCP Style Code
18 B
Appearan­ce
Pale gol­den to light amber. Moder­ate­ly lar­ge white to off-white head with good reten­ti­on. Gene­ral­ly qui­te clear, alt­hough dry-hop­ped ver­si­ons may be slight­ly hazy.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te to strong hop aro­ma from Ame­ri­can or New World hop varie­ties with a wide ran­ge of pos­si­ble cha­rac­te­ris­tics, inclu­ding citrus, flo­ral, pine, resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, or melon. None of the­se spe­ci­fic cha­rac­te­ris­tics are requi­red, but hops should be appa­rent. Low to mode­ra­te mal­ti­ness sup­ports the hop pre­sen­ta­ti­on, and may optio­nal­ly show small amounts of spe­cial­ty malt cha­rac­ter (brea­dy, toas­ty, bis­cuit, cara­mel­ly). Frui­ty esters vary from mode­ra­te to none. Dry hop­ping (if used) may add gras­sy notes, alt­hough this cha­rac­ter should not be excessive.
Fla­vour
Mode­ra­te to high hop fla­vor, typi­cal­ly showing an Ame­ri­can or New World hop cha­rac­ter (citrus, flo­ral, pine, resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, melon, etc.). Low to mode­ra­te clean grai­ny-malt cha­rac­ter sup­ports the hop pre­sen­ta­ti­on, and may optio­nal­ly show small amounts of spe­cial­ty malt cha­rac­ter (brea­dy, toas­ty, bis­cui­ty). The balan­ce is typi­cal­ly towards the late hops and bit­ter­ness, but the malt pre­sence should be sup­por­ti­ve, not dis­trac­ting. Cara­mel fla­vors are often absent or fair­ly restrai­ned (but are accep­ta­ble as long as they don’t clash with the hops). Frui­ty yeast esters can be mode­ra­te to none, alt­hough many hop varie­ties are qui­te frui­ty. Mode­ra­te to high hop bit­ter­ness with a medi­um to dry finish. Hop fla­vor and bit­ter­ness often lin­gers into the finish, but the after­tas­te should gene­ral­ly be clean and not har­sh. Dry hop­ping (if used) may add gras­sy notes, alt­hough this cha­rac­ter should not be excessive.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body. Mode­ra­te to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Over­all smooth finish without astrin­gen­cy and harshness.
Over­all Impression
A pale, refres­hing and hop­py ale, yet with suf­fi­ci­ent sup­por­ting malt to make the beer balan­ced and drin­ka­ble. The clean hop pre­sence can reflect clas­sic or modern Ame­ri­can or New World hop varie­ties with a wide ran­ge of cha­rac­te­ris­tics. An average-strength hop-for­ward pale Ame­ri­can craft beer, gene­ral­ly balan­ced to be more acces­si­ble than modern Ame­ri­can IPAs.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pale ale malt, typi­cal­ly North Ame­ri­can two-row. Ame­ri­can or New World hops, with a wide ran­ge of allo­wa­ble cha­rac­te­ris­tics. Ame­ri­can or Eng­lish ale yeast (neu­tral to light­ly frui­ty). Spe­cial­ty grains may add cha­rac­ter and com­ple­xi­ty, but gene­ral­ly make up a rela­tively small por­ti­on of the grist. Grains that add malt fla­vor and rich­ness, light sweet­ness, and toas­ty or brea­dy notes are often used (along with late hops) to dif­fe­ren­tia­te brands.
Histo­ry
A modern Ame­ri­can craft beer era adap­t­ati­on of Eng­lish pale ale, reflec­ting indi­ge­nous ingre­dients (hops, malt, yeast, and water). Pri­or to the explo­si­on in popu­la­ri­ty of IPAs, was tra­di­tio­nal­ly the most well-known and popu­lar of Ame­ri­can craft beers.
Comments
New hop varie­ties and usa­ge methods con­ti­nue to be deve­lo­ped. Jud­ges should allow for cha­rac­te­ris­tics of modern hops in this style, as well as clas­sic varie­ties. Beco­m­ing more of an inter­na­tio­nal craft style, with local adap­t­ati­ons appearing in many coun­tries with an emer­ging craft beer mar­ket. Hop­ping styles can vary from the clas­sic lar­ge bit­ter­ness addi­ti­on, to more modern late hop-bur­sted examp­les; all varia­ti­ons are allowable.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bal­last Point Gruni­on Pale Ale, Fire­stone Wal­ker Pale 31, Gre­at Lakes Bur­ning River, Sier­ra Neva­da Pale Ale, Stone Pale Ale, Trö­egs Pale Ale
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.045 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.015 SG
Color
5 - 10 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
30 - 50 IBU
Name
Ame­ri­can Amber Ale
Cate­go­ry
Amber and Brown Ame­ri­can Beer
BJCP Style Code
19 A
Appearan­ce
Amber to cop­pe­ry-brown in color. Moder­ate­ly lar­ge off-white head with good reten­ti­on. Gene­ral­ly qui­te clear, alt­hough dry-hop­ped ver­si­ons may be slight­ly hazy.
Aro­ma
Low to mode­ra­te hop aro­ma with cha­rac­te­ris­tics typi­cal of Ame­ri­can or New World hop varie­ties (citrus, flo­ral, pine, resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, or melon). A citru­sy hop cha­rac­ter is com­mon, but not requi­red. Moder­ate­ly-low to moder­ate­ly-high mal­ti­ness (usual­ly with a mode­ra­te cara­mel cha­rac­ter), which can eit­her sup­port, balan­ce, or some­ti­mes mask the hop pre­sen­ta­ti­on. Esters vary from mode­ra­te to none.
Fla­vour
Mode­ra­te to high hop fla­vor with cha­rac­te­ris­tics typi­cal of Ame­ri­can or New World hop varie­ties (citrus, flo­ral, pine, resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, or melon). A citru­sy hop cha­rac­ter is com­mon, but not requi­red. Malt fla­vors are mode­ra­te to strong, and usual­ly show an initi­al mal­ty sweet­ness fol­lo­wed by a mode­ra­te cara­mel fla­vor (and some­ti­mes other cha­rac­ter mal­ts in les­ser amounts). Malt and hop bit­ter­ness are usual­ly balan­ced and mutual­ly sup­por­ti­ve, but can vary eit­her way. Frui­ty esters can be mode­ra­te to none. Cara­mel sweet­ness and hop flavor/bitterness can lin­ger some­what into the medi­um to full finish.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-full body. Medi­um to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Over­all smooth finish without astrin­gen­cy. Stron­ger ver­si­ons may have a slight alco­hol warmth.
Over­all Impression
An amber, hop­py, mode­ra­te-strength Ame­ri­can craft beer with a cara­mel mal­ty fla­vor. The balan­ce can vary qui­te a bit, with some ver­si­ons being fair­ly mal­ty and others being aggres­si­ve­ly hop­py. Hop­py and bit­ter ver­si­ons should not have cla­shing fla­vors with the cara­mel malt profile.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pale ale malt, typi­cal­ly North Ame­ri­can two-row. Medi­um to dark crys­tal mal­ts. May also con­tain spe­cial­ty grains which add addi­tio­nal cha­rac­ter and uni­queness. Ame­ri­can or New World hops, often with citru­sy fla­vors, are com­mon but others may also be used.
Histo­ry
A modern Ame­ri­can craft beer style deve­lo­ped as a varia­ti­on from Ame­ri­can Pale Ales. Known sim­ply as Red Ales in some regi­ons, the­se beers were popu­la­ri­zed in the hop-loving Nort­hern Cali­for­nia and the Paci­fic Nor­thwest are­as befo­re sprea­ding nationwide.
Comments
Can over­lap in color with dar­ker Ame­ri­can pale ales, but with a dif­fe­rent malt fla­vor and balan­ce. Regio­nal varia­ti­ons exist with some being fair­ly main­stream and others being qui­te aggres­si­ve in hop­ping. Stron­ger and more bit­ter ver­si­ons are now split into the Red IPA style.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Deschu­tes Cin­der Cone Red, Full Sail Amber, Kona Lava­man Red Ale, North Coast Ruedrich’s Red Seal Ale, Rogue Ame­ri­can Amber Ale, Trö­egs Hop­Back Amber Ale
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.045 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.015 SG
Color
10 - 17 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 40 IBU
Name
Cali­for­nia Common 
Cate­go­ry
Amber and Brown Ame­ri­can Beer
BJCP Style Code
19 B
Appearan­ce
Medi­um amber to light cop­per color. Gene­ral­ly clear. Mode­ra­te off-white head with good retention.
Aro­ma
Typi­cal­ly show­ca­ses rustic, tra­di­tio­nal Ame­ri­can hops (often with woo­dy, rustic or min­ty qua­li­ties) in mode­ra­te to high strength. Light frui­ti­ness accep­ta­ble. Low to mode­ra­te cara­mel and/or toas­ty malt aro­ma­tics sup­port the hops.
Fla­vour
Moder­ate­ly mal­ty with a pro­noun­ced hop bit­ter­ness. The malt cha­rac­ter is usual­ly toas­ty (not roas­ted) and cara­mel­ly. Low to moder­ate­ly high hop fla­vor, usual­ly showing rustic, tra­di­tio­nal Ame­ri­can hop qua­li­ties (often woo­dy, rustic, min­ty). Finish fair­ly dry and crisp, with a lin­ge­ring hop bit­ter­ness and a firm, grai­ny malt fla­vor. Light frui­ty esters are accep­ta­ble, but other­wi­se clean.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-bodi­ed. Medi­um to medi­um-high carbonation.
Over­all Impression
A light­ly frui­ty beer with firm, grai­ny mal­ti­ness, inte­res­ting toas­ty and cara­mel fla­vors, and show­ca­sing rustic, tra­di­tio­nal Ame­ri­can hop characteristics.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pale ale malt, non-citru­sy hops (often Nort­hern Bre­wer), small amounts of toas­ted malt and/or crys­tal mal­ts. Lager yeast; howe­ver, some strains (often with the men­ti­on of “Cali­for­nia” in the name) work bet­ter than others at the war­mer fer­men­ta­ti­on tem­pe­ra­tures (55 to 60 °F) typi­cal­ly used. Note that some Ger­man yeast strains pro­du­ce inap­pro­pria­te sul­fu­ry character. 
Histo­ry
Ame­ri­can West Coast ori­gi­nal, bre­wed ori­gi­nal­ly as Steam Beer in the Gold Rush era. Lar­ge shal­low open fer­menters (coolships) were tra­di­tio­nal­ly used to com­pen­sa­te for the absence of ref­ri­gera­ti­on and to take advan­ta­ge of the cool ambi­ent tem­pe­ra­tures in the San Fran­cis­co Bay area. Fer­men­ted with a lager yeast, but one that was selec­ted to fer­ment rela­tively clean beer at war­mer tem­pe­ra­tures. Modern ver­si­ons are based on Anchor Brewing re-laun­ching the style in the 1970s.
Comments
This style is nar­row­ly defi­ned around the pro­to­ty­pi­cal Anchor Steam examp­le, alt­hough allowing other typi­cal ingre­dients of the era. Nort­hern Bre­wer hops are not a strict requi­re­ment for the style; modern Ame­ri­can and New World-type hops (espe­cial­ly citru­sy ones) are inap­pro­pria­te, however.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Anchor Steam, Fly­ing Dog Old Scratch Amber Lager, Schlaf­ly Pi Com­mon, Steam­works Steam Engi­ne Lager
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.048 - 1.054 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.011 - 1.014 SG
Color
10 - 14 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
30 - 45 IBU
Name
Ame­ri­can Brown Ale
Cate­go­ry
Amber and Brown Ame­ri­can Beer
BJCP Style Code
19 C
Appearan­ce
Light to very dark brown color. Clear. Low to mode­ra­te off-white to light tan head.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te mal­ty-sweet to mal­ty-rich aro­ma with cho­co­la­te, cara­mel, nut­ty, and/or toas­ty qua­li­ties. Hop aro­ma is typi­cal­ly low to mode­ra­te, of almost any varie­ty that com­ple­ments the malt. Some inter­pre­ta­ti­ons of the style may fea­ture a stron­ger hop aro­ma, an Ame­ri­can or New World hop cha­rac­ter (citru­sy, frui­ty, tro­pi­cal, etc.), and/or a fresh dry-hop­ped aro­ma (all are optio­nal). Frui­ty esters are mode­ra­te to very low. The dark malt cha­rac­ter is more robust than other brown ales, yet stops short of being over­ly por­ter-like. The malt and hops are gene­ral­ly balanced.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to moder­ate­ly-high mal­ty-sweet or mal­ty-rich fla­vor with cho­co­la­te, cara­mel, nut­ty, and/or toas­ty malt com­ple­xi­ty, with medi­um to medi­um-high bit­ter­ness. The medi­um to medi­um-dry finish pro­vi­des an after­tas­te having both malt and hops. Hop fla­vor can be light to mode­ra­te, and may optio­nal­ly have a citru­sy, frui­ty, or tro­pi­cal cha­rac­ter, alt­hough any hop fla­vor that com­ple­ments the malt is accep­ta­ble. Very low to mode­ra­te frui­ty esters. 
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-full body. More bit­ter ver­si­ons may have a dry, resi­ny impres­si­on. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-high carbonation.
Over­all Impression
A mal­ty but hop­py beer fre­quent­ly with cho­co­la­te and cara­mel fla­vors. The hop fla­vor and aro­ma com­ple­ments and enhan­ces the malt rather than cla­shing with it.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Well-modi­fied pale malt, plus crys­tal and dar­ker mal­ts (typi­cal­ly cho­co­la­te). Ame­ri­can hops are typi­cal, but con­ti­nen­tal or New World hops can also be used. 
Histo­ry
An Ame­ri­can style from the modern craft beer era. Deri­ved from Eng­lish Brown Ales, but with more hops. Pete’s Wicked Ale was one of the first and best known examp­les, and inspi­red many imi­ta­ti­ons. Popu­lar with home­bre­wers, whe­re very hop­py ver­si­ons were some­ti­mes cal­led Texas Brown Ales (this is now more appro­pria­te­ly a Brown IPA).
Comments
Most com­mer­cial Ame­ri­can Browns are not as aggres­si­ve as the ori­gi­nal home­bre­wed ver­si­ons, and some modern craft-bre­wed examp­les. This style reflects the cur­rent com­mer­cial offe­rings typi­cal­ly mar­ke­ted as Ame­ri­can Brown Ales rather than the hop­pier, stron­ger home­brew ver­si­ons from the ear­ly days of home­brewing. The­se IPA-strength brown ales should be ent­e­red in the Spe­cial­ty IPA as Brown IPAs.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Anchor Brekle’s Brown, Big Sky Moo­se Drool Brown Ale, Brook­lyn Brown Ale, Bell’s Best Brown, Cigar City Madu­ro Brown Ale, Smut­tynose Old Brown Dog Ale, Tel­lu­ri­de Face Down Brown
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.045 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.016 SG
Color
18 - 35 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 30 IBU
Name
Ame­ri­can Porter
Cate­go­ry
Ame­ri­can Por­ter and Stout
BJCP Style Code
20 A
Appearan­ce
Medi­um brown to very dark brown, often with ruby- or gar­net-like high­lights. Can approach black in color. Cla­ri­ty may be dif­fi­cult to dis­cern in such a dark beer, but when not opa­que will be clear (par­ti­cu­lar­ly when held up to the light). Full, tan-colo­red head with moder­ate­ly good head retention. 
Aro­ma
Medi­um-light to medi­um-strong dark malt aro­ma, often with a light­ly burnt cha­rac­ter. Optio­nal­ly may also show some addi­tio­nal malt cha­rac­ter in sup­port (grai­ny, brea­dy, tof­fee-like, cara­mel­ly, cho­co­la­te, cof­fee, rich, and/or sweet). Hop aro­ma low to high, often with a resi­ny, ear­thy, or flo­ral cha­rac­ter. May be dry-hop­ped. Frui­ty esters are mode­ra­te to none.
Fla­vour
Moder­ate­ly strong malt fla­vor usual­ly fea­tures a light­ly burnt malt cha­rac­ter (and some­ti­mes cho­co­la­te and/or cof­fee fla­vors) with a bit of grai­ny, dark malt dry­ness in the finish. Over­all fla­vor may finish from dry to medi­um-sweet. May have a sharp cha­rac­ter from dark roas­ted grains, but should not be over­ly acrid, burnt or har­sh. Medi­um to high bit­ter­ness, which can be accen­tua­ted by the dark malt. Hop fla­vor can vary from low to high with a resi­ny, ear­thy, or flo­ral cha­rac­ter, and balan­ces the dark malt fla­vors. The dark malt and hops should not clash. Dry-hop­ped ver­si­ons may have a resi­ny fla­vor. Frui­ty esters mode­ra­te to none.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-full body. Moder­ate­ly low to moder­ate­ly high car­bo­na­ti­on. Stron­ger ver­si­ons may have a slight alco­hol warm­th. May have a slight astrin­gen­cy from dark mal­ts, alt­hough this cha­rac­ter should not be strong. 
Over­all Impression
A sub­stan­ti­al, mal­ty dark beer with a com­plex and fla­vor­ful dark malt character.
Typi­cal Ingredients
May con­tain several mal­ts, pro­mi­n­ent­ly dark mal­ts, which often inclu­de black malt (cho­co­la­te malt is also often used). Ame­ri­can hops typi­cal­ly used for bit­te­ring, but US or UK finis­hing hops can be used; a cla­shing citrus qua­li­ty is gene­ral­ly unde­s­i­ra­ble. Ale yeast can eit­her be clean US ver­si­ons or cha­rac­ter­ful Eng­lish varieties.
Histo­ry
A stron­ger, more aggres­si­ve ver­si­on of pre-pro­hi­bi­ti­on por­ters and/or Eng­lish por­ters deve­lo­ped in the modern craft beer era. His­to­ri­cal ver­si­ons exis­ted, par­ti­cu­lar­ly on the US East Coast, some of which are still being pro­du­ced (see the His­to­ri­cal Beer, Pre-Pro­hi­bi­ti­on Por­ter). This style descri­bes the modern craft version.
Comments
Alt­hough a rather broad style open to bre­wer inter­pre­ta­ti­on. Dark malt inten­si­ty and fla­vor can vary signi­fi­cant­ly. May or may not have a strong hop cha­rac­ter, and may or may not have signi­fi­cant fer­men­ta­ti­on by-pro­ducts; thus may seem to have an “Ame­ri­can” or “Bri­tish” character.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Anchor Por­ter, Bou­le­vard Bul­ly! Por­ter, Deschu­tes Black But­te Por­ter, Foun­ders Por­ter, Gre­at Lakes Edmund Fitz­ge­rald Por­ter, Smut­tynose Robust Por­ter, Sier­ra Neva­da Porter
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.050 - 1.070 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.012 - 1.018 SG
Color
22 - 40 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 50 IBU
Name
Ame­ri­can Stout
Cate­go­ry
Ame­ri­can Por­ter and Stout
BJCP Style Code
20 B
Appearan­ce
Gene­ral­ly a jet black color, alt­hough some may appe­ar very dark brown. Lar­ge, per­sis­tent head of light tan to light brown in color. Usual­ly opaque.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te to strong aro­ma of roas­ted mal­ts, often having a roas­ted cof­fee or dark cho­co­la­te qua­li­ty. Burnt or char­co­al aro­mas are accep­ta­ble at low levels. Medi­um to very low hop aro­ma, often with a citru­sy or resi­ny cha­rac­ter. Medi­um to no esters. Light alco­hol-deri­ved aro­ma­tics are also optional.
Fla­vour
Mode­ra­te to very high roas­ted malt fla­vors, often tas­ting of cof­fee, roas­ted cof­fee beans, dark or bit­ters­weet cho­co­la­te. May have the fla­vor of slight­ly burnt cof­fee grounds, but this cha­rac­ter should not be pro­mi­nent. Low to medi­um malt sweet­ness, often with rich cho­co­la­te or cara­mel fla­vors. Medi­um to high bit­ter­ness. Low to high hop fla­vor, gene­ral­ly citru­sy or resi­ny. Low to no esters. Medi­um to dry finish, occa­sio­nal­ly with a light­ly burnt qua­li­ty. Alco­hol fla­vors can be pre­sent up to medi­um levels, but smooth.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to full body. Can be some­what crea­my, par­ti­cu­lar­ly if a small amount of oats have been used to enhan­ce mouth­feel. Can have a bit of roast-deri­ved astrin­gen­cy, but this cha­rac­ter should not be exces­si­ve. Medi­um-high to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Light to moder­ate­ly strong alco­hol warm­th, but smooth and not exces­si­ve­ly hot.
Over­all Impression
A fair­ly strong, high­ly roas­ted, bit­ter, hop­py dark stout. Has the body and dark fla­vors typi­cal of stouts with a more aggres­si­ve Ame­ri­can hop cha­rac­ter and bitterness.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Com­mon Ame­ri­can base mal­ts and yeast. Varied use of dark and roas­ted mal­ts, as well as cara­mel-type mal­ts. Adjuncts such as oat­me­al may be pre­sent in low quan­ti­ties. Ame­ri­can hop varieties.
Histo­ry
A modern craft beer and home­brew style that app­lied an aggres­si­ve Ame­ri­can hoping regime to a strong tra­di­tio­nal Eng­lish or Irish stout. The home­brew ver­si­on was pre­vious­ly known as West Coast Stout, which is a com­mon naming sche­me for a more high­ly-hop­ped beer.
Comments
Bre­we­ries express indi­vi­dua­li­ty through vary­ing the roas­ted malt pro­fi­le, malt sweet­ness and fla­vor, and the amount of finis­hing hops used. Gene­ral­ly has bol­der roas­ted malt fla­vors and hop­ping than other tra­di­tio­nal stouts (except Impe­ri­al Stouts).
Com­mer­cial Examples
Avery Out of Bounds Stout, Deschu­tes Obsi­di­an Stout, North Coast Old No. 38, Rogue Shake­speare Stout, Sier­ra Neva­da Stout
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.050 - 1.075 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.022 SG
Color
30 - 40 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 7.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
35 - 75 IBU
Name
Impe­ri­al Stout
Cate­go­ry
Ame­ri­can Por­ter and Stout
BJCP Style Code
20 C
Appearan­ce
Color may ran­ge from very dark red­dish-brown to jet black. Opa­que. Deep tan to dark brown head. Gene­ral­ly has a well-for­med head, alt­hough head reten­ti­on may be low to mode­ra­te. High alco­hol and vis­co­si­ty may be visi­ble in “legs” when beer is swir­led in a glass.
Aro­ma
Rich and com­plex, with varia­ble amounts of roas­ted grains, mal­ti­ness, frui­ty esters, hops, and alco­hol. The roas­ted malt cha­rac­ter can take on cof­fee, dark cho­co­la­te, or slight­ly burnt tones and can be light to moder­ate­ly strong. The malt aro­ma can be sub­t­le to rich and bar­ley­wi­ne-like. May optio­nal­ly show a slight spe­cial­ty malt cha­rac­ter (e.g., cara­mel), but this should only add com­ple­xi­ty and not domi­na­te. Frui­ty esters may be low to moder­ate­ly strong, and may take on a com­plex, dark fruit (e.g., plums, pru­nes, raisins) cha­rac­ter. Hop aro­ma can be very low to qui­te aggres­si­ve, and may con­tain any hop varie­ty. An alco­hol cha­rac­ter may be pre­sent, but shouldn’t be sharp, hot, or sol­ven­ty. Aged ver­si­ons may have a slight vin­ous or port-like qua­li­ty, but shouldn’t be sour. The balan­ce can vary with any of the aro­ma ele­ments taking cen­ter sta­ge. Not all pos­si­ble aro­mas descri­bed need be pre­sent; many inter­pre­ta­ti­ons are pos­si­ble. Aging affects the inten­si­ty, balan­ce and smooth­ness of aromatics.
Fla­vour
Rich, deep, com­plex and fre­quent­ly qui­te inten­se, with varia­ble amounts of roas­ted malt/grains, mal­ti­ness, frui­ty esters, hop bit­ter­ness and fla­vor, and alco­hol. Medi­um to aggres­si­ve­ly high bit­ter­ness. Medi­um-low to high hop fla­vor (any varie­ty). Mode­ra­te to aggres­si­ve­ly high roas­ted malt/grain fla­vors can sug­gest bit­ters­weet or uns­wee­te­ned cho­co­la­te, cocoa, and/or strong cof­fee. A slight­ly burnt grain, burnt cur­rant or tar­ry cha­rac­ter may be evi­dent. Frui­ty esters may be low to inten­se, and can take on a dark fruit cha­rac­ter (raisins, plums, or pru­nes). Malt back­bone can be balan­ced and sup­por­ti­ve to rich and bar­ley­wi­ne-like, and may optio­nal­ly show some sup­por­ting cara­mel, brea­dy or toas­ty fla­vors. The pala­te and finish can vary from rela­tively dry to moder­ate­ly sweet, usual­ly with some lin­ge­ring roas­ti­ness, hop bit­ter­ness and war­ming cha­rac­ter. The balan­ce and inten­si­ty of fla­vors can be affec­ted by aging, with some fla­vors beco­m­ing more sub­dued over time and some aged, vin­ous or port-like qua­li­ties developing.
Mouth­feel
Full to very full-bodi­ed and che­wy, with a vel­ve­ty, luscious tex­tu­re (alt­hough the body may decli­ne with long con­di­tio­ning). Gent­le smooth warm­th from alco­hol should be pre­sent and noti­ce­ab­le, but not a pri­ma­ry cha­rac­te­ris­tic; in well-con­di­tio­ned ver­si­ons, the alco­hol can be decep­ti­ve. Should not be syru­py or under-atte­nua­ted. Car­bo­na­ti­on may be low to mode­ra­te, depen­ding on age and conditioning.
Over­all Impression
An inten­se­ly-fla­vo­r­ed, big, dark ale with a wide ran­ge of fla­vor balan­ces and regio­nal inter­pre­ta­ti­ons. Roas­ty-burnt malt with deep dark or dried fruit fla­vors, and a war­ming, bit­ters­weet finish. Des­pi­te the inten­se fla­vors, the com­pon­ents need to meld tog­e­ther to crea­te a com­plex, har­mo­nious beer, not a hot mess.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Well-modi­fied pale malt, with generous quan­ti­ties of roas­ted mal­ts and/or grain. May have a com­plex grain bill using vir­tual­ly any varie­ty of malt. Any type of hops may be used. Ame­ri­can or Eng­lish ale yeast.
Histo­ry
A style with a long, alt­hough not necessa­ri­ly con­ti­nuous, heri­ta­ge. Traces roots to strong Eng­lish por­ters bre­wed for export in the 1700s, and said to have been popu­lar with the Rus­si­an Impe­ri­al Court. After the Napo­leo­nic wars inter­rup­ted tra­de, the­se beers were incre­a­singly sold in Eng­land. The style even­tual­ly all but died out, until being popu­lar­ly embraced in the modern craft beer era, both in Eng­land as a revi­val and in the United Sta­tes as a rein­ter­pre­ta­ti­on or re-ima­gi­na­ti­on by exten­ding the style with Ame­ri­can characteristics. 
Comments
Tra­di­tio­nal­ly an Eng­lish style, but it is cur­r­ent­ly much more popu­lar and wide­ly avail­ab­le in Ame­ri­ca whe­re it is a craft beer favo­ri­te, not a curio­si­ty. Varia­ti­ons exist, with Eng­lish and Ame­ri­can inter­pre­ta­ti­ons (pre­dic­ta­b­ly, the Ame­ri­can ver­si­ons have more bit­ter­ness, roas­ted cha­rac­ter, and finis­hing hops, while the Eng­lish varie­ties reflect a more com­plex spe­cial­ty malt cha­rac­ter and a more for­ward ester pro­fi­le). Not all Impe­ri­al Stouts have a clear­ly ‘Eng­lish’ or ‘Ame­ri­can’ cha­rac­ter; anything in bet­ween the two vari­ants are allo­wa­ble as well, which is why it is coun­ter-pro­duc­ti­ve to desi­gna­te a sub-type when ent­e­ring a com­pe­ti­ti­on. The wide ran­ge of allo­wa­ble cha­rac­te­ris­tics allow for maxi­mum bre­wer crea­ti­vi­ty. Jud­ges must be awa­re of the broad ran­ge of the style, and not try to judge all examp­les as clo­nes of a spe­ci­fic com­mer­cial beer.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Ame­ri­can –Bell’s Expe­di­ti­on Stout, Cigar City Mar­shal Zhukov’s Impe­ri­al Stout, Gre­at Divi­de Yeti Impe­ri­al Stout, North Coast Old Ras­pu­tin Impe­ri­al Stout, Sier­ra Neva­da Nar­whal Impe­ri­al Stout; Eng­lish – Cou­ra­ge Impe­ri­al Rus­si­an Stout, Le Coq Impe­ri­al Extra Dou­ble Stout, Samu­el Smith Impe­ri­al Stout
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.075 - 1.115 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.018 - 1.030 SG
Color
30 - 40 SRM
Alco­hol
8.0 - 12.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
50 - 90 IBU
Name
Ame­ri­can IPA
Cate­go­ry
IPA
BJCP Style Code
21 A
Appearan­ce
Color ran­ges from medi­um gold to light red­dish-amber. Should be clear, alt­hough unfil­te­red dry-hop­ped ver­si­ons may be a bit hazy. Medi­um-sized, white to off-white head with good persistence.
Aro­ma
A pro­mi­nent to inten­se hop aro­ma fea­turing one or more cha­rac­te­ris­tics of Ame­ri­can or New World hops, such as citrus, flo­ral, pine, resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, melon, etc. Many ver­si­ons are dry hop­ped and can have an addi­tio­nal fresh hop aro­ma; this is desi­ra­ble but not requi­red. Gras­si­ness should be mini­mal, if pre­sent. A low to medi­um-low clean, grai­ny-mal­ty aro­ma may be found in the back­ground. Frui­ti­ness from yeast may also be detec­ted in some ver­si­ons, alt­hough a neu­tral fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter is also accep­ta­ble. A restrai­ned alco­hol note may be pre­sent, but this cha­rac­ter should be mini­mal at best. Any Ame­ri­can or New World hop cha­rac­ter is accep­ta­ble; new hop varie­ties con­ti­nue to be released and should not cons­train this style.
Fla­vour
Hop fla­vor is medi­um to very high, and should reflect an Ame­ri­can or New World hop cha­rac­ter, such as citrus, flo­ral, pine, resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, melon, etc. Medi­um-high to very high hop bit­ter­ness. Malt fla­vor should be low to medi­um-low, and is gene­ral­ly clean and grai­ny-mal­ty alt­hough some light cara­mel or toas­ty fla­vors are accep­ta­ble. Low yeast-deri­ved frui­ti­ness is accep­ta­ble but not requi­red. Dry to medi­um-dry finish; resi­du­al sweet­ness should be low to none. The bit­ter­ness and hop fla­vor may lin­ger into the after­tas­te but should not be har­sh. A very light, clean alco­hol fla­vor may be noted in stron­ger ver­si­ons. May be slight­ly sul­fu­ry, but most examp­les do not exhi­bit this character.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body, with a smooth tex­tu­re. Medi­um to medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on. No har­sh hop-deri­ved astrin­gen­cy. Very light, smooth alco­hol war­ming not a fault if it does not intru­de into over­all balance.
Over­all Impression
A deci­ded­ly hop­py and bit­ter, moder­ate­ly strong Ame­ri­can pale ale, show­ca­sing modern Ame­ri­can or New World hop varie­ties. The balan­ce is hop-for­ward, with a clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le, dryish finish, and clean, sup­por­ting malt allowing a crea­ti­ve ran­ge of hop cha­rac­ter to shi­ne through.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pale ale or 2-row bre­wers malt as the base, Ame­ri­can or New World hops, Ame­ri­can or Eng­lish yeast with a clean or slight­ly frui­ty pro­fi­le. Gene­ral­ly all-malt, but mas­hed at lower tem­pe­ra­tures for high atte­nua­ti­on. Sugar addi­ti­ons to aid atte­nua­ti­on are accep­ta­ble. Restrai­ned use of crys­tal mal­ts, if any, as high amounts can lead to a sweet finish and clash with the hop character.
Histo­ry
The first modern Ame­ri­can craft beer examp­le is gene­ral­ly belie­ved to be Anchor Liber­ty Ale, first bre­wed in 1975 and using who­le Cas­ca­de hops; the style has pushed bey­ond that ori­gi­nal beer, which now tas­tes more like an Ame­ri­can Pale Ale in com­pa­ri­son. Ame­ri­can-made IPAs from ear­lier eras were not unknown (par­ti­cu­lar­ly the well-regar­ded Ballantine’s IPA, an oak-aged beer using an old Eng­lish reci­pe). This style is based on the modern craft beer examples.
Comments
A modern Ame­ri­can craft beer inter­pre­ta­ti­on of the his­to­ri­cal Eng­lish style, bre­wed using Ame­ri­can ingre­dients and atti­tu­de. The basis for many modern varia­ti­ons, inclu­ding the stron­ger Dou­ble IPA as well as IPAs with various other ingre­dients. Tho­se other IPAs should gene­ral­ly be ent­e­red in the Spe­cial­ty IPA style. Oak is inap­pro­pria­te in this style; if noti­ce­ab­ly oaked, enter in wood-aged category.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Alpi­ne Duet, Bell’s Two-Hear­ted Ale, Fat Heads Head Hun­ter IPA, Fire­stone Wal­ker Uni­on Jack, Lag­u­ni­tas IPA, Rus­si­an River Blind Pig IPA, Stone IPA
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.056 - 1.070 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.014 SG
Color
6 - 14 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 7.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
40 - 70 IBU
Name
Spe­cial­ty IPA
Cate­go­ry
IPA
BJCP Style Code
21 B
Appearan­ce
Color depends on spe­ci­fic type of Spe­cial­ty IPA. Most should be clear, alt­hough cer­tain styles with high amounts of star­chy adjuncts, or unfil­te­red dry-hop­ped ver­si­ons may be slight­ly hazy. Dar­ker types can be opa­que making cla­ri­ty irrele­vant. Good, per­sis­tent head stand with color depen­dent on the spe­ci­fic type of Spe­cial­ty IPA
Aro­ma
Detec­ta­ble hop aro­ma is requi­red; cha­rac­te­riz­a­ti­on of hops is depen­dent on the spe­ci­fic type of Spe­cial­ty IPA. Other aro­ma­tics may be pre­sent; hop aro­ma is typi­cal­ly the stron­gest element. 
Fla­vour
Hop fla­vor is typi­cal­ly medi­um-low to high, with qua­li­ties depen­dent on typi­cal varie­ties used in the spe­ci­fic Spe­cial­ty IPA. Hop bit­ter­ness is typi­cal­ly medi­um-high to very high, with qua­li­ties depen­dent on typi­cal varie­ties used in the spe­ci­fic Spe­cial­ty IPA. Malt fla­vor gene­ral­ly low to medi­um, with qua­li­ties depen­dent on typi­cal varie­ties used in the spe­ci­fic Spe­cial­ty IPA. Com­mon­ly will have a medi­um-dry to dry finish. Some clean alco­hol fla­vor can be noted in stron­ger ver­si­ons. Various types of Spe­cial­ty IPAs can show addi­tio­nal malt and yeast cha­rac­te­ris­tics, depen­ding on the type.
Mouth­feel
Smooth, medi­um-light to medi­um-bodi­ed mouth­feel. Medi­um car­bo­na­ti­on. Some smooth alco­hol war­ming can be sen­sed in stron­ger versions
Over­all Impression
Reco­gniz­ab­le as an IPA by balan­ce – a hop-for­ward, bit­ter, dryish beer – with some­thing else pre­sent to dis­tin­guish it from the stan­dard cate­go­ries. Should have good drin­ka­bi­li­ty, regard­less of the form. Exces­si­ve har­sh­ness and hea­vi­ness are typi­cal­ly faults, as are strong fla­vor clas­hes bet­ween the hops and the other spe­cial­ty ingredients.
Comments
Spe­cial­ty IPA isn’t a dis­tinct style, but is more appro­pria­te­ly thought of as a com­pe­ti­ti­on ent­ry cate­go­ry. Beers ent­e­red as this style are not expe­ri­men­tal beers; they are a collec­tion of cur­r­ent­ly pro­du­ced types of beer that may or may not have any mar­ket lon­ge­vi­ty. This cate­go­ry also allows for expan­si­on, so poten­ti­al future IPA vari­ants (St. Patrick’s Day Green IPA, Romu­lan Blue IPA, Zima Clear IPA, etc.) have a place to be ent­e­red without redo­ing the style gui­de­li­nes. The only com­mon ele­ment is that they have the balan­ce and over­all impres­si­on of an IPA (typi­cal­ly, an Ame­ri­can IPA) but with some minor tweak. The term ‘IPA’ is used as a sin­gu­lar descrip­tor of a type of hop­py, bit­ter beer. It is not meant to be spel­led out as ‘India Pale Ale’ when used in the con­text of a Spe­cial­ty IPA. None of the­se beers ever his­to­ri­cal­ly went to India, and many aren’t pale. But the craft beer mar­ket knows what to expect in balan­ce when a beer is descri­bed as an ‘IPA’ – so the modi­fiers used to dif­fe­ren­tia­te them are based on that con­cept alone.
Notes
Ent­ry Inst­ruc­tions: Ent­rant must spe­ci­fy a strength (ses­si­on, stan­dard, dou­ble); if no strength is spe­ci­fied, stan­dard will be assu­med. Ent­rant must spe­ci­fy spe­ci­fic type of Spe­cial­ty IPA from the libra­ry of known types lis­ted in the Style Gui­de­li­nes, or as amen­ded by the BJCP web site; or the ent­rant must descri­be the type of Spe­cial­ty IPA and its key cha­rac­te­ris­tics in com­ment form so jud­ges will know what to expect. Ent­rants may spe­ci­fy spe­ci­fic hop varie­ties used, if ent­rants feel that jud­ges may not reco­gni­ze the varie­tal cha­rac­te­ris­tics of newer hops. Ent­rants may spe­ci­fy a com­bi­na­ti­on of defi­ned IPA types (e.g., Black Rye IPA) without pro­vi­ding addi­tio­nal descrip­ti­ons. Ent­rants may use this cate­go­ry for a dif­fe­rent strength ver­si­on of an IPA defi­ned by its own BJCP sub­ca­te­go­ry (e.g., ses­si­on-strength Ame­ri­can or Eng­lish IPA) – except whe­re an exis­ting BJCP sub­ca­te­go­ry alrea­dy exists for that style (e.g., dou­ble [Ame­ri­can] IPA). Strength clas­si­fi­ca­ti­ons: Ses­si­on – ABV: 3.0 – 5.0% Stan­dard – ABV: 5.0 – 7.5% Dou­ble – ABV: 7.5 – 10.0%
Name
Dou­ble IPA
Cate­go­ry
Strong Ame­ri­can Ale
BJCP Style Code
22 A
Appearan­ce
Color ran­ges from gol­den to light oran­ge-cop­per; most modern ver­si­ons are fair­ly pale. Good cla­ri­ty, alt­hough unfil­te­red dry-hop­ped ver­si­ons may be a bit hazy. Mode­ra­te-sized, per­sis­tent, white to off-white head.
Aro­ma
A pro­mi­nent to inten­se hop aro­ma that typi­cal­ly show­ca­ses Ame­ri­can or New World hop cha­rac­te­ris­tics (citrus, flo­ral, pine, resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, melon, etc.). Most ver­si­ons are dry hop­ped and can have an addi­tio­nal resin­ous or gras­sy aro­ma, alt­hough this is not abso­lute­ly requi­red. Some clean mal­ty sweet­ness may be found in the back­ground. Frui­ti­ness, eit­her from esters or hops, may also be detec­ted in some ver­si­ons, alt­hough a neu­tral fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter is typi­cal. Some alco­hol can usual­ly be noted, but it should not have a “hot” character.
Fla­vour
Hop fla­vor is strong and com­plex, and can reflect the cha­rac­te­ris­tics of modern Ame­ri­can or New World hop varie­ties (citrus, flo­ral, pine, resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, melon, etc.). High to absurdly high hop bit­ter­ness. Low to medi­um malt fla­vor, gene­ral­ly clean and grai­ny-mal­ty alt­hough low levels of cara­mel or toas­ty fla­vors are accep­ta­ble. Low to medi­um frui­ti­ness is accep­ta­ble but not requi­red. A long, lin­ge­ring bit­ter­ness is usual­ly pre­sent in the after­tas­te but should not be har­sh. Dry to medi­um-dry finish; should not finish sweet or hea­vy. A light, clean, smooth alco­hol fla­vor is not a fault. Oak is inap­pro­pria­te in this style. May be slight­ly sul­fu­ry, but most examp­les do not exhi­bit this character. 
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body, with a smooth tex­tu­re. Medi­um to medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on. No har­sh hop-deri­ved astrin­gen­cy. Restrai­ned, smooth alco­hol war­ming acceptable.
Over­all Impression
An inten­se­ly hop­py, fair­ly strong pale ale without the big, rich, com­plex mal­ti­ness and resi­du­al sweet­ness and body of an Ame­ri­can bar­ley­wi­ne. Stron­gly hop­ped, but clean, dry, and lacking har­sh­ness. Drin­ka­bi­li­ty is an important cha­rac­te­ris­tic; this should not be a hea­vy, sip­ping beer.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Clean 2-row malt is typi­cal as a base grain; an exces­si­ve­ly com­plex grist can be dis­trac­ting. Crys­tal-type mal­ts often mud­dy the hop fla­vors, and are gene­ral­ly con­si­de­red unde­s­i­ra­ble in signi­fi­cant quan­ti­ties. Sugar or other high­ly fer­men­ta­ble adjuncts are often used to incre­a­se atte­nua­ti­on, as are lower-tem­pe­ra­tu­re mash rests. Can use a com­plex varie­ty of hops, typi­cal­ly Ame­ri­can or New World, often with cut­ting-edge pro­files pro­vi­ding dis­tinc­ti­ve dif­fe­ren­ces. Modern hops with unusu­al cha­rac­te­ris­tics are not out of style. Ame­ri­can yeast that can give a clean or slight­ly frui­ty profile.
Histo­ry
An Ame­ri­can craft beer inno­va­ti­on first deve­lo­ped in the mid-late 1990s reflec­ting the trend of Ame­ri­can craft bre­wers “pushing the enve­lo­pe” to satisfy the need of hop afi­cio­na­dos for incre­a­singly inten­se pro­ducts. Beca­me more main­stream and popu­lar throughout the 2000s, and inspi­red addi­tio­nal IPA creativity.
Comments
A show­ca­se for hops, yet remai­ning qui­te drin­ka­ble. The adjec­ti­ve “dou­ble” is arbi­tra­ry and sim­ply implies a stron­ger ver­si­on of an IPA; “impe­ri­al,” “extra,” “extre­me,” or any other varie­ty of adjec­ti­ves would be equal­ly valid, alt­hough the modern Ame­ri­can mar­ket seems to have now coale­sced around the “dou­ble” term.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Avery Maha­ra­ja, Fat Heads Hop Juju, Fire­stone Wal­ker Dou­ble Jack, Port Brewing Hop 15, Rus­si­an River Pli­ny the Elder, Stone Rui­na­ti­on IPA, Three Floyds Dreadnaught
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.065 - 1.085 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.018 SG
Color
6 - 14 SRM
Alco­hol
7.0 - 10.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
60 - 120 IBU
Name
Ame­ri­can Strong Ale
Cate­go­ry
Strong Ame­ri­can Ale
BJCP Style Code
22 B
Appearan­ce
Medi­um amber to deep cop­per or light brown. Mode­ra­te-low to medi­um-sized off-white to light tan head; may have low head reten­ti­on. Good cla­ri­ty. Alco­hol level and vis­co­si­ty may pre­sent “legs” when glass is swirled.
Aro­ma
Medi­um to high hop aro­ma, most often pre­sen­ting citru­sy or resi­ny notes alt­hough cha­rac­te­ris­tics asso­cia­ted with other Ame­ri­can or New World varie­ties may be found (tro­pi­cal, stone fruit, melon, etc.). Mode­ra­te to bold mal­ti­ness sup­ports hop pro­fi­le, with medi­um to dark cara­mel a com­mon pre­sence, brea­dy or toas­ty pos­si­ble and back­ground notes of light roast and/or cho­co­la­te noti­ce­ab­le in some examp­les. Gene­ral­ly exhi­bits clean to moder­ate­ly frui­ty ester pro­fi­le. Mode­ra­te alco­hol aro­ma­tics may be noti­ce­ab­le, but should not be hot, har­sh, or solventy.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to high dex­tri­no­us malt with a full ran­ge of cara­mel, tof­fee, dark fruit fla­vors. Low to medi­um toas­ty, brea­dy, or Mail­lard-rich mal­ty fla­vors are optio­nal, and can add com­ple­xi­ty. Medi­um-high to high hop bit­ter­ness. The malt gives a medi­um to high sweet impres­si­on on the pala­te, alt­hough the finish may be slight­ly sweet to some­what dry. Mode­ra­te to high hop fla­vor. Low to mode­ra­te frui­ty esters. The hop fla­vors are simi­lar to the aro­ma (citru­sy, resi­ny, tro­pi­cal, stone fruit, melon, etc.). Alco­hol pre­sence may be noti­ce­ab­le, but sharp or sol­ven­ty alco­hol fla­vors are unde­s­i­ra­ble. Roas­ted malt fla­vors are allo­wa­ble but should be a back­ground note; burnt malt fla­vors are inap­pro­pria­te. While stron­gly mal­ty on the pala­te, the finish should seem bit­ter to bit­ters­weet. Should not be syru­py and under-atte­nua­ted. The after­tas­te typi­cal­ly has malt, hops, and alco­hol noticeable. 
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to full body. An alco­hol warm­th may be pre­sent, but not be exces­si­ve­ly hot. Any astrin­gen­cy pre­sent should be attri­bu­ta­ble to bold hop bit­ter­ness and should not be objec­tion­ab­le on the pala­te. Medi­um-low to medi­um carbonation. 
Over­all Impression
A strong, full-fla­vo­r­ed Ame­ri­can ale that chal­len­ges and rewards the pala­te with full mal­ty and hop­py fla­vors and sub­stan­ti­al bit­ter­ness. The fla­vors are bold but com­ple­men­ta­ry, and are stron­ger and richer than average-strength pale and amber Ame­ri­can ales.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Well-modi­fied pale malt as a base; some cha­rac­ter mal­ts would be appro­pria­te, medi­um to dark crys­tal mal­ts are typi­cal. Citru­sy or piney Ame­ri­can hops are com­mon, alt­hough any Ame­ri­can or New World varie­ties can be used in quan­ti­ty, pro­vi­ded they do not clash with the malt cha­rac­ter. Gene­ral­ly uses an atte­nua­ti­ve Ame­ri­can yeast.
Histo­ry
While modern craft ver­si­ons were deve­lo­ped as “impe­ri­al” strength ver­si­ons of Ame­ri­can amber or red ales, the style has much in com­mon with his­to­ric Ame­ri­can stock ales. Strong, mal­ty beers were high­ly hop­ped to keep as pro­vi­si­on beers pri­or to pro­hi­bi­ti­on. The­re is no con­ti­nuous lega­cy of brewing stock ales in this man­ner, but the resem­blan­ce is con­si­derable. Stone Arro­gant Bas­tard was born out of a batch of pale ale that was mista­ken­ly made with excess ingre­dients, thus crea­ting what may have been the pro­to­ty­pe for the impe­ri­al amber/red ale. Gre­at Lakes first bre­wed Nos­fe­ra­tu in the ear­ly 1990s and cal­led it a stock ale, alt­hough they now call it an impe­ri­al red ale. So whe­ther by direct his­to­ri­cal inspi­ra­ti­on or by acci­dent, the style deve­lo­ped inde­pendent­ly in the craft beer era and has sub­se­quent­ly beco­me qui­te popular.
Comments
A fair­ly broad style that can descri­be beers labe­led in various ways, inclu­ding modern Double/Imperial Red/Amber Ales and other strong, mal­ty-but-hop­py beers that aren’t qui­te in the Bar­ley­wi­ne class. Diver­se enough to inclu­de what may be view­ed as a strong Ame­ri­can Amber Ale with room for more inter­pre­ta­ti­ons of other “Impe­ri­al” ver­si­ons of lower gra­vi­ty Ame­ri­can Ale styles. Many “East Coast” type IPAs might fit bet­ter in this cate­go­ry if they have con­si­derable crys­tal malt or other­wi­se more of a mal­ty-sweet finish.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bear Repu­blic Red Rocket Ale, Gre­at Lakes Nos­fe­ra­tu, Ter­ra­pin Big Hop­py Mons­ter, Port Brewing Shark Attack Dou­ble Red, Stone Arro­gant Bastard,
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.062 - 1.090 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.014 - 1.024 SG
Color
7 - 19 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 10.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
50 - 100 IBU
Name
Ame­ri­can Barleywine
Cate­go­ry
Strong Ame­ri­can Ale
BJCP Style Code
22 C
Appearan­ce
Color may ran­ge from light amber to medi­um cop­per; may rare­ly be as dark as light brown. Often has ruby high­lights. Moder­ate­ly-low to lar­ge off-white to light tan head; may have low head reten­ti­on. May be clou­dy with chill haze at coo­ler tem­pe­ra­tures, but gene­ral­ly clears to good to bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty as it warms. The color may appe­ar to have gre­at depth, as if view­ed through a thick glass lens. High alco­hol and vis­co­si­ty may be visi­ble in “legs” when beer is swir­led in a glass.
Aro­ma
Hop cha­rac­ter mode­ra­te to asser­ti­ve and often show­ca­ses citru­sy, frui­ty, or resi­ny New World varie­ties (alt­hough other varie­ties, such as flo­ral, ear­thy or spi­cy Eng­lish varie­ties or a blend of varie­ties, may be used). Rich mal­ti­ness, with a cha­rac­ter that may be sweet, cara­mel­ly, brea­dy, or fair­ly neu­tral. Low to moder­ate­ly-strong frui­ty esters and alco­hol aro­ma­tics. Howe­ver, the inten­si­ty of aro­ma­tics often sub­si­des with age. Hops tend to be near­ly equal to malt in the aro­ma, with alco­hol and esters far behind.
Fla­vour
Strong, rich malt fla­vor with a noti­ce­ab­le hop fla­vor and bit­ter­ness in the balan­ce. Moder­ate­ly-low to moder­ate­ly-high mal­ty sweet­ness on the pala­te, alt­hough the finish may be some­what sweet to qui­te dry (depen­ding on aging). Hop bit­ter­ness may ran­ge from moder­ate­ly strong to aggres­si­ve. While stron­gly mal­ty, the balan­ce should always seem bit­ter. Mode­ra­te to high hop fla­vor (any varie­ty, but often showing a ran­ge of New World hop cha­rac­te­ris­tics). Low to mode­ra­te frui­ty esters. Noti­ce­ab­le alco­hol pre­sence, but well-inte­gra­ted. Fla­vors will smooth out and decli­ne over time, but any oxi­di­zed cha­rac­ter should be mut­ed (and gene­ral­ly be mas­ked by the hop cha­rac­ter). May have some brea­dy or cara­mel­ly malt fla­vors, but the­se should not be high; roas­ted or burnt malt fla­vors are inappropriate. 
Mouth­feel
Full-bodi­ed and che­wy, with a vel­ve­ty, luscious tex­tu­re (alt­hough the body may decli­ne with long con­di­tio­ning). Alco­hol warm­th should be noti­ce­ab­le but smooth. Should not be syru­py and under-atte­nua­ted. Car­bo­na­ti­on may be low to mode­ra­te, depen­ding on age and conditioning.
Over­all Impression
A well-hop­ped Ame­ri­can inter­pre­ta­ti­on of the richest and stron­gest of the Eng­lish ales. The hop cha­rac­ter should be evi­dent throughout, but does not have to be unba­lan­ced. The alco­hol strength and hop bit­ter­ness often com­bi­ne to lea­ve a very long finish.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Well-modi­fied pale malt should form the back­bone of the grist. Some spe­cial­ty or cha­rac­ter mal­ts may be used. Dark mal­ts should be used with gre­at restraint, if at all, as most of the color ari­ses from a leng­thy boil. New World hops are com­mon, alt­hough any varie­ties can be used in quan­ti­ty. Gene­ral­ly uses an atte­nua­ti­ve Ame­ri­can ale yeast.
Histo­ry
Usual­ly the stron­gest ale offe­red by a bre­we­ry, often asso­cia­ted with the win­ter or holi­day sea­son and vin­ta­ge-dated. As with many Ame­ri­can craft beer styles, deri­ved from Eng­lish examp­les but using Ame­ri­can ingre­dients and fea­turing a much more for­ward hop pro­fi­le. One of the first Ame­ri­can craft beer ver­si­ons was Anchor Old Fog­horn, first bre­wed in 1975. Sier­ra Neva­da Big­foot, first bre­wed in 1983, set the stan­dard for the hop-for­ward style of today. The sto­ry goes that when Sier­ra Neva­da first sent Big­foot out for lab ana­ly­sis, the lab cal­led and said, “your bar­ley­wi­ne is too bit­ter” – to which Sier­ra Neva­da replied, “thank you.”
Comments
Some­ti­mes known as “Bar­ley Wine” or “Bar­ley­wi­ne style ale” (the lat­ter due to legal requi­re­ments, not bre­we­ry preference).
Com­mer­cial Examples
Avery Hog Hea­ven Bar­ley­wi­ne, Anchor Old Fog­horn, Gre­at Divi­de Old Ruf­fi­an, Rogue Old Crustace­an, Sier­ra Neva­da Big­foot, Vic­to­ry Old Horizontal
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.080 - 1.120 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.016 - 1.030 SG
Color
10 - 19 SRM
Alco­hol
8.0 - 12.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
50 - 100 IBU
Name
Wheat­wi­ne
Cate­go­ry
Strong Ame­ri­can Ale
BJCP Style Code
22 D
Appearan­ce
Color ran­ges from gold to deep amber, often with gar­net or ruby high­lights. Low to medi­um off-white head. The head may have crea­my tex­tu­re, and good reten­ti­on. Chill haze is allo­wa­ble, but usual­ly clears up as the beer gets war­mer. High alco­hol and vis­co­si­ty may be visi­ble in “legs” when beer is swir­led in a glass.
Aro­ma
Hop aro­ma is mild and can repre­sent just about any late hop aro­ma­tic. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-strong brea­dy, whea­ty malt cha­rac­ter, often with addi­tio­nal malt com­ple­xi­ty such as honey and cara­mel. A light, clean, alco­hol aro­ma may noted. Low to medi­um frui­ty notes may be appa­rent. Very low levels of dia­ce­tyl are accep­ta­ble but not requi­red. Wei­zen yeast cha­rac­ter (banana/clove) is inappropriate.
Fla­vour
Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-high whea­ty malt fla­vor, domi­nant in the fla­vor balan­ce over any hop cha­rac­ter. Low to mode­ra­te brea­dy, toas­ty, cara­mel, or honey malt notes are a wel­co­me com­ple­xi­ty note, alt­hough not requi­red. Hop fla­vor is low to medi­um, and can reflect any varie­ty. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-high frui­ti­ness, often with a dried-fruit cha­rac­ter. Hop bit­ter­ness may ran­ge from low to mode­ra­te; balan­ce the­re­fo­re ran­ges from mal­ty to even­ly balan­ced. Should not be syru­py and under-atte­nua­ted. Some oxi­da­ti­ve or vin­ous fla­vors may be pre­sent, as are light alco­hol notes that are clean and smooth but com­plex. A com­ple­men­ta­ry, sup­por­ti­ve oak cha­rac­ter is wel­co­me, but not required.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-full to full bodi­ed and che­wy, often with a luscious, vel­ve­ty tex­tu­re. Low to mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on. Light to mode­ra­te smooth alco­hol war­ming may also be present.
Over­all Impression
A rich­ly tex­tu­red, high alco­hol sip­ping beer with a signi­fi­cant grai­ny, brea­dy fla­vor and sleek body. The empha­sis is first on the brea­dy, whea­ty fla­vors with inte­res­ting com­ple­xi­ty from malt, hops, frui­ty yeast cha­rac­ter and alco­hol complexity.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Typi­cal­ly bre­wed with a com­bi­na­ti­on of Ame­ri­can two-row and Ame­ri­can wheat. Style com­mon­ly uses 50% or more wheat malt. Any varie­ty of hops may be used. May be oak-aged.
Histo­ry
A rela­tively recent Ame­ri­can craft beer style that was first bre­wed at the Rubicon Brewing Com­pa­ny in 1988. Often a win­ter sea­so­nal, vin­ta­ge, or one-off release. Bre­we­ries fre­quent­ly expe­ri­ment with this style, lea­ding to a ran­ge of interpretations.
Comments
Dark mal­ts should be used with restraint. Much of the color ari­ses from a leng­thy boil. Some com­mer­cial examp­les may be lar­ger than the Vital Sta­tis­tics, and some may not be bre­wed every year.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Rubicon Win­ter Wheat Wine, Two Bro­thers Bare Trees Weiss Wine, Smut­tynose Wheat Wine, Ports­mouth Wheat Wine
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.080 - 1.120 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.016 - 1.030 SG
Color
8 - 15 SRM
Alco­hol
8.0 - 12.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
30 - 60 IBU
Name
Ber­li­ner Weisse
Cate­go­ry
Euro­pean Sour Ale
BJCP Style Code
23 A
Appearan­ce
Very pale straw in color. Cla­ri­ty ran­ges from clear to some­what hazy. Lar­ge, den­se, white head with poor reten­ti­on. Always effervescent.
Aro­ma
A shar­ply sour cha­rac­ter is domi­nant (mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-high). Can have up to a moder­ate­ly frui­ty cha­rac­ter (often lemo­ny or tart apple). The frui­ti­ness may incre­a­se with age and a light flowe­ry cha­rac­ter may deve­lop. No hop aro­ma. The wheat may pre­sent as uncoo­ked bread dough in fres­her ver­si­ons; com­bi­ned with the aci­di­ty, may sug­gest sourdough bread. May optio­nal­ly have a restrai­ned fun­ky Brett­ano­my­ces character.
Fla­vour
Clean lac­tic sour­ness domi­na­tes and can be qui­te strong. Some com­ple­men­ta­ry doughy, brea­dy or grai­ny wheat fla­vor is gene­ral­ly noti­ce­ab­le. Hop bit­ter­ness is unde­tec­ta­ble; sour­ness pro­vi­des the balan­ce rather than hops. Never vine­ga­ry. A restrai­ned citru­sy-lemo­ny or tart apple frui­ti­ness may be detec­ted. Very dry finish. Balan­ce domi­na­ted by sour­ness, but some malt fla­vor should be pre­sent. No hop fla­vor. May optio­nal­ly have a restrai­ned fun­ky Brett­ano­my­ces character. 
Mouth­feel
Light body. Very high car­bo­na­ti­on. No sen­sa­ti­on of alco­hol. Crisp, jui­cy acidity.
Over­all Impression
A very pale, refres­hing, low-alco­hol Ger­man wheat beer with a clean lac­tic sour­ness and a very high car­bo­na­ti­on level. A light bread dough malt fla­vor sup­ports the sour­ness, which shouldn’t seem arti­fi­cial. Any Brett­ano­my­ces funk is restrained.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Wheat malt con­tent is typi­cal­ly 50% of the grist (as is tra­di­ti­on with all Ger­man wheat beers) with the rema­in­der typi­cal­ly being Pils­ner malt. A sym­bio­tic fer­men­ta­ti­on with top-fer­men­ting yeast and Lac­to­ba­c­il­lus (various strains) pro­vi­des the sharp sour­ness, which may be enhan­ced by blen­ding of beers of dif­fe­rent ages during fer­men­ta­ti­on and by exten­ded cool aging. Hop bit­ter­ness is non-exis­tent. Deco­c­tion mashing with mash hop­ping is tra­di­tio­nal. Ger­man brewing sci­en­tists belie­ve that Brett­ano­my­ces is essen­ti­al to get the cor­rect fla­vor pro­fi­le, but this cha­rac­ter is never strong.
Histo­ry
A regio­nal spe­cial­ty of Ber­lin; refer­red to by Napoleon’s tro­ops in 1809 as “the Cham­pa­gne of the North” due to its lively and ele­gant cha­rac­ter. At one point, it was smo­ked and the­re used to be Mär­z­en-strength (14 °P) ver­si­on. Incre­a­singly rare in Ger­man, but some Ame­ri­can craft bre­we­ries now regu­lar­ly pro­du­ce the style.
Comments
In Ger­ma­ny, it is clas­si­fied as a Schank­bier deno­ting a small beer of star­ting gra­vi­ty in the ran­ge 7-8 °P. Often ser­ved with the addi­ti­on of a shot of sugar syrups (mit schuss) fla­vo­r­ed with raspber­ry (him­beer), woo­d­ruff (wald­meis­ter), or Cara­way schnapps (Küm­mel) to coun­ter the sub­stan­ti­al sour­ness. Has been descri­bed by some as the most pure­ly refres­hing beer in the world.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Baye­ri­scher Bahn­hof Ber­li­ner Style Weis­se, Ber­li­ner Kindl Weis­se, Nod­ding Head Ber­li­ner Weis­se, The Bru­e­ry Hottenroth
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.028 - 1.032 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.003 - 1.006 SG
Color
2 - 3 SRM
Alco­hol
2.0 - 3.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
3 - 8 IBU
Name
Flan­ders Red Ale
Cate­go­ry
Euro­pean Sour Ale
BJCP Style Code
23 B
Appearan­ce
Deep red, bur­gun­dy to red­dish-brown in color. Good cla­ri­ty. White to very pale tan head. Average to good head retention.
Aro­ma
Com­plex frui­ty-sour pro­fi­le with sup­por­ting malt that often gives a wine-like impres­si­on. Frui­ti­ness is high, and remi­nis­cent of black cher­ries, oran­ges, plums or red cur­rants. The­re are often low to medi­um-low vanil­la and/or cho­co­la­te notes. Spi­cy phe­nols can be pre­sent in low amounts for com­ple­xi­ty. The sour aro­ma ran­ges from balan­ced to inten­se. Pro­mi­nent vine­ga­ry ace­tic cha­rac­ter is inap­pro­pria­te. No hop aro­ma. Dia­ce­tyl is per­cei­ved only in very minor quan­ti­ties, if at all, as a com­ple­men­ta­ry aroma.
Fla­vour
Inten­se frui­ti­ness com­mon­ly inclu­des plum, oran­ge, black cher­ry or red cur­rant fla­vors. A mild vanil­la and/or cho­co­la­te cha­rac­ter is often pre­sent. Spi­cy phe­nols can be pre­sent in low amounts for com­ple­xi­ty. Sour fla­vor ran­ges from com­ple­men­ta­ry to inten­se, and can have an aci­dic bite. Mal­ty fla­vors ran­ge from com­ple­men­ta­ry to pro­mi­nent, and often have a soft toas­ty-rich qua­li­ty. Gene­ral­ly as the sour cha­rac­ter incre­a­ses, the malt cha­rac­ter blends to more of a back­ground fla­vor (and vice ver­sa). No hop fla­vor. Restrai­ned hop bit­ter­ness. An aci­dic, tan­nic bit­ter­ness is often pre­sent in low to mode­ra­te amounts, and adds an aged red wine-like cha­rac­ter and finish. Pro­mi­nent vine­ga­ry ace­tic cha­rac­ter is inap­pro­pria­te. Dia­ce­tyl is per­cei­ved only in very minor quan­ti­ties, if at all, as a com­ple­men­ta­ry fla­vor. Balan­ced to the malt side, but domi­na­ted by the frui­ty, sour, wine-like impression.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um bodi­ed. Low to medi­um car­bo­na­ti­on. Low to medi­um astrin­gen­cy, like a well-aged red wine, often with a prick­ly aci­di­ty. Decei­vin­g­ly light and crisp on the pala­te alt­hough a some­what sweet finish is not uncommon.
Over­all Impression
A sour, frui­ty, red wine-like Bel­gi­an-style ale with inte­res­ting sup­por­ti­ve malt fla­vors and fruit com­ple­xi­ty. The dry finish and tan­nin com­ple­tes the men­tal image of a fine red wine.
Typi­cal Ingredients
A base of Vien­na and/or Munich mal­ts, light to medi­um cara-mal­ts, and a small amount of Spe­cial B are used with up to 20% mai­ze. Low alpha acid con­ti­nen­tal hops are com­mon­ly used (avoid high alpha or dis­tinc­ti­ve Ame­ri­can hops). Sac­charo­my­ces, Lac­to­ba­c­il­lus and Brett­ano­my­ces (and ace­to­bac­ter) con­tri­bu­te to the fer­men­ta­ti­on and even­tu­al flavor.
Histo­ry
An indi­ge­nous beer of West Flan­ders, typi­fied by the pro­ducts of the Roden­bach bre­we­ry, estab­lis­hed in 1820 in West Flan­ders but reflec­ti­ve of ear­lier brewing tra­di­ti­ons. The beer is aged for up to two years, often in huge oaken bar­rels which con­tain the resi­dent bac­te­ria necessa­ry to sour the beer. It was once com­mon in Bel­gi­um and Eng­land to blend old beer with young to balan­ce the sour­ness and aci­di­ty found in aged beer. While blen­ding of bat­ches for con­sis­ten­cy is now com­mon among lar­ger bre­we­ries, this type of blen­ding is a fading art.
Comments
Long aging and blen­ding of young and well-aged beer often occurs, adding to the smooth­ness and com­ple­xi­ty, though the aged pro­duct is some­ti­mes released as a connoisseur’s beer. Known as the Bur­gun­dy of Bel­gi­um, it is more wine-like than any other beer style. The red­dish color is a pro­duct of the malt alt­hough an exten­ded, less-than-rol­ling por­ti­on of the boil may help add an attrac­ti­ve Bur­gun­dy hue. Aging will also dar­ken the beer. The Flan­ders red is more ace­tic (but never vine­gar-like) and the frui­ty fla­vors more remi­nis­cent of a red wine than an Oud Bru­in. Can have an appa­rent atte­nua­ti­on of up to 98%.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Cuvée des Jaco­bins Rouge, Duch­es­se de Bour­go­gne, Roden­bach Grand Cru, Roden­bach Klas­siek, Vich­tenaar Fle­mish Ale
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.048 - 1.057 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.002 - 1.012 SG
Color
10 - 16 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
10 - 25 IBU
Name
Oud Bru­in
Cate­go­ry
Euro­pean Sour Ale
BJCP Style Code
23 C
Appearan­ce
Dark red­dish-brown to brown in color. Good cla­ri­ty. Average to good head reten­ti­on. Ivory to light tan head color.
Aro­ma
Com­plex com­bi­na­ti­on of frui­ty esters and rich malt cha­rac­ter. Medi­um to medi­um-high esters com­mon­ly remi­nis­cent of raisins, plums, figs, dates, black cher­ries or pru­nes. Medi­um low to medi­um high malt cha­rac­ter of cara­mel, tof­fee, oran­ge, treacle or cho­co­la­te. Spi­cy phe­nols can be pre­sent in low amounts for com­ple­xi­ty. A sher­ry-like cha­rac­ter may be pre­sent and gene­ral­ly deno­tes an aged examp­le. A low sour aro­ma may be pre­sent, and can modest­ly incre­a­se with age but should not grow to a noti­ce­ab­le acetic/vinegary cha­rac­ter. Hop aro­ma absent. Dia­ce­tyl is per­cei­ved only in very minor quan­ti­ties, if at all, as a com­ple­men­ta­ry aroma.
Fla­vour
Mal­ty with frui­ty com­ple­xi­ty and typi­cal­ly some cara­mel cha­rac­ter. Medi­um to medi­um-high frui­ti­ness com­mon­ly inclu­des dark or dried fruit such as raisins, plums, figs, dates, black cher­ries or pru­nes. Medi­um low to medi­um high malt cha­rac­ter of cara­mel, tof­fee, oran­ge, treacle or cho­co­la­te. Spi­cy phe­nols can be pre­sent in low amounts for com­ple­xi­ty. A slight sour­ness often beco­mes more pro­noun­ced in well-aged examp­les, along with some sher­ry-like cha­rac­ter, pro­du­cing a “sweet-and-sour” pro­fi­le. The sour­ness should not grow to a nota­ble acetic/vinegary cha­rac­ter. Hop fla­vor absent. Restrai­ned hop bit­ter­ness. Low oxi­da­ti­on is appro­pria­te as a point of com­ple­xi­ty. Dia­ce­tyl is per­cei­ved only in very minor quan­ti­ties, if at all, as a com­ple­men­ta­ry fla­vor. Balan­ce is mal­ty, but with frui­ti­ness and sour­ness pre­sent. Sweet and tart finish
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-full body. Low to mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on. No astringency.
Over­all Impression
A mal­ty, frui­ty, aged, some­what sour Bel­gi­an-style brown ale.
Typi­cal Ingredients
A base of Pils malt with judi­cious amounts of dark cara mal­ts and a tiny bit of black or roast malt. Often inclu­des mai­ze. Low alpha acid con­ti­nen­tal hops are typi­cal (avoid high alpha or dis­tinc­ti­ve Ame­ri­can hops). Sac­charo­my­ces and Lac­to­ba­c­il­lus (and ace­to­bac­ter) con­tri­bu­te to the fer­men­ta­ti­on and even­tu­al fla­vor. Lac­to­ba­c­il­lus reacts poor­ly to ele­va­ted levels of alco­hol. Water high in car­bo­na­tes is typi­cal of its home regi­on and will buf­fer the aci­di­ty of dar­ker mal­ts and the lac­tic sour­ness. Magne­si­um in the water accen­tua­tes the sourness.
Histo­ry
An “old ale” tra­di­ti­on, indi­ge­nous to East Flan­ders, typi­fied by the pro­ducts of the Lief­man bre­we­ry (now owned by Riva), which has roots back to the 1600s. His­to­ri­cal­ly bre­wed as a “pro­vi­si­on beer” that would deve­lop some sour­ness as it aged. The­se beers were typi­cal­ly more sour than cur­rent com­mer­cial examp­les. While Flan­ders red beers are aged in oak, the brown beers are warm aged in stain­less steel.
Comments
Long aging and blen­ding of young and aged beer may occur, adding smooth­ness and com­ple­xi­ty and balan­cing any har­sh, sour cha­rac­ter. This style was desi­gned to lay down so examp­les with a mode­ra­te aged cha­rac­ter are con­si­de­red supe­ri­or to youn­ger examp­les. As in fruit lam­bics, Oud Bru­in can be used as a base for fruit-fla­vo­r­ed beers such as kriek (cher­ries) or fram­bo­zen (raspber­ries), though the­se should be ent­e­red in the Clas­sic-Style Fruit Beer category. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
Ich­te­gem Oud Bru­in, Lief­mans Gou­den­band, Lief­mans Lief­mans Oud Bru­in, Petrus Oud Bru­in, Riva Von­del, Van­derg­hins­te Bel­le­gems Bruin
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.040 - 1.074 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.012 SG
Color
15 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 8.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 25 IBU
Name
Lam­bic
Cate­go­ry
Euro­pean Sour Ale
BJCP Style Code
23 D
Appearan­ce
Pale yel­low to deep gol­den in color; age tends to dar­ken the beer. Cla­ri­ty is hazy to good. Youn­ger ver­si­ons are often clou­dy, while older ones are gene­ral­ly clear. White colo­red head gene­ral­ly has poor retention.
Aro­ma
A deci­ded­ly sour aro­ma is often domi­nant in young examp­les, but may beco­me more sub­dued with age as it blends with aro­mas descri­bed as barn­y­ard, ear­thy, goa­ty, hay, hor­sey, and hor­se blan­ket. A mild citrus-frui­ty aro­ma is con­si­de­red favor­able. An ente­ric, smo­ky, cigar-like, or chee­sy aro­ma is unfa­vor­able. Older ver­si­ons are com­mon­ly frui­ty with aro­mas of app­les or even honey. No hop aroma. 
Fla­vour
Young examp­les are often noti­ce­ab­ly lac­tic-sour, but aging can bring this cha­rac­ter more in balan­ce with the malt, wheat and barn­y­ard cha­rac­te­ris­tics. Frui­ty fla­vors are simp­ler in young lam­bics and more com­plex in the older examp­les, whe­re they are remi­nis­cent of app­les or other light fruits, rhubarb, or honey. Some citrus fla­vor (often grape­fruit) is occa­sio­nal­ly noti­ce­ab­le, and is desi­ra­ble. The malt and wheat cha­rac­ter are typi­cal­ly low with some brea­dy-grai­ny notes. An ente­ric, smo­ky or cigar-like cha­rac­ter is unde­s­i­ra­ble. Hop bit­ter­ness is low to none, and gene­ral­ly unde­tec­ta­ble; sour­ness pro­vi­des the balan­ce. Typi­cal­ly has a dry finish. No hop flavor.
Mouth­feel
Light to medi­um-light body. In spi­te of the low finis­hing gra­vi­ty, the many mouth-fil­ling fla­vors pre­vent the beer from fee­ling like water. As a rule of thumb, lam­bic dries with age, which makes dry­ness a rea­son­ab­le indi­ca­tor of age. Has a medi­um to high tart, pucke­ring qua­li­ty without being shar­ply astrin­gent. Tra­di­tio­nal ver­si­ons are vir­tual­ly to com­ple­te­ly uncar­bo­na­ted, but bot­t­led examp­les can pick up mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on with age.
Over­all Impression
A fair­ly sour, often moder­ate­ly fun­ky wild Bel­gi­an wheat beer with sour­ness taking the place of hop bit­ter­ness in the balan­ce. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly spon­ta­ne­ous­ly fer­men­ted in the Brussels area and ser­ved uncar­bo­na­ted, the refres­hing aci­di­ty makes for a very plea­sant café drink. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Unmal­ted wheat (30-40%), Pils­ner malt and aged hops (3 years) are used. The aged hops are used more for pre­ser­va­ti­ve effects than bit­ter­ness, and makes actu­al bit­ter­ness levels dif­fi­cult to esti­ma­te. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly the­se beers are spon­ta­ne­ous­ly fer­men­ted with natu­ral­ly occur­ring yeast and bac­te­ria in pre­do­mi­na­te­ly oaken bar­rels. The bar­rels used are neu­tral with litt­le oak cha­rac­ter, so don’t expect a fresh or for­ward oak cha­rac­ter – more neu­tral is typi­cal. Home-bre­wed and craft-bre­wed ver­si­ons are more typi­cal­ly made with pure cul­tures of yeast com­mon­ly inclu­ding Sac­charo­my­ces, Brett­ano­my­ces, Pedio­coc­cus and Lac­to­ba­c­il­lus in an attempt to recrea­te the effects of the domi­nant micro­bio­ta of Brussels and the sur­roun­ding coun­try­si­de of the Sen­ne River val­ley. Cul­tures taken from bot­t­les are some­ti­mes used but the­re is no simp­le way of knowing what orga­nisms are still viable.
Histo­ry
Spon­ta­ne­ous­ly fer­men­ted wild ales from the area in and around Brussels (the Sen­ne Val­ley) stem from a farm­house brewing tra­di­ti­on several cen­tu­ries old. The num­ber of pro­du­cers is con­stant­ly dwindling.
Comments
Strai­ght lam­bics are sin­gle-batch, unblen­ded beers. Sin­ce they are unblen­ded, the strai­ght lam­bic is often a true pro­duct of the “house cha­rac­ter” of a bre­we­ry and will be more varia­ble than a gueu­ze. They are gene­ral­ly ser­ved young (6 mon­ths) and on tap as cheap, easy-drin­king beers without any fil­ling car­bo­na­ti­on. Youn­ger ver­si­ons tend to be one-dimen­sio­nal­ly sour sin­ce a com­plex Brett cha­rac­ter often takes upwards of a year to deve­lop. An ente­ric cha­rac­ter is often indi­ca­ti­ve of a lam­bic that is too young. A noti­ce­ab­le vine­ga­ry or cide­ry cha­rac­ter is con­si­de­red a fault by Bel­gi­an bre­wers. Sin­ce the wild yeast and bac­te­ria will fer­ment ALL sug­ars, they are typi­cal­ly bot­t­led only when they have com­ple­te­ly fermented. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
The only bot­t­led ver­si­on rea­di­ly avail­ab­le is Can­til­lon Grand Cru Bruoc­sel­la of wha­te­ver sin­gle batch vin­ta­ge the bre­wer deems worthy to bot­t­le. De Cam some­ti­mes bot­t­les their very old (5 years) lam­bic. In and around Brussels the­re are spe­cial­ty cafes that often have drau­ght lam­bics from tra­di­tio­nal bre­wers or blen­ders such as Boon, De Cam, Can­til­lon, Drie Font­ei­nen, Lin­de­m­ans, Tim­mer­mans and Girardin.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.040 - 1.054 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.001 - 1.010 SG
Color
3 - 7 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 10 IBU
Name
Gueu­ze
Cate­go­ry
Euro­pean Sour Ale
BJCP Style Code
23 E
Appearan­ce
Gol­den color, with excel­lent cla­ri­ty and a thick, rocky, mousse-like, white head that seems to last fore­ver. Always effervescent.
Aro­ma
A moder­ate­ly sour aro­ma blends with aro­mas descri­bed as barn­y­ard, lea­ther, ear­thy, goa­ty, hay, hor­sey, and hor­se blan­ket. While some may be more domi­nant­ly sour, balan­ce is the key and deno­tes a bet­ter gueu­ze. Com­mon­ly frui­ty with aro­mas of citrus fruits (often grape­fruit), app­les or other light fruits, rhubarb, or honey. A very mild oak aro­ma is con­si­de­red favor­able. An ente­ric, smo­ky, cigar-like, or chee­sy aro­ma is unfa­vor­able. No hop aroma.
Fla­vour
A moder­ate­ly sour cha­rac­ter is clas­si­cal­ly in balan­ce with the malt, wheat and barn­y­ard cha­rac­te­ris­tics. A low, com­ple­men­ta­ry sweet­ness may be pre­sent but hig­her levels are not tra­di­tio­nal. While some may be more domi­nant­ly sour, balan­ce is the key and deno­tes a bet­ter gueu­ze. A varied fruit fla­vor is com­mon, and can have a honey-like cha­rac­ter. A mild vanil­la and/or oak fla­vor is occa­sio­nal­ly noti­ce­ab­le. The malt is gene­ral­ly low and brea­dy-grai­ny. An ente­ric, smo­ky or cigar-like cha­rac­ter is unde­s­i­ra­ble. Hop bit­ter­ness is gene­ral­ly absent but a very low hop bit­ter­ness may occa­sio­nal­ly be per­cei­ved; sour­ness pro­vi­des most of the balan­ce. Crisp, dry, and tart finish. No hop flavor.
Mouth­feel
Light to medi­um-light body. In spi­te of the low finis­hing gra­vi­ty, the many mouth-fil­ling fla­vors pre­vent the beer from fee­ling like water. Has a low to high tart, pucke­ring qua­li­ty without being shar­ply astrin­gent. Some ver­si­ons have a light war­ming cha­rac­ter. High­ly carbonated.
Over­all Impression
A com­plex, plea­s­ant­ly sour but balan­ced wild Bel­gi­an wheat beer that is high­ly car­bo­na­ted and very refres­hing. The spon­ta­ne­ous fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter can pro­vi­de a very inte­res­ting com­ple­xi­ty, with a wide ran­ge of wild barn­y­ard, hor­se blan­ket, or lea­ther cha­rac­te­ris­tics inter­ming­ling with citru­sy-frui­ty fla­vors and acidity.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Unmal­ted wheat (30-40%), Pils­ner malt and aged hops (3 years) are used. The aged hops are used more for pre­ser­va­ti­ve effects than bit­ter­ness, and makes actu­al bit­ter­ness levels dif­fi­cult to esti­ma­te. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly the­se beers are spon­ta­ne­ous­ly fer­men­ted with natu­ral­ly occur­ring yeast and bac­te­ria in pre­do­mi­na­te­ly oaken bar­rels. The bar­rels used are old and have litt­le oak cha­rac­ter, so don’t expect a fresh or for­ward oak cha­rac­ter – more neu­tral is typi­cal. Home-bre­wed and craft-bre­wed ver­si­ons are more typi­cal­ly made with pure cul­tures of yeast com­mon­ly inclu­ding Sac­charo­my­ces, Brett­ano­my­ces, Pedio­coc­cus and Lac­to­ba­c­il­lus in an attempt to recrea­te the effects of the domi­nant micro­bio­ta of Brussels and the sur­roun­ding coun­try­si­de of the Sen­ne River val­ley. Cul­tures taken from bot­t­les are some­ti­mes used but the­re is no simp­le way of knowing what orga­nisms are still viable.
Histo­ry
Spon­ta­ne­ous­ly fer­men­ted wild ales from the area in and around Brussels (the Sen­ne Val­ley) stem from a farm­house brewing and blen­ding tra­di­ti­on several cen­tu­ries old. The num­ber of pro­du­cers is con­stant­ly dwind­ling and some pro­du­cers are untra­di­tio­nal­ly swee­tening their pro­ducts (post-fer­men­ta­ti­on) to make them more pala­ta­ble to a wider audi­ence. The­se gui­de­li­nes descri­be the tra­di­tio­nal dry product.
Comments
Gueu­ze is tra­di­tio­nal­ly pro­du­ced by mixing one, two, and three-year old lam­bic. “Young” lam­bic con­tains fer­men­ta­ble sug­ars while old lam­bic has the cha­rac­te­ris­tic “wild” tas­te of the Sen­ne River val­ley. A noti­ce­ab­le vine­ga­ry or cide­ry cha­rac­ter is con­si­de­red a fault by Bel­gi­an bre­wers. A good gueu­ze is not the most pun­gent, but pos­ses­ses a full and tan­ta­li­zing bou­quet, a sharp aro­ma, and a soft, vel­ve­ty fla­vor. Lam­bic is ser­ved uncar­bo­na­ted, while gueu­ze is ser­ved efferve­scent. Pro­ducts mar­ked oude or vil­le are con­si­de­red most traditional.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Boon Oude Gueu­ze, Boon Oude Gueu­ze Maria­ge Par­fait, Can­til­lon Gueu­ze, De Cam Gueu­ze, De Cam/Drei Font­ei­nen Mill­en­ni­um Gueu­ze, Drie Font­ei­nen Oud Gueu­ze, Girar­din Gueu­ze (Black Label), Hans­sens Oude Gueu­ze, Lin­de­m­ans Gueu­ze Cuvée René, Mort Subi­te (Unfil­te­red) Gueu­ze, Oud Beer­sel Oude Gueuze
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.040 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.000 - 1.006 SG
Color
3 - 7 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 8.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 10 IBU
Name
Fruit Lam­bic
Cate­go­ry
Euro­pean Sour Ale
BJCP Style Code
23 F
Appearan­ce
The varie­ty of fruit gene­ral­ly deter­mi­nes the color, alt­hough ligh­ter-colo­red fruit may have litt­le effect on the color. The color inten­si­ty may fade with age. Cla­ri­ty is often good, alt­hough some fruit will not drop bright. A thick rocky, mousse-like head, some­ti­mes a shade of fruit, is gene­ral­ly long-las­ting (car­bo­na­ti­on-depen­dent). Car­bo­na­ti­on is typi­cal­ly high, but must be specified.
Aro­ma
The spe­ci­fied fruit should be the domi­nant aro­ma. A low to moder­ate­ly sour cha­rac­ter blends with aro­mas descri­bed as barn­y­ard, ear­thy, goa­ty, hay, hor­sey, and hor­se blan­ket (and thus should be reco­gniz­ab­le as a lam­bic). The fruit aro­ma com­mon­ly blends well with the other aro­mas. An ente­ric, smo­ky, cigar-like, or chee­sy aro­ma is unfa­vor­able. No hop aroma.
Fla­vour
The spe­ci­fied fruit should be evi­dent. Low to moder­ate­ly sour fla­vor, often with an aci­dic bite in the finish. The clas­sic barn­y­ard cha­rac­te­ris­tics may be low to high. When young, the beer will pre­sent its full frui­ty tas­te. As it ages, the lam­bic tas­te will beco­me domi­nant at the expen­se of the fruit character—thus fruit lam­bics are not inten­ded for long aging. The finish is com­mon­ly dry and tart, but a low, com­ple­men­ta­ry sweet­ness may be pre­sent; hig­her sweet­ness levels are not tra­di­tio­nal but can be inclu­ded for per­so­nal pre­fe­rence (sweet­ness level must be spe­ci­fied). A mild vanil­la and/or oak fla­vor is occa­sio­nal­ly noti­ce­ab­le. An ente­ric, smo­ky or cigar-like cha­rac­ter is unde­s­i­ra­ble. Hop bit­ter­ness is gene­ral­ly absent; aci­di­ty pro­vi­des the balan­ce. No hop flavor. 
Mouth­feel
Light to medi­um-light body. In spi­te of the low finis­hing gra­vi­ty, the many mouth-fil­ling fla­vors pre­vent the beer from tas­ting like water. Has a low to high tart, pucke­ring qua­li­ty without being shar­ply astrin­gent. Some ver­si­ons have a light war­ming cha­rac­ter. Car­bo­na­ti­on can vary from spar­k­ling to near­ly still (must be specified).
Over­all Impression
A com­plex, frui­ty, plea­s­ant­ly sour, wild wheat ale fer­men­ted by a varie­ty of Bel­gi­an micro­bio­ta, and show­ca­sing the fruit con­tri­bu­ti­ons blen­ded with the wild cha­rac­ter. The type of fruit can some­ti­mes be hard to iden­ti­fy as fer­men­ted and aged fruit cha­rac­te­ris­tics can seem dif­fe­rent from the more reco­gniz­ab­le fresh fruit aro­mas and flavors.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Unmal­ted wheat (30-40%), Pils­ner malt and aged hops (3 years) are used. The aged hops are used more for pre­ser­va­ti­ve effects than bit­ter­ness, and makes actu­al bit­ter­ness levels dif­fi­cult to esti­ma­te. Tra­di­tio­nal pro­ducts use 10-30% fruit (25%, if cher­ry). Fruits tra­di­tio­nal­ly used inclu­de tart cher­ries (with pits), raspber­ries or Mus­cat gra­pes. More recent examp­les inclu­de peaches, apri­cots or mer­lot gra­pes. Tart or aci­dic fruit is tra­di­tio­nal­ly used as its pur­po­se is not to swee­ten the beer but to add a new dimen­si­on. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly the­se beers are spon­ta­ne­ous­ly fer­men­ted with natu­ral­ly occur­ring yeast and bac­te­ria in pre­do­mi­na­te­ly oaken bar­rels. The bar­rels used are old and have litt­le oak cha­rac­ter, so don’t expect a fresh or for­ward oak cha­rac­ter – more neu­tral is typi­cal. Home-bre­wed and craft-bre­wed ver­si­ons are more typi­cal­ly made with pure cul­tures of yeast com­mon­ly inclu­ding Sac­charo­my­ces, Brett­ano­my­ces, Pedio­coc­cus and Lac­to­ba­c­il­lus in an attempt to recrea­te the effects of the domi­nant micro­bio­ta of Brussels and the sur­roun­ding coun­try­si­de of the Sen­ne River val­ley. Cul­tures taken from bot­t­les are some­ti­mes used but the­re is no simp­le way of knowing what orga­nisms are still viable.
Histo­ry
Spon­ta­ne­ous­ly fer­men­ted wild ales from the area in and around Brussels (the Sen­ne Val­ley) stem from a farm­house brewing and blen­ding tra­di­ti­on several cen­tu­ries old. The num­ber of pro­du­cers is con­stant­ly dwind­ling and some are untra­di­tio­nal­ly swee­tening their pro­ducts (post-fer­men­ta­ti­on) with sugar or sweet fruit to make them more pala­ta­ble to a wider audi­ence. Fruit was tra­di­tio­nal­ly added to lam­bic or gueu­ze, eit­her by the blen­der or publi­can, to incre­a­se the varie­ty of beers avail­ab­le in local cafes.
Comments
Fruit-based lam­bics are often pro­du­ced like gueu­ze by mixing one, two, and three-year old lam­bic. “Young” lam­bic con­tains fer­men­ta­ble sug­ars while old lam­bic has the cha­rac­te­ris­tic “wild” tas­te of the Sen­ne River val­ley. Fruit is com­mon­ly added half­way through aging and the yeast and bac­te­ria will fer­ment all sug­ars from the fruit. Fruit may also be added to unblen­ded lam­bic. The most tra­di­tio­nal styles of fruit lam­bics inclu­de kriek (cher­ries), fram­boi­se (raspber­ries) and drui­ven­lam­bik (mus­cat gra­pes). IBUs are appro­xi­ma­te sin­ce aged hops are used; Bel­gi­ans use hops for anti-bac­te­ri­al pro­per­ties more than bit­te­ring in lambics.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Boon Fram­boi­se Mar­ria­ge Par­fait, Boon Kriek Maria­ge Par­fait, Boon Oude Kriek, Can­til­lon Fou’ Fou­ne, Can­til­lon Kriek, Can­til­lon Lou Pepe Kriek, Can­til­lon Lou Pepe Fram­boi­se, Can­til­lon Rose de Gam­bri­nus, Can­til­lon St. Lam­vi­nus, Can­til­lon Vigne­ron­ne, De Cam Oude Kriek, Drie Font­ei­nen Kriek, Girar­din Kriek, Hans­sens Oude Kriek, Oud Beer­sel Kriek, Mort Subi­te Kriek
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.040 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.000 - 1.010 SG
Color
3 - 7 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 7.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 10 IBU
Name
Wit­bier
Cate­go­ry
Bel­gi­an Ale
BJCP Style Code
24 A
Appearan­ce
Very pale straw to very light gold in color. The beer will be very clou­dy from starch haze and/or yeast, which gives it a mil­ky, whitish-yel­low appearan­ce. Den­se, white, mous­sy head. Head reten­ti­on should be qui­te good.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te mal­ty sweet­ness (often with light notes of honey and/or vanil­la) with light, grai­ny, spi­cy wheat aro­ma­tics, often with a bit of tar­t­ness. Mode­ra­te per­fu­my cori­an­der, often with a com­plex her­bal, spi­cy, or pep­pe­ry note in the back­ground. Mode­ra­te zes­ty, citru­sy-oran­gey frui­ti­ness. A low spi­cy-her­bal hop aro­ma is optio­nal, but should never over­power the other cha­rac­te­ris­tics. Vege­tal, cele­ry-like, or ham-like aro­mas are inap­pro­pria­te. Spi­ces should blend in with frui­ty, flo­ral and sweet aro­mas and should not be over­ly strong.
Fla­vour
Plea­sant mal­ty-sweet grain fla­vor (often with a honey and/or vanil­la cha­rac­ter) and a zes­ty, oran­ge-citru­sy frui­ti­ness. Refres­hin­gly crisp with a dry, often tart, finish. Can have a low brea­dy wheat fla­vor. Optio­nal­ly has a very light lac­tic-tas­ting sour­ness. Her­bal-spi­cy fla­vors, which may inclu­de cori­an­der and other spi­ces, are com­mon should be sub­t­le and balan­ced, not over­powe­ring. A spi­cy-ear­thy hop fla­vor is low to none, and if noti­ce­ab­le, never gets in the way of the spi­ces. Hop bit­ter­ness is low to medi­um-low, and doesn’t inter­fe­re with refres­hing fla­vors of fruit and spi­ce, nor does it per­sist into the finish. Bit­ter­ness from oran­ge pith should not be pre­sent. Vege­tal, cele­ry-like, ham-like, or soapy fla­vors are inappropriate. 
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body, often having a smooth­ness and light crea­m­i­ness from unmal­ted wheat and the occa­sio­nal oats. Des­pi­te body and crea­m­i­ness, finis­hes dry and often a bit tart. Efferve­scent cha­rac­ter from high car­bo­na­ti­on. Refres­hing, from car­bo­na­ti­on, light aci­di­ty, and lack of bit­ter­ness in finish. No har­sh­ness or astrin­gen­cy from oran­ge pith. Should not be over­ly dry and thin, nor should it be thick and heavy.
Over­all Impression
A refres­hing, ele­gant, tas­ty, mode­ra­te-strength wheat-based ale.
Typi­cal Ingredients
About 50% unmal­ted wheat and 50% pale bar­ley malt (usual­ly Pils malt) con­sti­tu­te the grist. In some ver­si­ons, up to 5-10% raw oats may be used. Spi­ces of fresh­ly-ground cori­an­der and Cura­çao or some­ti­mes sweet oran­ge peel com­ple­ment the sweet aro­ma and are qui­te cha­rac­te­ris­tic. Other spi­ces (e.g., cha­mo­mi­le, cumin, cin­na­mon, Grains of Para­di­se) may be used for com­ple­xi­ty but are much less pro­mi­nent. Ale yeast pro­ne to the pro­duc­tion of mild, spi­cy fla­vors is very cha­rac­te­ris­tic. In some instan­ces a very limi­ted lac­tic fer­men­ta­ti­on, or the actu­al addi­ti­on of lac­tic acid, is done.
Histo­ry
A 400-year-old Bel­gi­an beer style that died out in the 1950s; it was later revi­ved by Pierre Celis at Hoe­gaar­den, and has grown steadi­ly in popu­la­ri­ty over time, both with modern craft bre­wers and mass-mar­ket pro­du­cers who see it as a some­what frui­ty sum­mer sea­so­nal beer. 
Comments
The pre­sence, cha­rac­ter and degree of spi­cing and lac­tic sour­ness varies. Over­ly spi­ced and/or sour beers are not good examp­les of the style. Cori­an­der of cer­tain ori­gins might give an inap­pro­pria­te ham or cele­ry cha­rac­ter. The beer tends to be fra­gi­le and does not age well, so youn­ger, fres­her, pro­per­ly hand­led examp­les are most desi­ra­ble. Most examp­les seem to be appro­xi­mate­ly 5% ABV.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Allagash White, Blan­che de Bru­xel­les, Celis White, Hoe­gaar­den Wit, Omme­ga­ng Wit­te, St. Ber­nar­dus Wit­bier, Wittekerke
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.052 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.012 SG
Color
2 - 4 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
8 - 20 IBU
Name
Bel­gi­an Pale Ale
Cate­go­ry
Bel­gi­an Ale
BJCP Style Code
24 B
Appearan­ce
Amber to cop­per in color. Cla­ri­ty is very good. Crea­my, rocky, white head often fades more quick­ly than other Bel­gi­an beers.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te malt aro­ma, which can be a com­bi­na­ti­on of toas­ty, bis­cui­ty, or nut­ty, pos­si­b­ly with a touch of light cara­mel or honey. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly high frui­ti­ness with an oran­ge- or pear-like cha­rac­ter. Low to mode­ra­te strength hop cha­rac­ter (spi­cy, her­bal, or flo­ral) optio­nal­ly blen­ded with back­ground level pep­pe­ry, spi­cy phe­nols. The hop cha­rac­ter is lower in balan­ce than the malt and fruitiness. 
Fla­vour
Has an initi­al soft, smooth, moder­ate­ly mal­ty fla­vor with a varia­ble pro­fi­le of toas­ty, bis­cui­ty, nut­ty, light cara­mel and/or honey notes. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly high frui­ti­ness, some­ti­mes oran­ge- or pear-like. Rela­tively light (medi­um-low to low) spi­cy, her­bal, or flo­ral hop cha­rac­ter. The hop bit­ter­ness is medi­um-high to medi­um-low, and is optio­nal­ly enhan­ced by low to very low amounts of pep­pe­ry phe­nols. The­re is a dry to balan­ced finish, with hops beco­m­ing more pro­noun­ced in the after­tas­te of tho­se with a dri­er finish. Fair­ly well balan­ced over­all, with no sin­gle com­po­nent being high in inten­si­ty; malt and frui­ti­ness are more for­ward initi­al­ly with a sup­por­ti­ve bit­ter­ness and dry­ing cha­rac­ter com­ing on late.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-light body. Smooth pala­te. Alco­hol level is restrai­ned, and any war­ming cha­rac­ter should be low if pre­sent. Medi­um to medi­um-high carbonation.
Over­all Impression
A moder­ate­ly mal­ty, some­what frui­ty, easy-drin­king, cop­per-colo­red Bel­gi­an ale that is some­what less aggres­si­ve in fla­vor pro­fi­le than many other Bel­gi­an beers. The malt cha­rac­ter tends to be a bit bis­cui­ty with light toas­ty, honey-like, or cara­mel­ly com­pon­ents; the fruit cha­rac­ter is noti­ce­ab­le and com­ple­men­ta­ry to the malt. The bit­ter­ness level is gene­ral­ly mode­ra­te, but may not seem as high due to the fla­vor­ful malt profile.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pils­ner or pale ale malt con­tri­bu­tes the bulk of the grist with (cara) Vien­na and Munich mal­ts adding color, body and com­ple­xi­ty. Sugar is not com­mon­ly used as high gra­vi­ty is not desi­red. Saa­zer-type hops, Sty­ri­an Gol­dings, East Kent Gol­dings or Fug­gles are com­mon­ly used. Yeasts pro­ne to mode­ra­te pro­duc­tion of phe­nols are often used but fer­men­ta­ti­on tem­pe­ra­tures should be kept mode­ra­te to limit this character.
Histo­ry
Pro­du­ced by bre­we­ries with roots as far back as the mid-1700s, the most well-known examp­les were per­fec­ted after the Second World War with some influ­ence from Bri­tain, inclu­ding hops and yeast strains. 
Comments
Most com­mon­ly found in the Fle­mish pro­vin­ces of Ant­werp and Bra­bant. Con­si­de­red “ever­y­day” beers (Cate­go­ry I). Com­pa­red to their hig­her alco­hol Cate­go­ry S cou­sins, they are Bel­gi­an “ses­si­on beers” for ease of drin­king. Not­hing should be too pro­noun­ced or domi­nant; balan­ce is the key. Yeast cha­rac­ter gene­ral­ly more sub­t­le than many Bel­gi­an beers, with some of the frui­ti­ness being hop-driven.
Com­mer­cial Examples
De Koninck, De Ryck Spe­cial, Palm Dob­b­le, Palm Speciale
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.048 - 1.054 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.014 SG
Color
8 - 14 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 30 IBU
Name
Biè­re de Garde
Cate­go­ry
Bel­gi­an Ale
BJCP Style Code
24 C
Appearan­ce
Three main varia­ti­ons exist (blond, amber and brown), so color can ran­ge from gol­den-blon­de to red­dish-bron­ze to ches­t­nut brown. Cla­ri­ty is bril­li­ant to fair, alt­hough haze is not unex­pec­ted in this type of often unfil­te­red beer. Well-for­med head, gene­ral­ly white to off-white (varies by beer color), average persistence. 
Aro­ma
Pro­mi­nent mal­ty sweet­ness, often with a com­plex, light to mode­ra­te inten­si­ty toas­ty-brea­dy-rich malt cha­rac­ter. Low to mode­ra­te esters. Litt­le to no hop aro­ma (may be a bit spi­cy, pep­pe­ry, or her­bal). Paler ver­si­ons will still be mal­ty but will lack richer, deeper aro­ma­tics and may have a bit more hops. Gene­ral­ly qui­te clean, alt­hough stron­ger ver­si­ons may have a light, spi­cy alco­hol note as it warms.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to high malt fla­vor often with a toas­ty-rich, bis­cui­ty, tof­fee-like or light cara­mel-sweet cha­rac­ter. Malt fla­vors and com­ple­xi­ty tend to incre­a­se with beer color. Low to mode­ra­te esters and alco­hol fla­vors. Medi­um-low hop bit­ter­ness pro­vi­des some sup­port, but the balan­ce is always til­ted toward the malt. Dar­ker ver­si­ons will have more of an initi­al mal­ty-sweet impres­si­on than paler ver­si­ons, but all should be mal­ty in the pala­te and finish. The malt fla­vor lasts into the finish, which is medi­um-dry to dry, never cloy­ing. Low to no hop fla­vor (spi­cy, pep­pe­ry, or her­bal), alt­hough paler ver­si­ons can have slight­ly hig­her levels of her­bal or spi­cy hop fla­vor (which can also come from the yeast). Smooth, well-lage­red cha­rac­ter, even if made with ale yeast. After­tas­te of malt (cha­rac­ter appro­pria­te for the color) with some dry­ness and light alcohol.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-light (lean) body, often with a smooth, crea­my-sil­ky cha­rac­ter. Mode­ra­te to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Mode­ra­te alco­hol war­ming, but should be very smooth and never hot.
Over­all Impression
A fair­ly strong, malt-accen­tua­ted, lage­red artis­anal beer with a ran­ge of malt fla­vors appro­pria­te for the color. All are mal­ty yet dry, with clean fla­vors and a smooth character.
Typi­cal Ingredients
The “cel­lar” cha­rac­ter com­mon­ly descri­bed in lite­ra­tu­re is more of a fea­ture of mis­hand­led com­mer­cial exports than fresh, authen­tic pro­ducts. The some­what mol­dy cha­rac­ter comes from the corks and/or oxi­da­ti­on in com­mer­cial ver­si­ons, and is incor­rect­ly iden­ti­fied as “mus­ty” or “cel­lar-like.” Base mal­ts vary by beer color, but usual­ly inclu­de pale, Vien­na and Munich types. Dar­ker ver­si­ons will have richer malt com­ple­xi­ty and sweet­ness from crys­tal-type mal­ts. Sugar may be used to add fla­vor and aid in the dry finish. Lager or ale yeast fer­men­ted at cool ale tem­pe­ra­tures, fol­lo­wed by long cold con­di­tio­ning. Flo­ral, her­bal or spi­cy con­ti­nen­tal hops.
Histo­ry
Name liter­al­ly means “beer which has been kept or lage­red.” A tra­di­tio­nal artis­anal ale from Nort­hern Fran­ce bre­wed in ear­ly spring and kept in cold cel­lars for con­sump­ti­on in war­mer wea­ther. It is now bre­wed year-round. 
Comments
Three main varia­ti­ons are inclu­ded in the style: the brown (bru­ne), the blond (blon­de), and the amber (ambrée). The dar­ker ver­si­ons will have more malt cha­rac­ter, while the paler ver­si­ons can have more hops (but still are malt-focu­sed beers). A rela­ted style is Biè­re de Mars, which is bre­wed in March (Mars) for pre­sent use and will not age as well. Atte­nua­ti­on rates are in the 80-85% ran­ge. Some ful­ler-bodi­ed examp­les exist, but the­se are some­what rare. Age and oxi­da­ti­on in imports often incre­a­ses frui­ti­ness, cara­mel fla­vors, and adds cor­ked and mus­ty notes; the­se are all signs of mis­hand­ling, not cha­rac­te­ris­tic ele­ments of the style.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Ch’Ti (brown and blond), Jen­lain (amber and blond), La Chou­let­te (all 3 ver­si­ons), St. Amand (brown), Saint Syl­vest­re 3 Monts (blond), Rus­si­an River Perdition
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.060 - 1.080 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.016 SG
Color
6 - 19 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 8.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
18 - 28 IBU
Name
Bel­gi­an Blond Ale
Cate­go­ry
Strong Bel­gi­an Ale
BJCP Style Code
25 A
Appearan­ce
Light to deep gold color. Gene­ral­ly very clear. Lar­ge, den­se, and crea­my white to off-white head. Good head reten­ti­on with Bel­gi­an lace.
Aro­ma
Light ear­thy or spi­cy hop nose, along with a light­ly grai­ny-sweet malt cha­rac­ter. Shows a sub­t­le yeast cha­rac­ter that may inclu­de spi­cy phe­n­o­lics, per­fu­my or honey-like alco­hol, or yeas­ty, frui­ty esters (com­mon­ly oran­ge-like or lemo­ny). Light sweet­ness that may have a slight­ly sugar-like cha­rac­ter. Sub­t­le yet complex.
Fla­vour
Smooth, light to mode­ra­te grai­ny-sweet malt fla­vor initi­al­ly, but finis­hes medi­um-dry to dry with some smooth alco­hol beco­m­ing evi­dent in the after­tas­te. Medi­um hop and alco­hol bit­ter­ness to balan­ce. Light hop fla­vor, can be spi­cy or ear­thy. Very soft yeast cha­rac­ter (esters and alco­hols, which are some­ti­mes per­fu­my or oran­ge/­le­mon-like). Light spi­cy phe­n­o­lics optio­nal. Some light­ly cara­me­li­zed sugar or honey-like sweet­ness on palate.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-high to high car­bo­na­ti­on, can give mouth-fil­ling bub­bly sen­sa­ti­on. Medi­um body. Light to mode­ra­te alco­hol warm­th, but smooth. Can be some­what creamy.
Over­all Impression
A mode­ra­te-strength gol­den ale that has a sub­t­le frui­ty-spi­cy Bel­gi­an yeast com­ple­xi­ty, slight­ly mal­ty-sweet fla­vor, and dry finish.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Bel­gi­an Pils malt, aro­ma­tic mal­ts, sugar, Bel­gi­an yeast strains that pro­du­ce com­plex alco­hol, phe­n­o­lics and per­fu­my esters, Saa­zer-type, Sty­ri­an Gol­dings, or East Kent Gol­dings hops. Spi­ces are not tra­di­tio­nal­ly used, alt­hough the ingre­dients and fer­men­ta­ti­on by-pro­ducts may give an impres­si­on of spi­cing (often remi­nis­cent of oran­ges or lemons). If spi­ces are pre­sent, should be a back­ground cha­rac­ter only.
Histo­ry
Rela­tively recent deve­lo­p­ment to fur­ther appeal to Euro­pean Pils drin­kers, beco­m­ing more popu­lar as it is hea­vi­ly mar­ke­ted and wide­ly distributed.
Comments
Often has an almost lager-like cha­rac­ter, which gives it a clea­ner pro­fi­le in com­pa­ri­son to many other Bel­gi­an styles. Bel­gi­ans use the term Blond, while the French spell it Blon­de. Most com­mer­cial examp­les are in the 6.5 – 7% ABV ran­ge. Many Trap­pist or artis­anal Bel­gi­an beers are cal­led Blond but tho­se are not repre­sen­ta­ti­ve of this style.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Aff­li­gem Blond, Grim­ber­gen Blond, La Trap­pe Blond, Lef­fe Blond, Val-Dieu Blond
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.062 - 1.075 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.018 SG
Color
4 - 7 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 7.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
15 - 30 IBU
Name
Sai­son
Cate­go­ry
Strong Bel­gi­an Ale
BJCP Style Code
25 B
Appearan­ce
Pale ver­si­ons are often a dis­tinc­ti­ve pale oran­ge but may be pale gol­den to amber in color (gold to amber-gold is most com­mon). Dar­ker ver­si­ons may run from cop­per to dark brown. Long-las­ting, den­se, rocky white to ivory head resul­ting in cha­rac­te­ris­tic Bel­gi­an lace on the glass as it fades. Cla­ri­ty is poor to good, though haze is not unex­pec­ted in this type of unfil­te­red beer. Effervescent.
Aro­ma
Qui­te aro­ma­tic, with frui­ty, spi­cy, and hop­py cha­rac­te­ris­tics evi­dent. The esters can be fair­ly high (mode­ra­te to high), and are often remi­nis­cent of citrus fruits such as oran­ges or lemons. The hops are low to mode­ra­te and are often spi­cy, flo­ral, ear­thy, or frui­ty. Stron­ger ver­si­ons can have a soft, spi­cy alco­hol note (low inten­si­ty). Spi­cy notes are typi­cal­ly pep­pe­ry rather than clove-like, and can be up to moder­ate­ly-strong (typi­cal­ly yeast-deri­ved). Sub­t­le, com­ple­men­ta­ry herb or spi­ce addi­ti­ons are allo­wa­ble, but should not domi­na­te. The malt cha­rac­ter is typi­cal­ly slight­ly grai­ny in cha­rac­ter and low in inten­si­ty. Dar­ker and stron­ger ver­si­ons will have more noti­ce­ab­le malt, with dar­ker ver­si­ons taking cha­rac­te­ris­tics asso­cia­ted with grains of that color (toas­ty, bis­cui­ty, cara­mel­ly, cho­co­la­te, etc.). In ver­si­ons whe­re sour­ness is pre­sent ins­tead of bit­ter­ness, some of the sour cha­rac­ter can be detec­ted (low to moderate).
Fla­vour
Medi­um-low to medi­um-high frui­ty and spi­cy fla­vors, sup­por­ted by a low to medi­um soft malt cha­rac­ter, often with some grai­ny fla­vors. Bit­ter­ness is typi­cal­ly mode­ra­te to high, alt­hough sour­ness can be pre­sent in place of bit­ter­ness (both should not be strong fla­vors at the same time). Atte­nua­ti­on is extre­me­ly high, which gives a cha­rac­te­ris­tic dry finish essen­ti­al to the style; a Sai­son should never finish sweet. The frui­ty cha­rac­ter is fre­quent­ly citru­sy (oran­ge or lemon), and the spi­ces are typi­cal­ly pep­pe­ry. Allow for a ran­ge of balan­ce in the frui­ty-spi­cy cha­rac­te­ris­tics; this is often dri­ven by the yeast selec­tion. Hop fla­vor is low to mode­ra­te, and gene­ral­ly spi­cy or ear­thy in cha­rac­ter. The balan­ce is towards the frui­ty, spi­cy, hop­py cha­rac­ter, with any bit­ter­ness or sour­ness not over­whel­ming the­se fla­vors. Dar­ker ver­si­ons will have more malt cha­rac­ter, with a ran­ge of fla­vors deri­ved from dar­ker mal­ts (toas­ty, brea­dy, bis­cui­ty, cho­co­la­te, etc.) that sup­port the frui­ty-spi­cy cha­rac­ter of the beer (roas­ted fla­vors are not typi­cal). Stron­ger ver­si­ons will have more malt fla­vor in gene­ral, as well as a light alco­hol impres­si­on. Herbs and spi­ces are com­ple­te­ly optio­nal, but if pre­sent should be used in mode­ra­ti­on and not detract from the yeast cha­rac­ter. The finish is very dry and the after­tas­te is typi­cal­ly bit­ter and spi­cy. The hop bit­ter­ness can be restrai­ned, alt­hough it can seem accen­tua­ted due to the high atte­nua­ti­on levels.
Mouth­feel
Light to medi­um body. Alco­hol sen­sa­ti­on varies with strength, from none in table ver­si­on to light in stan­dard ver­si­ons, to mode­ra­te in super ver­si­ons. Howe­ver, any war­ming cha­rac­ter should be fair­ly low. Very high car­bo­na­ti­on with an efferve­scent qua­li­ty. The­re is enough prick­ly aci­di­ty on the tongue to balan­ce the very dry finish. In ver­si­ons with sour­ness, a low to mode­ra­te tart cha­rac­ter can add a refres­hing bite, but not be pucke­ring (optio­nal).
Over­all Impression
Most com­mon­ly, a pale, refres­hing, high­ly-atte­nua­ted, moder­ate­ly-bit­ter, mode­ra­te-strength Bel­gi­an ale with a very dry finish. Typi­cal­ly high­ly car­bo­na­ted, and using non-bar­ley cere­al grains and optio­nal spi­ces for com­ple­xi­ty, as com­ple­ments the expres­si­ve yeast cha­rac­ter that is frui­ty, spi­cy, and not over­ly phe­n­o­lic. Less com­mon varia­ti­ons inclu­de both lower-alco­hol and hig­her-alco­hol pro­ducts, as well as dar­ker ver­si­ons with addi­tio­nal malt character.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Not typi­cal­ly spi­ced, with the yeast, hops and grain pro­vi­ding the cha­rac­ter; but spi­ces are allo­wed if they pro­vi­de a com­ple­men­ta­ry cha­rac­ter. Con­ti­nen­tal base mal­ts are typi­cal, but the grist fre­quent­ly con­tains other grains such as wheat, oats, rye, or spelt. Adjuncts such as sugar and honey can also ser­ve to add com­ple­xi­ty and dry out the beer. Dar­ker ver­si­ons will typi­cal­ly use richer, dar­ker mal­ts, but not typi­cal­ly roas­ted types. Saa­zer-type, Sty­ri­an or East Kent Gol­ding hops are com­mon­ly used. A wide ran­ge of herbs or spi­ces can add com­ple­xi­ty and uni­queness, but should always meld well with the yeast and hop cha­rac­ter. Brett­ano­my­ces is not typi­cal for this style; Sai­sons with Brett should be ent­e­red in the Ame­ri­can Wild Ale category.
Histo­ry
A pro­vi­si­on ale ori­gi­nal­ly bre­wed in Wal­lo­nia, the French-spea­king part of Bel­gi­um, for con­sump­ti­on during the acti­ve far­ming sea­son. Ori­gi­nal­ly a lower-alco­hol pro­duct so as to not debi­li­ta­te field workers, but tavern-strength pro­ducts also exis­ted. Hig­her-strength and dif­fe­rent-colo­red pro­ducts appeared after WWII. The best known modern sai­son, Sai­son Dupont, was first pro­du­ced in the 1920s. Ori­gi­nal­ly a rustic, artis­anal ale made with local farm-pro­du­ced ingre­dients, it is now bre­wed most­ly in lar­ger bre­we­ries yet retains the image of its hum­ble origins.
Comments
Varia­ti­ons exist in strength and color, but they all have simi­lar cha­rac­te­ris­tics and balan­ce, in par­ti­cu­lar­ly the refres­hing, high­ly-atte­nua­ted, dry cha­rac­ter with high car­bo­na­ti­on. The­re is no cor­re­la­ti­on bet­ween strength and color. The balan­ce can chan­ge some­what with strength and color varia­ti­ons, but the fami­ly resem­blan­ce to the ori­gi­nal artis­anal ale should be evi­dent. Pale ver­si­ons are likely to be more bit­ter and have more hop cha­rac­ter, while dar­ker ver­si­ons tend to have more malt cha­rac­ter and sweet­ness, yiel­ding a more balan­ced pre­sen­ta­ti­ons. Stron­ger ver­si­ons often will have more malt fla­vor, rich­ness, and body sim­ply due to their hig­her gra­vi­ty. Alt­hough they tend to be very well-atte­nua­ted, they may not be per­cei­ved to be as dry as stan­dard-strength sai­sons due to their strength. The Sai­son yeast cha­rac­ter is a must, alt­hough mal­tier and richer ver­si­ons will tend to mask this cha­rac­ter more. Often cal­led Farm­house ales in the US, but this term is not com­mon in Euro­pe whe­re they are sim­ply part of a lar­ger grou­ping of artis­anal ales. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
Elle­zel­loi­se Sai­son, Fan­tô­me Sai­son, Lef­eb­v­re Sai­son 1900, Sai­son Dupont Vieil­le Pro­vi­si­on, Sai­son de Pipaix, Sai­son Regal, Sai­son Voi­sin, Bou­le­vard Tank 7 Farm­house Ale
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.048 - 1.065 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.002 - 1.008 SG
Color
5 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
3.0 - 9.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 35 IBU
Name
Bel­gi­an Gol­den Strong Ale
Cate­go­ry
Strong Bel­gi­an Ale
BJCP Style Code
25 C
Appearan­ce
Yel­low to medi­um gold in color. Good cla­ri­ty. Efferve­scent. Mas­si­ve, long-las­ting, rocky, often bea­dy, white head resul­ting in cha­rac­te­ris­tic Bel­gi­an lace on the glass as it fades.
Aro­ma
Com­plex with signi­fi­cant frui­ty esters, mode­ra­te spi­ci­ness and low to mode­ra­te alco­hol and hop aro­mas. Esters are remi­nis­cent of ligh­ter fruits such as pears, oran­ges or app­les. Mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly low spi­cy, pep­pe­ry phe­nols. A low to mode­ra­te yet dis­tinc­ti­ve per­fu­my, flo­ral hop cha­rac­ter is often pre­sent. Alco­hols are soft, spi­cy, per­fu­my and low-to-mode­ra­te in inten­si­ty. No hot alco­hol or sol­ven­ty aro­mas. The malt cha­rac­ter is light and slight­ly grai­ny-sweet to near­ly neutral.
Fla­vour
Mar­ria­ge of frui­ty, spi­cy and alco­hol fla­vors sup­por­ted by a soft malt cha­rac­ter. Esters are remi­nis­cent of pears, oran­ges or app­les. Low to moder­ate­ly low phe­nols are pep­pe­ry in cha­rac­ter. A low to mode­ra­te spi­cy hop cha­rac­ter is often pre­sent. Alco­hols are soft and spi­cy, and are low-to-mode­ra­te in inten­si­ty. Bit­ter­ness is typi­cal­ly medi­um to high from a com­bi­na­ti­on of hop bit­ter­ness and yeast-pro­du­ced phe­n­o­lics. Sub­stan­ti­al car­bo­na­ti­on and bit­ter­ness leads to a dry finish with a low to moder­ate­ly bit­ter aftertaste. 
Mouth­feel
Very high­ly car­bo­na­ted; efferve­scent. Light to medi­um body, alt­hough ligh­ter than the sub­stan­ti­al gra­vi­ty would sug­gest. Smooth but noti­ce­ab­le alco­hol warm­th. No hot alco­hol or sol­ven­ty character. 
Over­all Impression
A pale, com­plex, efferve­scent, strong Bel­gi­an-style ale that is high­ly atte­nua­ted and fea­tures frui­ty and hop­py notes in pre­fe­rence to phenolics.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pils­ner malt with sub­stan­ti­al suga­ry adjuncts. Saa­zer-type hops or Sty­ri­an Gol­dings are com­mon­ly used. Bel­gi­an yeast strains are used – tho­se that pro­du­ce frui­ty esters, spi­cy phe­n­o­lics and hig­her alco­hols – often aided by slight­ly war­mer fer­men­ta­ti­on tem­pe­ra­tures. Fair­ly soft water. Spi­cing is not tra­di­tio­nal; if pre­sent, should be a back­ground cha­rac­ter only.
Histo­ry
Ori­gi­nal­ly deve­lo­ped by the Moort­gat bre­we­ry after WWI as a respon­se to the gro­wing popu­la­ri­ty of Pils­ner beers.
Comments
Refe­ren­ces to the devil are inclu­ded in the names of many com­mer­cial examp­les of this style, refer­ring to their potent alco­ho­lic strength and as a tri­bu­te to the ori­gi­nal examp­le (Duvel). The best examp­les are com­plex and deli­ca­te. High car­bo­na­ti­on hel­ps to bring out the many fla­vors and to incre­a­se the per­cep­ti­on of a dry finish. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly bot­t­le-con­di­tio­ned (or refer­men­ted in the bottle).
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bri­gand, Deli­ri­um Tre­mens, Dul­le Teve, Duvel, Judas, Luci­fer, Piraat, Rus­si­an River Damnation
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.070 - 1.095 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.005 - 1.016 SG
Color
3 - 6 SRM
Alco­hol
7.0 - 10.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
22 - 35 IBU
Name
Trap­pist Single
Cate­go­ry
Trap­pist Ale
BJCP Style Code
26 A
Appearan­ce
Pale yel­low to medi­um gold color. Gene­ral­ly good cla­ri­ty, with a mode­ra­te-sized, per­sis­tent, bil­lo­wy white head with cha­rac­te­ris­tic lacing.
Aro­ma
Medi­um-low to medi­um-high Trap­pist yeast cha­rac­ter, showing a frui­ty-spi­cy cha­rac­ter along with medi­um-low to medi­um spi­cy or flo­ral hops, occa­sio­nal­ly enhan­ced by light herbal/citrusy spi­ce addi­ti­ons. Low to medi­um-low grai­ny-sweet malt back­drop, which may have a light honey or sugar qua­li­ty. Fruit expres­si­on can vary wide­ly (citrus, pome fruit, stone fruit). Light spi­cy, yeast-dri­ven phe­n­o­lics found in the best examp­les. Bub­ble­gum inappropriate.
Fla­vour
Frui­ty, hop­py, bit­ter, and dry. Initi­al mal­ty-sweet impres­si­on, with a grai­ny-sweet soft malt pala­te, and a dry, hop­py finish. The malt may have a light honey­ed bis­cuit or cra­cker impres­si­on. Mode­ra­te spi­cy or flo­ral hop fla­vor. Esters can be citrus (oran­ge, lemon, grape­fruit), pome fruit (apple, pear), or stone fruit (apri­cot, peach). Light to mode­ra­te spi­cy, pep­pe­ry, or clove phe­n­o­lics. Bit­ter­ness rises towards the crisp, dry finish, with an after­tas­te of light malt, mode­ra­te hops and yeast character.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body. Smooth. Medi­um-high to high car­bo­na­ti­on, can be some­what prick­ly. Should not have noti­ce­ab­le alco­hol warmth.
Over­all Impression
A pale, bit­ter, high­ly atte­nua­ted and well car­bo­na­ted Trap­pist ale, showing a frui­ty-spi­cy Trap­pist yeast cha­rac­ter, a spi­cy-flo­ral hop pro­fi­le, and a soft, sup­por­ti­ve grai­ny-sweet malt palate. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pils­ner malt, Bel­gi­an Trap­pist yeast, Saa­zer-type hops.
Histo­ry
While Trap­pist bre­we­ries have a tra­di­ti­on of brewing a lower-strength beer as a monk’s dai­ly rati­on, the bit­ter, pale beer this style descri­bes is a rela­tively modern inven­ti­on reflec­ting cur­rent tas­tes. Westv­le­te­ren first bre­wed theirs in 1999, but repla­ced older lower-gra­vi­ty products.
Comments
Often not labe­led or avail­ab­le out­side the monas­te­ry, or infre­quent­ly bre­wed. Might also be cal­led monk’s beer or Brother’s beer. High­ly atte­nua­ted, gene­ral­ly 85% or higher.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Achel 5° Blond, St. Ber­nar­dus Extra 4, West­malle Extra, Westv­le­te­ren Blond
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.054 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.004 - 1.010 SG
Color
3 - 5 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 45 IBU
Name
Bel­gi­an Dubbel
Cate­go­ry
Trap­pist Ale
BJCP Style Code
26 B
Appearan­ce
Dark amber to cop­per in color, with an attrac­ti­ve red­dish depth of color. Gene­ral­ly clear. Lar­ge, den­se, and long-las­ting crea­my off-white head.
Aro­ma
Com­plex, rich-sweet mal­ty aro­ma, pos­si­b­ly with hints of cho­co­la­te, cara­mel and/or toast (but never roas­ted or burnt aro­mas). Mode­ra­te frui­ty esters (usual­ly inclu­ding raisins and plums, some­ti­mes also dried cher­ries). Esters some­ti­mes inclu­de bana­na or apple. Spi­cy phe­nols and hig­her alco­hols are com­mon (may inclu­de light clove and spi­ce, pep­pe­ry, rose-like and/or per­fu­my notes). Spi­cy qua­li­ties can be mode­ra­te to very low. Alco­hol, if pre­sent, is soft and never hot or sol­ven­ty. Low to no spi­cy, her­bal, or flo­ral hop aro­ma, typi­cal­ly absent. The malt is most pro­mi­nent in the balan­ce with esters and a touch of alco­hol in sup­port, blen­ding tog­e­ther for a har­mo­nious presentation. 
Fla­vour
Simi­lar qua­li­ties as aro­ma. Rich, com­plex medi­um to medi­um-full rich-sweet malt fla­vor on the pala­te yet finis­hes moder­ate­ly dry. Com­plex malt, ester, alco­hol and phe­nol inter­play (rai­si­ny fla­vors are com­mon; dried fruit fla­vors are wel­co­me; clove or pep­per spi­ci­ness is optio­nal). Balan­ce is always toward the malt. Medi­um-low bit­ter­ness that doesn’t per­sist into the after­tas­te. Low spi­cy, flo­ral, or her­bal hop fla­vor is optio­nal and not usual­ly present. 
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-full body. Medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on, which can influ­ence the per­cep­ti­on of body. Low alco­hol warm­th. Smooth, never hot or solventy.
Over­all Impression
A deep red­dish-cop­per, moder­ate­ly strong, mal­ty, com­plex Trap­pist ale with rich mal­ty fla­vors, dark or dried fruit esters, and light alco­hol blen­ded tog­e­ther in a mal­ty pre­sen­ta­ti­on that still finis­hes fair­ly dry.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Bel­gi­an yeast strains pro­ne to pro­duc­tion of hig­her alco­hols, esters, and phe­n­o­lics are com­mon­ly used. Impres­si­on of com­plex grain bill, alt­hough tra­di­tio­nal ver­si­ons are typi­cal­ly Bel­gi­an Pils malt with cara­me­li­zed sugar syrup or other unre­fi­ned sug­ars pro­vi­ding much of the cha­rac­ter. Saa­zer-type, Eng­lish-type or Sty­ri­an Gol­dings hops com­mon­ly used. No spi­ces are tra­di­tio­nal­ly used, alt­hough restrai­ned use is allo­wa­ble (back­ground strength only).
Histo­ry
Ori­gi­na­ted at monas­te­ries in the Midd­le Ages, and was revi­ved in the mid-1800s after the Napo­leo­nic era.
Comments
Most com­mer­cial examp­les are in the 6.5 – 7% ABV ran­ge. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly bot­t­le-con­di­tio­ned (or refer­men­ted in the bottle).
Com­mer­cial Examples
Aff­li­gem Dub­bel, Chi­may Pre­miè­re, Cor­sen­donk Pater, Grim­ber­gen Dou­ble, La Trap­pe Dub­bel, St. Ber­nar­dus Pater 6, Trap­pis­tes Roche­fort 6, West­malle Dubbel
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.062 - 1.075 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.018 SG
Color
10 - 17 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 7.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
15 - 25 IBU
Name
Bel­gi­an Tripel
Cate­go­ry
Trap­pist Ale
BJCP Style Code
26 C
Appearan­ce
Deep yel­low to deep gold in color. Good cla­ri­ty. Efferve­scent. Long-las­ting, crea­my, rocky, white head resul­ting in cha­rac­te­ris­tic Bel­gi­an lace on the glass as it fades.
Aro­ma
Com­plex bou­quet with mode­ra­te to signi­fi­cant spi­ci­ness, mode­ra­te frui­ty esters and low alco­hol and hop aro­mas. Generous spi­cy, pep­pe­ry, some­ti­mes clove-like phe­nols. Esters are often remi­nis­cent of citrus fruits such as oran­ges, but may some­ti­mes have a slight bana­na cha­rac­ter. A low yet dis­tinc­ti­ve spi­cy, flo­ral, some­ti­mes per­fu­my hop cha­rac­ter is usual­ly found. Alco­hols are soft, spi­cy and low in inten­si­ty. The malt cha­rac­ter is light, with a soft, slight­ly grai­ny-sweet or slight­ly honey-like impres­si­on. The best examp­les have a seam­less, har­mo­nious inter­play bet­ween the yeast cha­rac­ter, hops, malt, and alcohol.
Fla­vour
Mar­ria­ge of spi­cy, frui­ty and alco­hol fla­vors sup­por­ted by a soft, roun­ded grai­ny-sweet malt impres­si­on, occa­sio­nal­ly with a very light honey note. Low to mode­ra­te phe­nols are pep­pe­ry in cha­rac­ter. Esters are remi­nis­cent of citrus fruit such as oran­ge or some­ti­mes lemon, and are low to mode­ra­te. A low to mode­ra­te spi­cy hop cha­rac­ter is usual­ly found. Alco­hols are soft, spi­cy, and low in inten­si­ty. Bit­ter­ness is typi­cal­ly medi­um to high from a com­bi­na­ti­on of hop bit­ter­ness and yeast-pro­du­ced phe­n­o­lics. Sub­stan­ti­al car­bo­na­ti­on and bit­ter­ness lends a dry finish with a moder­ate­ly bit­ter after­tas­te with sub­stan­ti­al spi­cy-frui­ty yeast cha­rac­ter. The grai­ny-sweet malt fla­vor does not imply any resi­du­al sweetness.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body, alt­hough ligh­ter than the sub­stan­ti­al gra­vi­ty would sug­gest. High­ly car­bo­na­ted. The alco­hol con­tent is decep­ti­ve, and has litt­le to no obvious war­ming sen­sa­ti­on. Always effervescent.
Over­all Impression
A pale, some­what spi­cy, dry, strong Trap­pist ale with a plea­sant roun­ded malt fla­vor and firm bit­ter­ness. Qui­te aro­ma­tic, with spi­cy, frui­ty, and light alco­hol notes com­bi­ning with the sup­por­ti­ve clean malt cha­rac­ter to pro­du­ce a sur­pri­sin­gly drin­ka­ble beverage con­si­de­ring the high alco­hol level.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pils­ner malt, typi­cal­ly with pale sugar adjuncts. Saa­zer-type hops or Sty­ri­an Gol­dings are com­mon­ly used. Bel­gi­an yeast strains are used – tho­se that pro­du­ce frui­ty esters, spi­cy phe­n­o­lics and hig­her alco­hols – often aided by slight­ly war­mer fer­men­ta­ti­on tem­pe­ra­tures. Spi­ce addi­ti­ons are gene­ral­ly not tra­di­tio­nal, and if used, should be a back­ground cha­rac­ter only. Fair­ly soft water.
Histo­ry
Ori­gi­nal­ly popu­la­ri­zed by the Trap­pist monas­te­ry at Westmalle.
Comments
High in alco­hol but does not tas­te stron­gly of alco­hol. The best examp­les are sne­aky, not obvious. High car­bo­na­ti­on and atte­nua­ti­on hel­ps to bring out the many fla­vors and to incre­a­se the per­cep­ti­on of a dry finish. Most Trap­pist ver­si­ons have at least 30 IBUs and are very dry. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly bot­t­le-con­di­tio­ned (or refer­men­ted in the bottle).
Com­mer­cial Examples
Aff­li­gem Tri­pel, Chi­may Cinq Cents, La Rul­les Tri­pel, La Trap­pe Tri­pel, St. Ber­nar­dus Tri­pel, Unib­roue La Fin Du Mon­de, Val-Dieu Trip­le, Watou Tri­pel, West­malle Tripel
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.075 - 1.085 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.014 SG
Color
4 - 7 SRM
Alco­hol
7.0 - 9.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 40 IBU
Name
Bel­gi­an Dark Strong Ale
Cate­go­ry
Trap­pist Ale
BJCP Style Code
26 D
Appearan­ce
Deep amber to deep cop­pe­ry-brown in color (dark in this con­text implies more deeply colo­red than gol­den). Huge, den­se, mous­sy, per­sis­tent cream- to light tan-colo­red head. Can be clear to some­what hazy.
Aro­ma
Com­plex, with a rich-sweet mal­ty pre­sence, signi­fi­cant esters and alco­hol, and an optio­nal light to mode­ra­te spi­ci­ness. The malt is rich and strong, and can have a deep brea­dy-toas­ty qua­li­ty often with a deep cara­mel com­ple­xi­ty. The frui­ty esters are strong to moder­ate­ly low, and can con­tain rai­sin, plum, dried cher­ry, fig or pru­ne notes. Spi­cy phe­nols may be pre­sent, but usual­ly have a pep­pe­ry qua­li­ty not clove-like; light vanil­la is pos­si­ble. Alco­hols are soft, spi­cy, per­fu­my and/or rose-like, and are low to mode­ra­te in inten­si­ty. Hops are not usual­ly pre­sent (but a very low spi­cy, flo­ral, or her­bal hop aro­ma is accep­ta­ble). No dark/roast malt aro­ma. No hot alco­hols or sol­ven­ty aromas.
Fla­vour
Simi­lar to aro­ma (same malt, ester, phe­nol, alco­hol, and hop comments app­ly to fla­vor as well). Moder­ate­ly mal­ty-rich on the pala­te, which can have a sweet impres­si­on if bit­ter­ness is low. Usual­ly moder­ate­ly dry to dry finish, alt­hough may be up to moder­ate­ly sweet. Medi­um-low to mode­ra­te bit­ter­ness; alco­hol pro­vi­des some of the balan­ce to the malt. Gene­ral­ly mal­ty-rich balan­ce, but can be fair­ly even with bit­ter­ness. The com­plex and varied fla­vors should blend smooth­ly and har­mo­nious­ly. The finish should not be hea­vy or syrupy.
Mouth­feel
High car­bo­na­ti­on but not sharp. Smooth but noti­ce­ab­le alco­hol warm­th. Body can ran­ge from medi­um-light to medi­um-full and crea­my. Most are medium-bodied.
Over­all Impression
A dark, com­plex, very strong Bel­gi­an ale with a deli­cious blend of malt rich­ness, dark fruit fla­vors, and spi­cy ele­ments. Com­plex, rich, smooth and dangerous.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Bel­gi­an yeast strains pro­ne to pro­duc­tion of hig­her alco­hols, esters, and some­ti­mes phe­n­o­lics are com­mon­ly used. Impres­si­on of a com­plex grain bill, alt­hough many tra­di­tio­nal ver­si­ons are qui­te simp­le, with cara­me­li­zed sugar syrup or unre­fi­ned sug­ars and yeast pro­vi­ding much of the com­ple­xi­ty. Saa­zer-type, Eng­lish-type or Sty­ri­an Gol­dings hops com­mon­ly used. Spi­ces gene­ral­ly not used; if used, keep sub­t­le and in the background. 
Histo­ry
Most ver­si­ons are uni­que in cha­rac­ter reflec­ting cha­rac­te­ris­tics of indi­vi­du­al bre­we­ries, pro­du­ced in limi­ted quan­ti­ties and often high­ly sought-after.
Comments
Authen­tic Trap­pist ver­si­ons tend to be dri­er (Bel­gi­ans would say more diges­ti­ble) than Abbey ver­si­ons, which can be rather sweet and full-bodi­ed. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly bot­t­le-con­di­tio­ned (or refer­men­ted in the bot­t­le). Some­ti­mes known as a Trap­pist Qua­dru­p­le, most are sim­ply known by their strength or color designation.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Achel Extra Bru­ne, Bou­le­vard The Sixth Glass, Chi­may Gran­de Réser­ve, Gou­den Caro­lus Grand Cru of the Emperor, Roche­fort 8 & 10, St. Ber­nar­dus Abt 12, Westv­le­te­ren 12
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.075 - 1.110 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.024 SG
Color
12 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
8.0 - 12.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 35 IBU
Name
Gose
Cate­go­ry
His­to­ri­cal Beer
BJCP Style Code
27 A1
Appearan­ce
Unfil­te­red, with a mode­ra­te to full haze. Mode­ra­te to tall sized white head with tight bub­bles and good reten­ti­on. Efferve­scent. Medi­um yel­low color.
Aro­ma
Light to moder­ate­ly frui­ty aro­ma of pome fruit. Light sour­ness, slight­ly sharp. Noti­ce­ab­le cori­an­der, which can have an aro­ma­tic lemo­ny qua­li­ty, and an inten­si­ty up to mode­ra­te. Light brea­dy, doughy, yeas­ty cha­rac­ter like uncoo­ked sourdough bread. The aci­di­ty and cori­an­der can give a bright, lively impres­si­on. The salt may be per­cei­ved as a very light, clean sea bree­ze cha­rac­ter or just a gene­ral fresh­ness, if noti­ce­ab­le at all.
Fla­vour
Mode­ra­te to restrai­ned but noti­ce­ab­le sour­ness, like a squee­ze of lemon in iced tea. Mode­ra­te bready/doughy malt fla­vor. Light to mode­ra­te frui­ty cha­rac­ter of pome fruit, stone fruit, or lemons. Light to mode­ra­te salt cha­rac­ter, up to the thres­hold of tas­te; the salt should be noti­ce­ab­le (par­ti­cu­lar­ly in the initi­al tas­te) but not tas­te overtly sal­ty. Low bit­ter­ness, no hop fla­vor. Dry, ful­ly-atte­nua­ted finish, with aci­di­ty not hops balan­cing the malt. Aci­di­ty can be more noti­ce­ab­le in the finish, and enhan­ce the refres­hing qua­li­ty of the beer. The aci­di­ty should be balan­ced, not for­ward (alt­hough his­to­ri­cal ver­si­ons could be very sour).
Mouth­feel
High to very high car­bo­na­ti­on, efferve­scent. Medi­um-light to medi­um-full body. Salt may give a slight­ly tin­g­ly, mou­thwa­te­ring qua­li­ty, if per­cei­ved at all. The yeast and wheat can give it a litt­le body, but it shouldn’t have a hea­vy feel.
Over­all Impression
A high­ly-car­bo­na­ted, tart and frui­ty wheat ale with a restrai­ned cori­an­der and salt cha­rac­ter and low bit­ter­ness. Very refres­hing, with bright fla­vors and high attenuation.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pils­ner and wheat malt, restrai­ned use of salt and cori­an­der seed, lac­to­ba­c­il­lus. The cori­an­der should have a fresh, citru­sy (lemon or bit­ter oran­ge), bright note, and not be vege­tal, cele­ry-like, or ham-like. The salt should have a sea salt or fresh salt cha­rac­ter, not a metal­lic, iodi­ne note.
Histo­ry
Minor style asso­cia­ted with Leip­zig but ori­gi­na­ting in the Midd­le Ages in the town of Gos­lar on the Gose River. Docu­men­ted to have been in Leip­zig by 1740. Leip­zig was said to have 80 Gose houses in 1900. Pro­duc­tion decli­ned signi­fi­cant­ly after WWII, and cea­sed ent­i­re­ly in 1966. Modern pro­duc­tion was revi­ved in the 1980s, but the beer is not wide­ly available. 
Comments
Ser­ved in tra­di­tio­nal cylind­ri­cal glas­ses. His­to­ri­cal ver­si­ons may have been more sour than modern examp­les due to spon­ta­ne­ous fer­men­ta­ti­on, and may be blen­ded with syrups as is done with Ber­li­ner Weis­se, or Küm­mel, a liqueur fla­vo­r­ed with cara­way, cumin, and fennel. Modern examp­les are ino­cu­la­ted with lac­to­ba­c­il­lus, and are more balan­ced and gene­ral­ly don’t need swee­tening. Pro­noun­ced GOH-zeh.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Ander­son Val­ley Gose, Baye­risch Bahn­hof Leip­zi­ger Gose, Döll­nit­zer Rit­ter­guts Gose
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.036 - 1.056 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.006 - 1.010 SG
Color
3 - 4 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 4.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
5 - 12 IBU
Name
Ken­tu­cky Common
Cate­go­ry
His­to­ri­cal Beer
BJCP Style Code
27 A2
Appearan­ce
Amber-oran­ge to light brown in color. Typi­cal­ly clear, but may have some light haze due to limi­ted con­di­tio­ning. Foam stand may not be long las­ting, and is usual­ly white to beige in color.
Aro­ma
Low to medi­um grai­ny, corn-like or sweet mal­ti­ness with a low toast, bis­cui­ty-grai­ny, brea­dy, or cara­mel malt accent. Medi­um to moder­ate­ly-low hop aro­ma, usual­ly flo­ral or spi­cy in cha­rac­ter. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter, with pos­si­ble faint ber­ry ester. Low levels of DMS are accep­ta­ble. No sour­ness. Malt-for­ward in the balance.
Fla­vour
Mode­ra­te grai­ny-sweet mal­ti­ness with low to medi­um-low cara­mel, tof­fee, brea­dy, and/or bis­cui­ty notes. Gene­ral­ly light pala­te fla­vors typi­cal of adjunct beers; a low grai­ny, corn-like sweet­ness is com­mon. Medi­um to low flo­ral or spi­cy hop fla­vor. Medi­um to low hop bit­ter­ness, which should neit­her be coar­se nor have a har­sh after­tas­te. May exhi­bit light frui­ti­ness. Balan­ce in the finish is towards the malt. May have a light­ly flin­ty or mine­ral­ly-sul­fa­te fla­vor in the finish. The finish is fair­ly dry, inclu­ding the con­tri­bu­ti­ons of roas­ted grains and mine­rals. No sourness.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-light body with a rela­tively soft mouth­feel. High­ly car­bo­na­ted. Can have a crea­my texture.
Over­all Impression
A dar­ker-colo­red, light-fla­vo­r­ed, malt-accen­ted beer with a dry finish and inte­res­ting cha­rac­ter malt fla­vors. Refres­hing due to its high car­bo­na­ti­on and mild fla­vors, and high­ly ses­sionab­le due to being ser­ved very fresh and with restrai­ned alco­hol levels.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Six-row bar­ley malt was used with 35% corn grits to dilu­te the exces­si­ve pro­te­in levels along with 1 to 2% each cara­mel and black malt. Nati­ve Ame­ri­can hops, usual­ly about .2 pounds per bar­rel of Wes­tern hops for bit­te­ring and a simi­lar amount of New York hops (such as Clus­ters) for fla­vor (15 minu­tes pri­or to knock out). Impor­ted con­ti­nen­tal Saa­zer-type hops (.1 pounds per bar­rel) were added at knock out for aro­ma. Water in the Louis­vil­le area was typi­cal­ly mode­ra­te to high in car­bo­na­tes. Mash water was often pre-boi­led to pre­ci­pi­ta­te the car­bo­na­te and Gyp­sum was com­mon­ly added. Con­si­de­ring the time from mash in to keg­ging for deli­very was typi­cal­ly 6 to 8 days, clear­ly aggres­si­ve top-fer­men­ting yeasts was used.
Histo­ry
A true Ame­ri­can ori­gi­nal style, Ken­tu­cky Com­mon was almost exclu­si­ve­ly pro­du­ced and sold around the Louis­vil­le Ken­tu­cky metro­po­li­tan area from some time after the Civil War up to Pro­hi­bi­ti­on. Its hall­mark was that it was inex­pen­si­ve and quick­ly pro­du­ced, typi­cal­ly 6 to 8 days from mash to deli­very. The beer was racked into bar­rels while actively fer­men­ting (1.020 – 1.022) and tight­ly bun­ged to allow car­bo­na­ti­on in the saloon cel­lar. The­re is some spe­cu­la­ti­on that it was a vari­ant of the ligh­ter com­mon or cream ale pro­du­ced throughout much of the East pri­or to the Civil War and that the dar­ker grains were added by the most­ly Ger­ma­nic bre­wers to help aci­di­fy the typi­cal car­bo­na­te water of the Louis­vil­le area, or that they had a pre­fe­rence for dar­ker colo­red beers. Up until the late 19th cen­tu­ry, Ken­tu­cky Com­mon was not bre­wed in the sum­mer mon­ths unless cel­lars, usual­ly used for mal­ting, were used for fer­men­ta­ti­on. With the advent of ice machi­nes, the lar­ger bre­we­ries were able to brew year round. In the peri­od from 1900 to pro­hi­bi­ti­on, about 75% of the beer sold in the Louis­vil­le area was Ken­tu­cky Com­mon. With pro­hi­bi­ti­on, the style died com­ple­te­ly as the few lar­ger bre­we­ries that sur­vi­ved were almost exclu­si­ve­ly lager producers.
Comments
Modern cha­rac­te­riz­a­ti­ons of the style often men­ti­on a lac­tic sour­ness or sour mashing, but exten­si­ve brewing records from the lar­ger bre­we­ries at the turn of the cen­tu­ry have no indi­ca­ti­on of long acid rests, sour mashing, or exten­si­ve con­di­tio­ning. This is likely a modern home­bre­wer inven­ti­on, based on the sup­po­si­ti­on that sin­ce indi­ge­nous Bour­bon distil­lers used a sour mash, beer bre­wers must also have used this pro­cess. No con­tem­pora­ne­ous records indi­ca­te sour mashing or that the beer had a sour pro­fi­le; rather the oppo­si­te, that the beer was bre­wed as an inex­pen­si­ve, pre­sent-use ale. Enter sou­red ver­si­ons in Ame­ri­can Wild Ale.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Apo­ca­lyp­se Brew Works Ortel’s 1912
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.055 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.018 SG
Color
11 - 20 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
15 - 30 IBU
Name
Lich­ten­hai­ner
Cate­go­ry
His­to­ri­cal Beer
BJCP Style Code
27 A3
Appearan­ce
Tall off-white head, rocky and per­sis­tent. Deep yel­low to light gold color. Fair cla­ri­ty, may be some­what hazy.
Aro­ma
Moder­ate­ly strong fresh smo­ky aro­ma, light hints of sour­ness, medi­um-low frui­ty esters, pos­si­b­ly app­les or lemons, mode­ra­te brea­dy-grai­ny malt. The smo­ke cha­rac­ter is stron­ger than the brea­dy notes, and the smo­ke has a ‘dry’ cha­rac­ter, like the rem­nants of an old fire, not a ‘gre­a­sy’ smoke. 
Fla­vour
Moder­ate­ly strong frui­ty fla­vor, pos­si­b­ly lemons or app­les. Mode­ra­te inten­si­ty, clean lac­tic tar­t­ness (no funk). Simi­lar smo­ky cha­rac­ter as aro­ma (dry wood fire), medi­um strength. Dry finish, with aci­di­ty and smo­ke in the after­tas­te. Low bit­ter­ness; the aci­di­ty is pro­vi­ding the balan­ce, not hops. Fresh, clean pala­te and slight­ly pucke­ry after­tas­te. The wheat cha­rac­ter is on the low side; the smo­ke and aci­di­ty are more pro­mi­nent in the balan­ce. The lemo­ny-tar­t/­green apple fla­vor is stron­gest in the finish, with smo­ke a clo­se second. Complex.
Mouth­feel
Tin­g­ly aci­di­ty. High car­bo­na­ti­on. Medi­um to medi­um-light body.
Over­all Impression
A sour, smo­ked, lower-gra­vi­ty his­to­ri­cal Ger­man wheat beer. Com­plex yet refres­hing cha­rac­ter due to high atte­nua­ti­on and car­bo­na­ti­on, along with low bit­ter­ness and mode­ra­te sourness. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Smo­ked bar­ley malt, wheat malt, lac­to­ba­c­il­lus, top-fer­men­ting yeast. Grists vary, but the wheat would typi­cal­ly be 30-50%.
Histo­ry
Ori­gi­na­ting in Lich­ten­hain, in Thü­rin­gen (cen­tral Ger­ma­ny). Height of popu­la­ri­ty was towards the end of the 1800s, and was wide­ly avail­ab­le throughout Thü­rin­gen. Like a pre-1840 Ber­li­ner Weisse.
Comments
Ser­ved young. Smo­ke and sour is an unusu­al com­bi­na­ti­on that is not for everyone.
Com­mer­cial Examples
none
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.032 - 1.040 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.004 - 1.008 SG
Color
3 - 6 SRM
Alco­hol
3.0 - 4.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
5 - 12 IBU
Name
Lon­don Brown Ale
Cate­go­ry
His­to­ri­cal Beer
BJCP Style Code
27 A4
Appearan­ce
Medi­um to very dark brown color, but can be near­ly black. Near­ly opa­que, alt­hough should be rela­tively clear if visi­ble. Low to mode­ra­te off-white to tan head.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te mal­ty-sweet aro­ma, often with a rich, cara­mel or tof­fee-like cha­rac­ter. Low to medi­um frui­ty esters, often dark fruit like plums. Very low to no hop aro­ma, ear­thy or flo­ral qualities.
Fla­vour
Deep, cara­mel or tof­fee-like mal­ty and sweet fla­vor on the pala­te and las­ting into the finish. Hints of bis­cuit and cof­fee are com­mon. Some frui­ty esters can be pre­sent (typi­cal­ly dark fruit); rela­tively clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le for an Eng­lish ale. Low hop bit­ter­ness. Hop fla­vor is low to non-exis­tent, pos­si­b­ly ear­thy or flo­ral in cha­rac­ter. Moder­ate­ly-low to no per­ceiva­ble roas­ty or bit­ter black malt fla­vor. Moder­ate­ly sweet finish with a smooth, mal­ty after­tas­te. May have a suga­ry-sweet flavor. 
Mouth­feel
Medi­um body, but the resi­du­al sweet­ness may give a hea­vier impres­si­on. Medi­um-low to medi­um car­bo­na­ti­on. Qui­te crea­my and smooth in tex­tu­re, par­ti­cu­lar­ly for its gravity.
Over­all Impression
A luscious, sweet, malt-ori­en­ted dark brown ale, with cara­mel and tof­fee malt com­ple­xi­ty and a sweet finish.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Eng­lish pale ale malt as a base with a healt­hy pro­por­ti­on of dar­ker cara­mel mal­ts and often some roas­ted (black) malt and wheat malt (this is Mann’s tra­di­tio­nal grist – others can rely on dark sug­ars for color and fla­vor). Mode­ra­te to high car­bo­na­te water. Eng­lish hop varie­ties are most authen­tic, though with low fla­vor and bit­ter­ness almost any type could be used. Post-fer­men­ta­ti­on swee­tening with lac­to­se or arti­fi­cial swee­te­ners, or sucro­se (if pasteurized).
Histo­ry
Deve­lo­ped by Mann’s as a bot­t­led pro­duct in 1902. Clai­med at the time to be “the swee­test beer in Lon­don.” Pre-WWI ver­si­ons were around 5% ABV, but same gene­ral balan­ce. Decli­ned in popu­la­ri­ty in second half of 20th cen­tu­ry, and now near­ly extinct.
Comments
Incre­a­singly rare; Mann’s has over 90% mar­ket share in Bri­tain, but in an incre­a­singly small seg­ment. Always bot­t­led. Fre­quent­ly used as a sweet mixer with cask mild and bit­ter in pubs. Com­mer­cial ver­si­ons can be pas­teu­ri­zed and back-swee­te­ned, which gives more of a suga­ry-sweet flavor.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Har­veys Bloo­ms­bu­ry Brown Ale, Mann’s Brown Ale
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.033 - 1.038 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.012 - 1.015 SG
Color
22 - 35 SRM
Alco­hol
2.0 - 3.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
15 - 20 IBU
Name
Piwo Grod­zis­kie
Cate­go­ry
His­to­ri­cal Beer
BJCP Style Code
27 A5
Appearan­ce
Pale yel­low to medi­um gold in color with excel­lent cla­ri­ty. A tall, bil­lo­wy, white, tight­ly-knit head with excel­lent reten­ti­on is dis­tinc­ti­ve. Mur­ki­ness is a fault.
Aro­ma
Low to mode­ra­te oak wood smo­ke is the most pro­mi­nent aro­ma com­po­nent, but can be sub­t­le and hard to detect. A low spi­cy, her­bal, or flo­ral hop aro­ma is typi­cal­ly pre­sent, and should be lower than or equal to the smo­ke in inten­si­ty. Hints of grai­ny wheat are also detec­ted in the best examp­les. The aro­ma is other­wi­se clean, alt­hough light pome fruit esters (espe­cial­ly ripe red apple or pear) are wel­co­me. No aci­di­ty. Slight water-deri­ved sul­fu­ry notes may be present.
Fla­vour
Moder­ate­ly-low to medi­um oak smo­ke fla­vor up front which car­ri­es into the finish; the smo­ke can be stron­ger in fla­vor than in aro­ma. The smo­ke cha­rac­ter is gent­le, should not be acrid, and can lend an impres­si­on of sweet­ness. A mode­ra­te to strong bit­ter­ness is rea­di­ly evi­dent which lin­gers through the finish. The over­all balan­ce is toward bit­ter­ness. Low but per­cep­ti­ble spi­cy, her­bal, or flo­ral hop fla­vor. Low grai­ny wheat cha­rac­ter in the back­ground. Light pome fruit esters (red apple or pear) may be pre­sent. Dry, crisp finish. No sourness.
Mouth­feel
Light in body, with a crisp and dry finish. Car­bo­na­ti­on is qui­te high and can add a slight car­bo­nic bite or prick­ly sen­sa­ti­on. No noti­ce­ab­le alco­hol warmth. 
Over­all Impression
A low-gra­vi­ty, high­ly-car­bo­na­ted, light-bodi­ed ale com­bi­ning an oak-smo­ked fla­vor with a clean hop bit­ter­ness. High­ly sessionable.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Grain bill usual­ly con­sists ent­i­re­ly of oak-smo­ked wheat malt. Oak-smo­ked wheat malt has a dif­fe­rent (and less inten­se) smo­ke cha­rac­ter than Ger­man beech­wood-smo­ked bar­ley malt; it has a dri­er, cris­per, lea­ner qua­li­ty – a bacon/ham smo­ke fla­vor is inap­pro­pria­te. Saa­zer-type hops (Polish, Czech or Ger­man), mode­ra­te hard­ness sul­fa­te water, and a rela­tively clean and atte­nua­ti­ve con­ti­nen­tal ale yeast fer­men­ted at mode­ra­te ale tem­pe­ra­tures are tra­di­tio­nal. Ger­man hefe­wei­zen yeast or other strains with a phe­nol or strong ester cha­rac­ter are inappropriate.
Histo­ry
Deve­lo­ped as a uni­que style cen­tu­ries ago in the Polish city of Grod­zisk (known as Grätz when ruled by Prus­sia and Ger­ma­ny). Its fame and popu­la­ri­ty rapidly exten­ded to other parts of the world in the late 19th and ear­ly 20th cen­tu­ry. Regu­lar com­mer­cial pro­duc­tion decli­ned after WWII and cea­sed altog­e­ther in the ear­ly-mid 1990s. This style descrip­ti­on descri­bes the tra­di­tio­nal ver­si­on during its peri­od of grea­test popularity.
Comments
Pro­noun­ced in Eng­lish as “pivo grow-JEES-kee-uh” (mea­ning: Grod­zisk beer). Known as Grät­zer (pro­noun­ced “GRA­TE-sir”) in Ger­man-spea­king coun­tries, and in some beer lite­ra­tu­re. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly made using a mul­ti-step mash, a long boil (~2 hours), and mul­ti­ple strains of ale yeast. The beer is never fil­te­red but Isin­glass is used to cla­ri­fy befo­re bot­t­le con­di­tio­ning. Tra­di­tio­nal­ly ser­ved in tall coni­cal glass­wa­re to accom­mo­da­te the vigo­rous foam stand. 
Com­mer­cial Examples
none
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.028 - 1.032 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.006 - 1.012 SG
Color
3 - 6 SRM
Alco­hol
2.0 - 3.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 35 IBU
Name
Pre-Pro­hi­bi­ti­on Lager
Cate­go­ry
His­to­ri­cal Beer
BJCP Style Code
27 A6
Appearan­ce
Yel­low to deep gold color. Sub­stan­ti­al, long las­ting white head. Bright clarity.
Aro­ma
Low to medi­um grai­ny, corn-like or sweet mal­ti­ness may be evi­dent (alt­hough rice-based beers are more neu­tral). Medi­um to moder­ate­ly high hop aro­ma, with a ran­ge of cha­rac­ter from rustic to flo­ral to herbal/spicy; a frui­ty or citru­sy modern hop cha­rac­ter is inap­pro­pria­te. Clean lager cha­rac­ter. Low DMS is accep­ta­ble. May show some yeast cha­rac­ter, as with modern Ame­ri­can lagers; allow for a ran­ge of sub­t­le sup­por­ting yeast notes.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to medi­um-high mal­ti­ness with a grai­ny fla­vor, and optio­nal­ly a corn-like round­ness and impres­si­on of sweet­ness. Sub­stan­ti­al hop bit­ter­ness stands up to the malt and lin­gers through the dry finish. All malt and rice-based ver­si­ons are often cris­per, dri­er, and gene­ral­ly lack corn-like fla­vors. Medi­um to high hop fla­vor, with a rustic, flo­ral, or herbal/spicy cha­rac­ter. Medi­um to high hop bit­ter­ness, which should neit­her be over­ly coar­se nor have a har­sh after­tas­te. Allow for a ran­ge of lager yeast cha­rac­ter, as with modern Ame­ri­can lagers, but gene­ral­ly fair­ly neutral.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um body with a moder­ate­ly rich, crea­my mouth­feel. Smooth and well-lage­red. Medi­um to high car­bo­na­ti­on levels.
Over­all Impression
A clean, refres­hing, but bit­ter pale lager, often show­ca­sing a grai­ny-sweet corn fla­vor. All malt or rice-based ver­si­ons have a cris­per, more neu­tral cha­rac­ter. The hig­her bit­ter­ness level is the lar­gest dif­fe­ren­tia­tor bet­ween this style and most modern mass-mar­ket pale lagers, but the more robust fla­vor pro­fi­le also sets it apart.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Six-row bar­ley with 20% to 30% fla­ked mai­ze (corn) or rice to dilu­te the exces­si­ve pro­te­in levels; modern ver­si­ons may be all malt. Nati­ve Ame­ri­can hops such as Clus­ters, tra­di­tio­nal con­ti­nen­tal hops, or modern noble-type cros­ses are also appro­pria­te. Modern Ame­ri­can hops such as Cas­ca­de are inap­pro­pria­te. Water with a high mine­ral con­tent can lead to an unplea­sant coar­seness in fla­vor and har­sh­ness in after­tas­te. A wide ran­ge of lager yeast cha­rac­ter can be exhi­bi­ted, alt­hough modern ver­si­ons tend to be fair­ly clean.
Histo­ry
A ver­si­on of Pils­ner bre­wed in the USA by immi­grant Ger­man bre­wers who brought the pro­cess and yeast with them, but who had to adapt their reci­pes to work with nati­ve hops and malt. This style died out after Pro­hi­bi­ti­on but was resur­rec­ted by home­bre­wers in the 1990s. Few com­mer­cial ver­si­ons are made, so the style still remains most­ly a home­brew phenomenon.
Comments
The clas­sic Ame­ri­can Pils­ner was bre­wed both pre-Pro­hi­bi­ti­on and post-Pro­hi­bi­ti­on with some dif­fe­ren­ces. OGs of 1.050–1.060 would have been appro­pria­te for pre-Pro­hi­bi­ti­on beers while gra­vi­ties drop­ped to 1.044–1.048 after Pro­hi­bi­ti­on. Cor­re­spon­ding IBUs drop­ped from a pre-Pro­hi­bi­ti­on level of 30–40 to 25–30 after Prohibition.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Anchor Cali­for­nia Lager, Coors Batch 19, Litt­le Har­peth Chi­cken Scratch
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.015 SG
Color
3 - 6 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 40 IBU
Name
Pre-Pro­hi­bi­ti­on Porter
Cate­go­ry
His­to­ri­cal Beer
BJCP Style Code
27 A7
Appearan­ce
Medi­um to dark brown, though some examp­les can be near­ly black in color, with ruby or maho­ga­ny high­lights. Rela­tively clear. Light to medi­um tan head which will per­sist in the glass.
Aro­ma
Base grai­ny malt aro­ma with low levels of dark malt (slight burnt or cho­co­la­te notes). Low hop aro­ma. Low to mode­ra­te low levels of DMS accep­ta­ble. May show low levels of cara­mel and bis­cuit aro­ma. No to very low esters. Light adjunct (lico­ri­ce, molas­ses) aro­ma accep­ta­ble. Dia­ce­tyl low to none. Clean lager pro­fi­le acceptable.
Fla­vour
Grai­ny base malt fla­vor, with low levels of cho­co­la­te or burnt black malt notes, along with low levels of cara­mel, bis­cuit, lico­ri­ce, and toast notes. Corn/DMS fla­vor accep­ta­ble at low to mode­ra­te levels. Ame­ri­can hop bit­ter­ness low to mode­ra­te and Ame­ri­can hop fla­vor low to none. Balan­ce is typi­cal­ly even bet­ween malt and hops, with a mode­ra­te dry finish.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um light to medi­um body, mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on, low to mode­ra­te crea­m­i­ness. May have a slight astrin­gen­cy from the dark malts.
Over­all Impression
An Ame­ri­can adap­t­ati­on of Eng­lish Por­ter using Ame­ri­can ingre­dients, inclu­ding adjuncts.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Two and six row malt (or a com­bi­na­ti­on of both) are used, along with low per­cen­ta­ges of dark mal­ts inclu­ding black, cho­co­la­te, and brown malt (roas­ted bar­ley is not typi­cal­ly used). Adjuncts are accep­ta­ble, inclu­ding corn, bre­wers lico­ri­ce, molas­ses, and por­te­ri­ne. More his­to­ri­cal ver­si­ons will have up to twen­ty per­cent adjuncts. Lager or ale yeast. Empha­sis on his­to­ri­cal or tra­di­tio­nal Ame­ri­can bit­te­ring hops (Clus­ter, Wil­la­met­te, Cas­ca­de), though finis­hing and fla­vor hops may vary.
Histo­ry
Com­mer­cial­ly bre­wed in Phil­adel­phia during the revo­lu­tio­na­ry peri­od, the beer gai­ned wide accep­t­ance in the new­ly for­med mid-Atlan­tic sta­tes, and was endor­sed by Pre­si­dent Geor­ge Washington.
Comments
Also some­ti­mes known as Penn­syl­va­nia Por­ter or East Coast Porter.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Steg­mai­er Por­ter, Yueng­ling Porter
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.046 - 1.060 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.016 SG
Color
18 - 30 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 30 IBU
Name
Rog­gen­bier
Cate­go­ry
His­to­ri­cal Beer
BJCP Style Code
27 A8
Appearan­ce
Light cop­pe­ry-oran­ge to very dark red­dish or cop­pe­ry-brown color. Lar­ge crea­my off-white to tan head, qui­te den­se and per­sis­tent (often thick and rocky). Clou­dy, hazy appearance.
Aro­ma
Light to mode­ra­te spi­cy rye aro­ma inter­min­gled with light to mode­ra­te wei­zen yeast aro­ma­tics (spi­cy clove and frui­ty esters, eit­her bana­na or citrus). Light spi­cy, flo­ral, or her­bal hops are acceptable.
Fla­vour
Grai­ny, moder­ate­ly-low to moder­ate­ly-strong spi­cy rye fla­vor, often having a hear­ty fla­vor remi­nis­cent of rye or pum­per­ni­ckel bread. Medi­um to medi­um-low bit­ter­ness allows an initi­al malt sweet­ness (some­ti­mes with a bit of cara­mel) to be tas­ted befo­re yeast and rye cha­rac­ter takes over. Low to mode­ra­te wei­zen yeast cha­rac­ter (bana­na, clove), alt­hough the balan­ce can vary. Medi­um-dry, grai­ny finish with a light­ly bit­ter (from rye) after­tas­te. Low to mode­ra­te spi­cy, her­bal, or flo­ral hop fla­vor accep­ta­ble, and can per­sist into aftertaste.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-full body. High car­bo­na­ti­on. Moder­ate­ly creamy.
Over­all Impression
A dun­kel­wei­zen made with rye rather than wheat, but with a grea­ter body and light finis­hing hops.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Mal­ted rye typi­cal­ly con­sti­tu­tes 50% or grea­ter of the grist (some ver­si­ons have 60-65% rye). Rema­in­der of grist can inclu­de pale malt, Munich malt, wheat malt, crys­tal malt and/or small amounts of debit­te­red dark mal­ts for color adjus­t­ment. Wei­zen yeast pro­vi­des dis­tinc­ti­ve bana­na esters and clove phe­nols. Light usa­ge of Saa­zer-type hops in bit­ter­ness, fla­vor and aro­ma. Lower fer­men­ta­ti­on tem­pe­ra­tures accen­tua­te the clove cha­rac­ter by sup­pres­sing ester for­ma­ti­on. Deco­c­tion mash tra­di­tio­nal­ly used (as with weissbiers).
Histo­ry
A spe­cial­ty Ger­man rye beer ori­gi­nal­ly bre­wed in Regens­burg, Bava­ria. Never a wide­ly popu­lar style, it has all but disap­peared in modern times.
Comments
Rye is a hus­kless grain and is dif­fi­cult to mash, often resul­ting in a gum­my mash tex­tu­re that is pro­ne to sti­cking. Rye has been cha­rac­te­ri­zed as having the most asser­ti­ve fla­vor of all cere­al grains. It is inap­pro­pria­te to add cara­way seeds to a rog­gen­bier (as some Ame­ri­can bre­wers do); the rye cha­rac­ter is tra­di­tio­nal­ly from the rye grain only.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Thurn und Taxis Roggen
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.046 - 1.056 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.014 SG
Color
14 - 19 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
10 - 20 IBU
Name
Sah­ti
Cate­go­ry
His­to­ri­cal Beer
BJCP Style Code
27 A9
Appearan­ce
Pale yel­low to dark brown color; most are medi­um to dark amber. Gene­ral­ly qui­te clou­dy (unfil­te­red). Litt­le head, due to low carbonation.
Aro­ma
High bana­na esters with mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-high clove-like phe­n­o­lics. Not sour. May have a low to mode­ra­te juni­per cha­rac­ter. Grai­ny malt, cara­mel, and rye in back­ground. Light alco­hol aro­ma. Sweet malt impression.
Fla­vour
Strong bana­na and mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-high clove yeast cha­rac­ter. Mode­ra­te grai­ny rye fla­vor. Low bit­ter­ness. Fair­ly sweet finish. Juni­per can add a pine-like fla­vor; juni­per ber­ries can add a gin-like fla­vor; both should be com­ple­men­ta­ry, not domi­nant. No noti­ce­ab­le hop fla­vor. Mode­ra­te cara­mel fla­vor but no roast. Mul­ti-laye­red and com­plex, with kind of a worti­ness that is unusu­al in other beer styles. Not sour.
Mouth­feel
Thick, vis­cous, and hea­vy with pro­te­in (no boil means no hot break). Near­ly still to medi­um-low car­bo­na­ti­on. Stron­gly war­ming from the alco­hol level and young age, but often mas­ked by sweetness.
Over­all Impression
A sweet, hea­vy, strong tra­di­tio­nal Fin­nish beer with a rye, juni­per, and juni­per ber­ry fla­vor and a strong bana­na-clove yeast character.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Mal­ted bar­ley along with mal­ted and unmal­ted grains, often rye. Low hops. Juni­per boughs used for lau­tering (tra­di­tio­nal­ly in a hol­lo­wed-out log), but often pro­du­cing a juniper/berry cha­rac­ter. Often uses top-fer­men­ting baker’s yeast in a fast, warm fer­men­ta­ti­on (Ger­man Wei­zen yeast is a good sub­sti­tu­te). Not boi­led; a long mash steep is used, with a sepa­r­ate­ly added hop tea.
Histo­ry
An indi­ge­nous tra­di­tio­nal style from Fin­land; a farm­house tra­di­ti­on for at least 500 years, often bre­wed for fes­ti­ve occa­si­ons like sum­mer wed­dings, and con­su­med wit­hin a week or two of brewing. A simi­lar tra­di­ti­on exists in Esto­nia, whe­re the beer is known as koduolu.
Comments
The use of rye doesn’t mean that it should tas­te like cara­way (a domi­nant fla­vor in rye bread). The use of juni­per ber­ries will give a fla­vor like gin (simi­lar­ly fla­vo­r­ed with juni­per ber­ries). The juni­per acts a bit like hops in the balan­ce and fla­vor, pro­vi­ding some coun­ter­point to the sweet malt.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Now made year-round by several bre­we­ries in Finland.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.076 - 1.120 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.016 - 1.020 SG
Color
4 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
7.0 - 11.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
7 - 15 IBU
Name
Brett Beer
Cate­go­ry
Ame­ri­can Wild Ale
BJCP Style Code
28 A
Appearan­ce
Varia­ble by base style. Cla­ri­ty can be varia­ble, and depends on the base style and ingre­dients used. Some haze is not necessa­ri­ly a fault.
Aro­ma
Varia­ble by base style. Young Brett-fer­men­ted beers will pos­sess more frui­ty notes (e.g., tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, or citrus), but this is varia­ble by the strain(s) of Brett used. For 100% Brett beers hea­vi­ly hop­ped with Ame­ri­can hop varie­ties, the fer­men­ta­ti­on-deri­ved fla­vors are often dif­fi­cult to tease from the hop aro­ma­tics. Older 100% Brett beers may start to deve­lop a litt­le funk (e.g., barn­y­ard, wet hay, or slight­ly ear­thy or smo­ky notes), but this cha­rac­ter should not domi­na­te. If the beer is fer­men­ted with a brewer’s yeast in addi­ti­on to Brett, some of the cha­rac­ter of the pri­ma­ry yeast may remain. A faint sour­ness is accep­ta­ble but should not be a pro­mi­nent character.
Fla­vour
Varia­ble by base style. Brett cha­rac­ter may ran­ge from mini­mal to aggres­si­ve. Can be qui­te frui­ty (e.g., tro­pi­cal fruit, ber­ry, stone fruit, citrus), or have some smo­ky, ear­thy, or barn­y­ard cha­rac­ter. Should not be unplea­s­ant­ly fun­ky, such as Band-Aid, fetid, nail polish remo­ver, cheese, etc. Light sour­ness is accep­ta­ble with the beer being light­ly tart, but should not be tru­ly sour. Always frui­tier when young, gai­ning more funk with age. May not be ace­tic or lac­tic. Malt fla­vors are often less pro­noun­ced than in the base style, lea­ving a beer most often dry and crisp due to high atte­nua­ti­on by the Brett.
Mouth­feel
Varia­ble by base style. Gene­ral­ly a light body, ligh­ter than what might be expec­ted from the base style but an over­ly thin body is a fault. Gene­ral­ly mode­ra­te to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Head reten­ti­on is variable.
Over­all Impression
Most often dri­er and frui­tier than the base style sug­gests. Fun­ky notes ran­ge from low to high, depen­ding on the age of the beer and strain(s) of Brett used. Fun­ki­ness is gene­ral­ly restrai­ned in youn­ger 100% Brett examp­les, but tends to incre­a­se with age. May pos­sess a light aci­di­ty, alt­hough this does not come from Brett.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Vir­tual­ly any style of beer, fer­men­ted in any man­ner, then finis­hed with one or more strains of Brett. Alter­na­tively, a beer made with Brett as the sole fer­men­ta­ti­on strain.
Histo­ry
Modern Ame­ri­can craft beer inter­pre­ta­ti­ons of Bel­gi­an wild ales, or expe­ri­men­ta­ti­ons inspi­red by Bel­gi­an wild ales or his­to­ri­cal Eng­lish beers with Brett. 100% Brett beers gai­ned popu­la­ri­ty after the year 2000; Port Brewing Mo Bet­ta Bret­ta was one of the first cele­bra­ted examples.
Comments
The base style descri­bes most of the cha­rac­ter of the­se beers, but the addi­ti­on of Brett ensu­res a dri­er, thin­ner, and fun­kier pro­duct. Youn­ger ver­si­ons are brigh­ter and frui­tier, while older ones pos­sess more depth of funk and may lose more of the base style cha­rac­ter. Wood-aged ver­si­ons should be ent­e­red in the Wild Spe­cial­ty Beer style. The Brett cha­rac­ter should always meld with the style; the­se beers should never be a ‘Brett bomb’. Note that Brett does not pro­du­ce lac­tic acid.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bou­le­vard Sai­son Brett, Hill Farm­s­tead Arthur, Logs­don Sei­zo­en Bret­ta, Rus­si­an River Sanc­ti­fi­ca­ti­on, The Bru­e­ry Sai­son Rue, Vic­to­ry Helios
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Mixed-Fer­men­ta­ti­on Sour Beer
Cate­go­ry
Ame­ri­can Wild Ale
BJCP Style Code
28 B
Appearan­ce
Varia­ble by base style. Cla­ri­ty can be varia­ble; some haze is not a fault. Head reten­ti­on can be poor due to high levels of acid or anti-foam pro­per­ties of some lac­to­ba­c­il­lus strains.
Aro­ma
Varia­ble by base style. The con­tri­bu­ti­on of non-Sac­charo­my­ces micro­bes should be noti­ce­ab­le to strong, and often con­tri­bu­te a sour and/or fun­ky, wild note. The best examp­les will dis­play a ran­ge of aro­ma­tics, rather than a sin­gle domi­nant cha­rac­ter. The aro­ma should be invi­t­ing, not har­sh or unpleasant. 
Fla­vour
Varia­ble by base style. Look for an agree­ab­le balan­ce bet­ween the base beer and the fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter. A ran­ge of results is pos­si­ble from fair­ly high acidity/funk to a sub­t­le, plea­sant, har­mo­nious beer. The best examp­les are plea­sura­ble to drink with the esters and phe­nols com­ple­men­ting the malt and/or hops. The wild cha­rac­ter can be pro­mi­nent, but does not need to be domi­na­ting in a style with an other­wi­se strong malt/hop pro­fi­le. Aci­di­ty should be firm yet enjoya­ble, but should not be bit­ing or vine­ga­ry; pro­mi­nent or objectionable/offensive ace­tic acid is a fault. Bit­ter­ness tends to be low, espe­cial­ly as sour­ness increases.
Mouth­feel
Varia­ble by base style. Gene­ral­ly a light body, almost always ligh­ter than what might be expec­ted from the base style. Gene­ral­ly mode­ra­te to high car­bo­na­ti­on, alt­hough often lower in hig­her alco­hol examples.
Over­all Impression
A sour and/or fun­ky ver­si­on of a base style of beer.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Vir­tual­ly any style of beer. Usual­ly fer­men­ted by Lac­to­ba­c­il­lus and/or Pedio­coc­cus, often in con­junc­tion with Sac­charo­my­ces and/or Brett­ano­my­ces. Can also be a blend of styles. Wood or bar­rel aging is very com­mon, but not required.
Histo­ry
Modern Ame­ri­can craft beer inter­pre­ta­ti­ons of Bel­gi­an sour ales, or expe­ri­men­ta­ti­ons inspi­red by Bel­gi­an sour ales.
Comments
The­se beers may be aged in wood, but any wood cha­rac­ter should not be a pri­ma­ry or domi­nant fla­vor. Sour beers are typi­cal­ly not bit­ter as the­se fla­vors clash. The base beer style beco­mes less rele­vant becau­se the various yeast and bac­te­ria tend to domi­na­te the pro­fi­le. Inap­pro­pria­te cha­rac­te­ris­tics inclu­de dia­ce­tyl, sol­vent, ropy/viscous tex­tu­re, and hea­vy oxidation.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bou­le­vard Love Child, Cas­ca­de Vlad the Imp Aler, Jes­ter King Le Petit Prince, Jol­ly Pump­kin Cala­ba­za Blan­ca, Rus­si­an River Tempt­ati­on, The Bru­e­ry Rueu­ze, The Bru­e­ry Tart of Darkness
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Wild Spe­cial­ty Beer
Cate­go­ry
Ame­ri­can Wild Ale
BJCP Style Code
28 C
Appearan­ce
Varia­ble by base style, gene­ral­ly showing a color, tint, or hue from any fruit (if used) in both the beer and the head. Cla­ri­ty can be varia­ble; some haze is not a fault. Head reten­ti­on is often poor.
Aro­ma
Varia­ble by base style. Should show the fruit, sour and/or funk of a wild fer­men­ta­ti­on, as well as the cha­rac­te­ris­tics of the spe­cial ingre­dients used. The best examp­les will blend the aro­ma­tics from the fer­men­ta­ti­on with the spe­cial ingre­dients, crea­ting an aro­ma that may be dif­fi­cult to attri­bu­te precisely. 
Fla­vour
Varia­ble by base style. Should show the fruit, sour and/or funk of a wild fer­men­ta­ti­on, as well as the cha­rac­te­ris­tics of the spe­cial ingre­dients used. Any fruit sweet­ness is gene­ral­ly gone, so only the esters typi­cal­ly remain from the fruit. The sour cha­rac­ter from the fruit and wild fer­men­ta­ti­on could be pro­mi­nent, but should not be over­whel­ming. The aci­di­ty and tan­nin from any fruit can both enhan­ce the dry­ness of the beer, so care must be taken with the balan­ce. The aci­di­ty should enhan­ce the per­cep­ti­on of the fruit fla­vor, not detract from it. Wood notes, if pre­sent, add fla­vor but should be balanced.
Mouth­feel
Varia­ble by base style. Gene­ral­ly a light body, ligh­ter than what might be expec­ted from the base style. Gene­ral­ly mode­ra­te to high car­bo­na­ti­on; car­bo­na­ti­on should balan­ce the base style if one is decla­red. The pre­sence of tan­nin from some fruit or wood can pro­vi­de a slight astrin­gen­cy, enhan­ce the body, or make the beer seem dri­er than it is.
Over­all Impression
A sour and/or fun­ky ver­si­on of a fruit, herb, or spi­ce beer, or a wild beer aged in wood. If wood-aged, the wood should not be the pri­ma­ry or domi­nant character.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Vir­tual­ly any style of beer. Any com­bi­na­ti­on of Sac­charo­my­ces, Brett­ano­my­ces, Lac­to­ba­c­il­lus, Pedio­coc­cus, or other simi­lar fer­menters. Can also be a blend of styles. While cher­ries, raspber­ries, and peaches are most com­mon, other fruits can be used as well. Vege­ta­bles with fruit-like cha­rac­te­ris­tics (chi­le, rhubarb, pump­kin, etc.) may also be used. Wood or bar­rel aging is very com­mon, but not required.
Histo­ry
Modern Ame­ri­can craft beer inter­pre­ta­ti­ons of Bel­gi­an wild ales, or expe­ri­men­ta­ti­ons inspi­red by Bel­gi­an wild ales.
Comments
A wild beer fea­turing fruit, herbs, spi­ces, or wood based on a style other than lam­bic. Could be ano­t­her Clas­sic Style (nor­mal­ly sour or not), or some­thing more gene­ric. The­se beers may be aged in wood, but any wood cha­rac­ter should not be a pri­ma­ry or domi­nant flavor.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Cas­ca­de Bour­bo­nic Pla­gue, Jes­ter King Atri­al Rubici­te, New Bel­gi­um Eric’s Ale, New Gla­rus Bel­gi­an Red, Rus­si­an River Sup­pli­ca­ti­on, The Lost Abbey Cuvee de Tomme
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Fruit Beer
Cate­go­ry
Fruit Beer
BJCP Style Code
29 A
Appearan­ce
Appearan­ce should be appro­pria­te for the decla­red base beer and decla­red fruit. For ligh­ter-colo­red beers with fruits that exhi­bit dis­tinc­ti­ve colors, the color should be noti­ce­ab­le. Note that the color of fruit in beer is often ligh­ter than the fle­sh of the fruit its­elf and may take on slight­ly dif­fe­rent shades. Fruit beers may have some haze or be clear, alt­hough haze is a gene­ral­ly unde­s­i­ra­ble. The head may take on some of the color of the fruit.
Aro­ma
The dis­tinc­ti­ve aro­ma­tics asso­cia­ted with the decla­red fruit should be noti­ce­ab­le in the aro­ma; howe­ver, note that some fruit (e.g., raspber­ries, cher­ries) have stron­ger aro­mas and are more dis­tinc­ti­ve than others (e.g., blu­e­ber­ries, straw­ber­ries) – allow for a ran­ge of fruit cha­rac­ter and inten­si­ty from sub­t­le to aggres­si­ve. The addi­tio­nal aro­ma­tics should blend well with wha­te­ver aro­ma­tics are appro­pria­te for the decla­red base beer style.
Fla­vour
As with aro­ma, the dis­tinc­ti­ve fla­vor cha­rac­ter asso­cia­ted with the decla­red fruit should be noti­ce­ab­le, and may ran­ge in inten­si­ty from sub­t­le to aggres­si­ve. The balan­ce of fruit with the under­ly­ing beer is vital, and the fruit cha­rac­ter should not be so arti­fi­cial and/or inap­pro­pria­te­ly over­powe­ring as to sug­gest a ‘fruit juice drink.’ Hop bit­ter­ness, fla­vor, malt fla­vors, alco­hol con­tent, and fer­men­ta­ti­on by-pro­ducts, such as esters, should be appro­pria­te to the base beer and be har­mo­nious and balan­ced with the dis­tinc­ti­ve fruit fla­vors pre­sent. Remem­ber that fruit gene­ral­ly add fla­vor not sweet­ness to fruit beers. The sugar found in fruit is usual­ly ful­ly fer­men­ted and con­tri­bu­tes to ligh­ter fla­vors and a dri­er finish than might be expec­ted for the decla­red base style. Howe­ver, resi­du­al sweet­ness is not necessa­ri­ly a nega­ti­ve cha­rac­te­ris­tic unless it has a raw, unfer­men­ted quality.
Mouth­feel
Mouth­feel may vary depen­ding on the base beer selec­ted and as appro­pria­te to that base beer. Body and car­bo­na­ti­on levels should be appro­pria­te to the decla­red base beer style. Fruit gene­ral­ly adds fer­men­ta­bles that tend to thin out the beer; the resul­ting beer may seem ligh­ter than expec­ted for the decla­red base style. Smal­ler and dar­ker fruit have a ten­den­cy to add a tan­nic depth that should over­whelm the base beer.
Over­all Impression
A har­mo­nious mar­ria­ge of fruit and beer, but still reco­gniz­ab­le as a beer. The fruit cha­rac­ter should be evi­dent but in balan­ce with the beer, not so for­ward as to sug­gest an arti­fi­cial product.
Comments
Over­all balan­ce is the key to pre­sen­ting a well-made fruit beer. The fruit should com­ple­ment the ori­gi­nal style and not over­whelm it. The key attri­bu­tes of the under­ly­ing style will be dif­fe­rent with the addi­ti­on of fruit; do not expect the base beer to tas­te the same as the unadul­te­ra­ted ver­si­on. Judge the beer based on the plea­s­ant­ness and balan­ce of the resul­ting combination.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bell’s Cher­ry Stout, Dog­fi­sh Head Aprihop, Ebu­lum Elder­ber­ry Black Ale, Foun­ders Rübæus
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Fruit and Spi­ce Beer
Cate­go­ry
Fruit Beer
BJCP Style Code
29 B
Appearan­ce
Appearan­ce should be appro­pria­te for the decla­red base beer and decla­red fruit and spi­ces. For ligh­ter-colo­red beers with fruits or spi­ces that exhi­bit dis­tinc­ti­ve colors, the color should be noti­ce­ab­le. Note that the color of fruit in beer is often ligh­ter than the fle­sh of the fruit its­elf and may take on slight­ly dif­fe­rent shades. May have some haze or be clear, alt­hough haze is a gene­ral­ly unde­s­i­ra­ble. The head may take on some of the color of the fruit or spice.
Aro­ma
The dis­tinc­ti­ve aro­ma­tics asso­cia­ted with the decla­red fruit and spi­ces should be noti­ce­ab­le in the aro­ma; howe­ver, note that some fruit (e.g., raspber­ries, cher­ries) and some spi­ces (e.g., cin­na­mon, gin­ger) have stron­ger aro­mas and are more dis­tinc­ti­ve than others (e.g., blu­e­ber­ries, straw­ber­ries) – allow for a ran­ge of fruit and spi­ce cha­rac­ter and inten­si­ty from sub­t­le to aggres­si­ve. The addi­tio­nal aro­ma­tics should blend well with wha­te­ver aro­ma­tics are appro­pria­te for the decla­red base beer style. The hop aro­ma may be absent or balan­ced, depen­ding on the decla­red base style.
Fla­vour
As with aro­ma, the dis­tinc­ti­ve fla­vor cha­rac­ter asso­cia­ted with the decla­red fruits and spi­ces should be noti­ce­ab­le, and may ran­ge in inten­si­ty from sub­t­le to aggres­si­ve. The balan­ce of fruit and spi­ces with the under­ly­ing beer is vital, and the fruit cha­rac­ter should not be so arti­fi­cial and/or inap­pro­pria­te­ly over­powe­ring as to sug­gest a spi­ced fruit juice drink. Hop bit­ter­ness, fla­vor, malt fla­vors, alco­hol con­tent, and fer­men­ta­ti­on by-pro­ducts, such as esters, should be appro­pria­te to the base beer and be har­mo­nious and balan­ced with the dis­tinc­ti­ve fruit and spi­ce fla­vors pre­sent. Remem­ber that fruit gene­ral­ly add fla­vor not sweet­ness. The sugar found in fruit is usual­ly ful­ly fer­men­ted and con­tri­bu­tes to ligh­ter fla­vors and a dri­er finish than might be expec­ted for the decla­red base style. Howe­ver, resi­du­al sweet­ness is not necessa­ri­ly a nega­ti­ve cha­rac­te­ris­tic unless it has a raw, unfer­men­ted qua­li­ty. Some SHV(s) are inher­ent­ly bit­ter and may result in a beer more bit­ter than the decla­red base style.
Mouth­feel
Mouth­feel may vary depen­ding on the base beer selec­ted and as appro­pria­te to that base beer. Body and car­bo­na­ti­on levels should be appro­pria­te to the decla­red base beer style. Fruit gene­ral­ly adds fer­men­ta­bles that tend to thin out the beer; the resul­ting beer may seem ligh­ter than expec­ted for the decla­red base style. Some SHV(s) may add addi­tio­nal body, alt­hough fer­men­ta­ble addi­ti­ons may thin out the beer. Some SHV(s) may add a bit of astrin­gen­cy, alt­hough a “raw” spi­ce cha­rac­ter is undesirable.
Over­all Impression
A har­mo­nious mar­ria­ge of fruit, spi­ce, and beer, but still reco­gniz­ab­le as a beer. The fruit and spi­ce cha­rac­ter should each be evi­dent but in balan­ce with the beer, not so for­ward as to sug­gest an arti­fi­cial product.
Comments
Over­all balan­ce is the key to pre­sen­ting a well-made fruit and spi­ce beer. The fruit and spi­ce should each com­ple­ment the ori­gi­nal style and not over­whelm it. The key attri­bu­tes of the under­ly­ing style will be dif­fe­rent with the addi­ti­on of fruit and spi­ce; do not expect the base beer to tas­te the same as the unadul­te­ra­ted ver­si­on. Judge the beer based on the plea­s­ant­ness and balan­ce of the resul­ting com­bi­na­ti­on. The bre­wer should reco­gni­ze that some com­bi­na­ti­ons of base beer styles and fruits/spices work well tog­e­ther while others do not make for har­mo­nious com­bi­na­ti­ons. Whenever fruits, spi­ces, herbs or vege­ta­bles are decla­red, each should be noti­ce­ab­le and dis­tinc­ti­ve in its own way (alt­hough not necessa­ri­ly indi­vi­du­al­ly iden­ti­fia­ble; balan­ced with the other ingre­dients is still cri­ti­cal) – in other words, the beer should read as a spi­ced fruit beer but without having to tell that spe­ci­fic fruits and spi­ces are pre­sent (even if declared).
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Spe­cial­ty Fruit Beer
Cate­go­ry
Fruit Beer
BJCP Style Code
29 C
Appearan­ce
Same as fruit beer.
Aro­ma
Same as fruit beer, except that some addi­tio­nal fer­men­ta­bles (honey, molas­ses, etc.) may add an aro­ma com­po­nent. Wha­te­ver addi­tio­nal aro­ma com­po­nent is pre­sent should be in balan­ce with the fruit and the beer com­pon­ents, and be a plea­sant combination.
Fla­vour
Same as fruit beer, except that some addi­tio­nal fer­men­ta­bles (honey, molas­ses, etc.) may add a fla­vor com­po­nent. Wha­te­ver addi­tio­nal fla­vor com­po­nent is pre­sent should be in balan­ce with the fruit and the beer com­pon­ents, and be a plea­sant com­bi­na­ti­on. Added sug­ars should not have a raw, unfer­men­ted fla­vor. Some added sug­ars will have unfer­men­ta­ble ele­ments that may pro­vi­de a ful­ler finish; ful­ly fer­men­ta­ble sug­ars may thin out the finish.
Mouth­feel
Same as fruit beer, alt­hough depen­ding on the type of sugar added, could incre­a­se or decre­a­se the body.
Over­all Impression
A har­mo­nious mar­ria­ge of fruit, sugar, and beer, but still reco­gniz­ab­le as a beer. The fruit and sugar cha­rac­ter should both be evi­dent but in balan­ce with the beer, not so for­ward as to sug­gest an arti­fi­cial product.
Comments
If the addi­tio­nal fer­men­ta­bles or pro­ces­ses do not add a dis­tin­guis­ha­ble cha­rac­ter to the beer, enter it as a nor­mal 29A Fruit Beer and omit a descrip­ti­on of the extra ingre­dients or processes.
Com­mer­cial Examples
New Pla­net Raspber­ry Ale
Notes
A Spe­cial­ty Fruit Beer is a fruit beer with some addi­tio­nal ingre­dients or pro­ces­ses, such as fer­men­ta­ble sug­ars (honey, brown sugar, invert sugar, etc.) added.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Spi­ce, Herb, or Vege­ta­ble Beer
Cate­go­ry
Spi­ced Beer
BJCP Style Code
30 A
Appearan­ce
Appearan­ce should be appro­pria­te to the decla­red base beer and decla­red spe­cial ingre­dients. For ligh­ter-colo­red beers with spi­ces, herbs or vege­ta­bles that exhi­bit dis­tinc­ti­ve colors, the colors may be noti­ce­ab­le in the beer and pos­si­b­ly the head. May have some haze or be clear. Head for­ma­ti­on may be adver­se­ly affec­ted by some ingre­dients, such as chocolate.
Aro­ma
The cha­rac­ter of the par­ti­cu­lar spi­ces, herbs and/or vege­ta­bles (SHV) should be noti­ce­ab­le in the aro­ma; howe­ver, note that some SHV (e.g., gin­ger, cin­na­mon) have stron­ger aro­mas and are more dis­tinc­ti­ve than others (e.g., some vege­ta­bles) – allow for a ran­ge of SHV cha­rac­ter and inten­si­ty from sub­t­le to aggres­si­ve. The indi­vi­du­al cha­rac­ter of each SHV(s) may not always be iden­ti­fia­ble when used in com­bi­na­ti­on. Hop aro­ma may be absent or balan­ced with SHV, depen­ding on the style. The SHV(s) should add an extra com­ple­xi­ty to the beer, but not be so pro­mi­nent as to unba­lan­ce the resul­ting presentation.
Fla­vour
As with aro­ma, the dis­tinc­ti­ve fla­vor cha­rac­ter asso­cia­ted with the par­ti­cu­lar SHV(s) should be noti­ce­ab­le, and may ran­ge in inten­si­ty from sub­t­le to aggres­si­ve. The indi­vi­du­al cha­rac­ter of each SHV(s) may not always be iden­ti­fia­ble when used in com­bi­na­ti­on. The balan­ce of SHV with the under­ly­ing beer is vital, and the SHV cha­rac­ter should not be so arti­fi­cial and/or over­powe­ring as to over­whelm the beer. Hop bit­ter­ness, fla­vor, malt fla­vors, alco­hol con­tent, and fer­men­ta­ti­on by-pro­ducts, such as esters, should be appro­pria­te to the base beer and be har­mo­nious and balan­ced with the dis­tinc­ti­ve SHV fla­vors pre­sent. Some SHV(s) are inher­ent­ly bit­ter and may result in a beer more bit­ter than the decla­red base style.
Mouth­feel
Mouth­feel may vary depen­ding on the base beer selec­ted and as appro­pria­te to that base beer. Body and car­bo­na­ti­on levels should be appro­pria­te to the base beer style being pre­sen­ted. Some SHV(s) may add addi­tio­nal body, alt­hough fer­men­ta­ble addi­ti­ons may thin out the beer. Some SHV(s) may add a bit of astrin­gen­cy, alt­hough a “raw” spi­ce cha­rac­ter is undesirable.
Over­all Impression
A har­mo­nious mar­ria­ge of SHV and beer, but still reco­gniz­ab­le as a beer. The SHV cha­rac­ter should be evi­dent but in balan­ce with the beer, not so for­ward as to sug­gest an arti­fi­cial product. 
Comments
Over­all balan­ce is the key to pre­sen­ting a well-made spi­ce, herb or vege­ta­ble (SHV) beer. The SHV(s) should com­ple­ment the ori­gi­nal style and not over­whelm it. The key attri­bu­tes of the decla­red base style will be dif­fe­rent with the addi­ti­on of spi­ces, herbs and/or vege­ta­bles; do not expect the base beer to tas­te the same as the unadul­te­ra­ted ver­si­on. Judge the beer based on the plea­s­ant­ness and balan­ce of the resul­ting com­bi­na­ti­on. The indi­vi­du­al cha­rac­ter of each SHV may not always be indi­vi­du­al­ly iden­ti­fia­ble when used in combination.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Ales­mith Speed­way Stout, Bell’s Java Stout, Ely­si­an Ava­tar Jas­mi­ne IPA, Foun­ders Bre­ak­fast Stout, Rogue Chip­ot­le Ale, Traquair Jaco­bi­te Ale, Young’s Dou­ble Cho­co­la­te Stout,
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Autumn Sea­so­nal Beer
Cate­go­ry
Spi­ced Beer
BJCP Style Code
30 B
Appearan­ce
Gene­ral­ly medi­um amber to cop­pe­ry-brown (ligh­ter ver­si­ons are more com­mon). Usual­ly clear, alt­hough dar­ker ver­si­ons may be vir­tual­ly opa­que. Some chill haze is accep­ta­ble. Gene­ral­ly has a well-for­med head that is often off-white to tan. Some ver­si­ons with squas­hes will take on an unusu­al hue for beer, with oran­ge-like hints.
Aro­ma
A wide ran­ge of aro­ma­tics is pos­si­ble, alt­hough many examp­les are remi­nis­cent of pump­kin pie, can­di­ed yams, or simi­lar har­vest or (US) Thanks­gi­ving the­med dis­hes. Any com­bi­na­ti­on of aro­ma­tics that sug­gests the fall sea­son is wel­co­me. The base beer style often has a mal­ty pro­fi­le that sup­ports the balan­ced pre­sen­ta­ti­on of the aro­ma­tics from spi­ces and pos­si­b­ly other spe­cial ingre­dients. Addi­tio­nal fer­men­ta­bles (e.g., brown sugar, honey, molas­ses, map­le syrup, etc.) may lend their own uni­que aro­ma­tics. Hop aro­ma­tics are often absent, sub­dued, or slight­ly spi­cy. Alco­hol aro­ma­tics may be found in some examp­les, but this cha­rac­ter should be restrai­ned. The over­all aro­ma should be balan­ced and har­mo­nious, and is often fair­ly com­plex and inviting.
Fla­vour
Many inter­pre­ta­ti­ons are pos­si­ble; allow for bre­wer crea­ti­vi­ty as long as the resul­ting pro­duct is balan­ced and pro­vi­des some spi­ce (and optio­nal­ly, sugar and vege­ta­ble) pre­sen­ta­ti­on. Spi­ces asso­cia­ted with the fall sea­son are typi­cal (as men­tio­ned in the Aro­ma sec­tion). The spi­ces and optio­nal fer­men­ta­bles should be sup­por­ti­ve and blend well with the base beer style. Rich, mal­ty and/or sweet malt-based fla­vors are com­mon, and may inclu­de cara­mel, toas­ty, bis­cui­ty, or nut­ty fla­vors (toas­ted bread crust or coo­ked pie crust fla­vors are wel­co­me). May inclu­de dis­tinc­ti­ve fla­vors from spe­ci­fic fer­men­ta­bles (molas­ses, honey, brown sugar, etc.), alt­hough the­se ele­ments are not requi­red. Fla­vor deri­ved from squash-based vege­ta­bles are often elu­si­ve. The wide ran­ge of spe­cial ingre­dients should be sup­por­ti­ve and balan­ced, not so pro­mi­nent as to oversha­dow the base beer. Bit­ter­ness and hop fla­vor are gene­ral­ly restrai­ned so as to not inter­fe­re with the spi­ces and spe­cial ingre­dients. Gene­ral­ly finis­hes rather full and satisfy­ing, and often has some alco­hol fla­vor. Roas­ted malt cha­rac­te­ris­tics are typi­cal­ly absent.
Mouth­feel
A wide ran­ge of inter­pre­ta­ti­ons is pos­si­ble. Body is gene­ral­ly medi­um to full, and a cer­tain mal­ty and/or vege­ta­ble-based che­wi­ness is often pre­sent. Moder­ate­ly low to moder­ate­ly high car­bo­na­ti­on is typi­cal. Many examp­les will show some well-aged, war­ming alco­hol con­tent, but without being over­ly hot. The beers do not have to be over­ly strong to show some war­ming effects.
Over­all Impression
An amber to cop­per, spi­ced beer that often has a moder­ate­ly rich body and slight­ly war­ming finish sug­ges­ting a good accom­p­animent for the cool fall sea­son, and often evo­ca­ti­ve of Thanks­gi­ving traditions.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Spi­ces are requi­red, and often inclu­de tho­se evo­ca­ti­ve of the fall or Thanks­gi­ving sea­son (e.g., all­spi­ce, nut­meg, cin­na­mon, cloves, gin­ger) but any com­bi­na­ti­on is pos­si­ble and crea­ti­vi­ty is encou­ra­ged. Fla­vor­ful adjuncts are often used (e.g., molas­ses, invert sugar, brown sugar, honey, map­le syrup, etc.). Squash-type or gourd-type vege­ta­bles (most fre­quent­ly pump­kin) are often used.
Comments
Over­all balan­ce is the key to pre­sen­ting a well-made Autumn Sea­so­nal beer. The spe­cial ingre­dients should com­ple­ment the base beer and not over­whelm it. The bre­wer should reco­gni­ze that some com­bi­na­ti­ons of base beer styles and spe­cial ingre­dients work well tog­e­ther while others do not make for har­mo­nious com­bi­na­ti­ons. If the base beer is a clas­sic style, the ori­gi­nal style should come through in aro­ma and fla­vor. Whenever spi­ces, herbs or addi­tio­nal fer­men­ta­bles are decla­red, each should be noti­ce­ab­le and dis­tinc­ti­ve in its own way (alt­hough not necessa­ri­ly indi­vi­du­al­ly iden­ti­fia­ble; balan­ced with the other ingre­dients is still cri­ti­cal) – in other words, the beer should read as a spi­ced beer but without having to tell that spe­ci­fic spi­ces are pre­sent (even if declared).
Com­mer­cial Examples
Dog­fi­sh Head Pun­kin Ale, Schlaf­ly Pump­kin Ale, Sout­hamp­ton Pump­kin Ale
Notes
Autumn Sea­so­nal Beers are beers that sug­gest cool wea­ther and the autumn har­vest sea­son, and may inclu­de pump­kin or other squas­hes, and the asso­cia­ted spi­ces. See the Intro­duc­tion to Spe­cial­ty-Type Beer sec­tion for addi­tio­nal comments, par­ti­cu­lar­ly on eva­lua­ting the balan­ce of added ingre­dients with the base beer.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Win­ter Sea­so­nal Beer
Cate­go­ry
Spi­ced Beer
BJCP Style Code
30 C
Appearan­ce
Gene­ral­ly medi­um amber to very dark brown (dar­ker ver­si­ons are more com­mon). Usual­ly clear, alt­hough dar­ker ver­si­ons may be vir­tual­ly opa­que. Some chill haze is accep­ta­ble. Gene­ral­ly has a well-for­med head that is often off-white to tan.
Aro­ma
A wide ran­ge of aro­ma­tics is pos­si­ble, alt­hough many examp­les are remi­nis­cent of Christ­mas coo­kies, gin­ger­b­read, Eng­lish-type Christ­mas pud­ding, ever­green trees, or mul­ling spi­ces. Any com­bi­na­ti­on of aro­ma­tics that sug­gests the holi­day sea­son is wel­co­me. The base beer style often has a mal­ty pro­fi­le that sup­ports the balan­ced pre­sen­ta­ti­on of the aro­ma­tics from spi­ces and pos­si­b­ly other spe­cial ingre­dients. Addi­tio­nal fer­men­ta­bles (e.g., honey, molas­ses, map­le syrup, etc.) may lend their own uni­que aro­ma­tics. Hop aro­ma­tics are often absent, sub­dued, or slight­ly spi­cy. Some fruit cha­rac­ter (often of dried citrus peel, or dried fruit such as raisins or plums) is optio­nal but accep­ta­ble. Alco­hol aro­ma­tics may be found in some examp­les, but this cha­rac­ter should be restrai­ned. The over­all aro­ma should be balan­ced and har­mo­nious, and is often fair­ly com­plex and inviting.
Fla­vour
Many inter­pre­ta­ti­ons are pos­si­ble; allow for bre­wer crea­ti­vi­ty as long as the resul­ting pro­duct is balan­ced and pro­vi­des some spi­ce pre­sen­ta­ti­on. Spi­ces asso­cia­ted with the holi­day sea­son are typi­cal (as men­tio­ned in the Aro­ma sec­tion). The spi­ces and optio­nal fer­men­ta­bles should be sup­por­ti­ve and blend well with the base beer style. Rich, mal­ty and/or sweet malt-based fla­vors are com­mon, and may inclu­de cara­mel, toast, nut­ty, or cho­co­la­te fla­vors. May inclu­de some dried fruit or dried fruit peel fla­vors such as rai­sin, plum, fig, oran­ge peel or lemon peel. May inclu­de dis­tinc­ti­ve fla­vors from spe­ci­fic fer­men­ta­bles (molas­ses, honey, brown sugar, etc.), alt­hough the­se ele­ments are not requi­red. A light ever­green tree cha­rac­ter is optio­nal but found in some examp­les. The wide ran­ge of spe­cial ingre­dients should be sup­por­ti­ve and balan­ced, not so pro­mi­nent as to oversha­dow the base beer. Bit­ter­ness and hop fla­vor are gene­ral­ly restrai­ned so as to not inter­fe­re with the spi­ces and spe­cial ingre­dients. Gene­ral­ly finis­hes rather full and satisfy­ing, and often has some alco­hol fla­vor. Roas­ted malt cha­rac­te­ris­tics are rare, and not usual­ly stron­ger than chocolate.
Mouth­feel
A wide ran­ge of inter­pre­ta­ti­ons is pos­si­ble. Body is gene­ral­ly medi­um to full, and a cer­tain mal­ty che­wi­ness is often pre­sent. Moder­ate­ly low to moder­ate­ly high car­bo­na­ti­on is typi­cal. Many examp­les will show some well-aged, war­ming alco­hol con­tent, but without being over­ly hot. The beers do not have to be over­ly strong to show some war­ming effects.
Over­all Impression
A stron­ger, dar­ker, spi­ced beer that often has a rich body and war­ming finish sug­ges­ting a good accom­p­animent for the cold win­ter season.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Gene­ral­ly ales, alt­hough some dark strong lagers exist. Spi­ces are requi­red, and often inclu­de tho­se evo­ca­ti­ve of the Christ­mas sea­son (e.g., all­spi­ce, nut­meg, cin­na­mon, cloves, gin­ger) but any com­bi­na­ti­on is pos­si­ble and crea­ti­vi­ty is encou­ra­ged. Fruit peel (e.g., oran­ges, lemon) may be used, as may sub­t­le addi­ti­ons of other fruits. Fla­vor­ful adjuncts are often used (e.g., molas­ses, treacle, invert sugar, brown sugar, honey, map­le syrup, etc.).
Histo­ry
Throughout histo­ry, beer of a some­what hig­her alco­hol con­tent and rich­ness has been enjoy­ed during the win­ter holi­days, when old friends get tog­e­ther to enjoy the sea­son. Many bre­we­ries pro­du­ce uni­que sea­so­nal offe­rings that may be dar­ker, stron­ger, spi­ced, or other­wi­se more cha­rac­ter­ful than their nor­mal beers. Spi­ced ver­si­ons are an Ame­ri­can or Bel­gi­an tra­di­ti­on, sin­ce Eng­lish or Ger­man bre­we­ries tra­di­tio­nal­ly do not use spi­ces in their beer.
Comments
Over­all balan­ce is the key to pre­sen­ting a well-made Win­ter Sea­so­nal Beer. The spe­cial ingre­dients should com­ple­ment the base beer and not over­whelm it. The bre­wer should reco­gni­ze that some com­bi­na­ti­ons of base beer styles and spe­cial ingre­dients work well tog­e­ther while others do not make for har­mo­nious com­bi­na­ti­ons. If the base beer is a clas­sic style, the ori­gi­nal style should come through in aro­ma and fla­vor. Whenever spi­ces, herbs or addi­tio­nal fer­men­ta­bles are decla­red, each should be noti­ce­ab­le and dis­tinc­ti­ve in its own way (alt­hough not necessa­ri­ly indi­vi­du­al­ly iden­ti­fia­ble; balan­ced with the other ingre­dients is still cri­ti­cal). Whenever spi­ces, herbs or addi­tio­nal fer­men­ta­bles are decla­red, each should be noti­ce­ab­le and dis­tinc­ti­ve in its own way (alt­hough not necessa­ri­ly indi­vi­du­al­ly iden­ti­fia­ble; balan­ced with the other ingre­dients is still cri­ti­cal) – in other words, the beer should read as a spi­ced beer but without having to tell that spe­ci­fic spi­ces are pre­sent (even if declared).
Com­mer­cial Examples
Anchor Our Spe­cial Ale, Goo­se Island Christ­mas Ale, Gre­at Lakes Christ­mas Ale, Har­poon Win­ter War­mer, Lake­front Holi­day Spi­ce Lager Beer, Wey­er­ba­cher Win­ter Ale
Notes
Win­ter Sea­so­nal Beers are beers that sug­gest cold wea­ther and the Christ­mas holi­day sea­son, and may inclu­de holi­day spi­ces, spe­cial­ty sug­ars, and other pro­ducts that are remi­nis­cent of mul­ling spi­ces or Christ­mas holi­day des­serts. See the Intro­duc­tion to Spe­cial­ty-Type Beer sec­tion for addi­tio­nal comments, par­ti­cu­lar­ly on eva­lua­ting the balan­ce of added ingre­dients with the base beer.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Alter­na­ti­ve Grain Beer
Cate­go­ry
Alter­na­ti­ve Fer­men­ta­bles Beer
BJCP Style Code
31 A
Appearan­ce
Same as base beer style, alt­hough some addi­tio­nal haze may be noticeable.
Aro­ma
Same as base beer style. The added grain will lend a par­ti­cu­lar cha­rac­ter, alt­hough with some grains the beer will sim­ply seem a bit more grai­ny or nut­ty. The alter­na­ti­ve grain should pro­vi­de the major aro­ma pro­fi­le for this beer.
Fla­vour
Same as base beer style. The addi­tio­nal grain should be noti­ce­ab­le in fla­vor, alt­hough it may not be necessa­ri­ly iden­ti­fia­ble. Howe­ver, the alter­na­ti­ve grain should pro­vi­de the major fla­vor pro­fi­le for this beer. Dif­fe­rent grains have dif­fe­rent cha­rac­ters; the addi­tio­nal grain should enhan­ce the fla­vor of the base beer. Many will add an addi­tio­nal grai­ny, brea­dy, or nut­ty flavor.
Mouth­feel
Same as the base beer, alt­hough many addi­tio­nal grains will tend to incre­a­se the body (oats, rye) and incre­a­se the vis­co­si­ty, while some may decre­a­se the body (GF grains) resul­ting in thinness. 
Over­all Impression
A base beer enhan­ced by or fea­turing the cha­rac­ter of addi­tio­nal grain or grains. The spe­ci­fic cha­rac­ter depends great­ly on the cha­rac­ter of the added grains.
Comments
If the alter­na­ti­ve grain does not pro­vi­de a noti­ce­ab­le dis­tin­guis­ha­ble cha­rac­ter to the beer, enter it as the base style. This style should not be used for styles whe­re the alter­na­ti­ve grain is fun­da­men­tal to the style defi­ni­ti­on (e.g., Rye IPA, Oat­me­al Stout, Rice- or Corn-based Inter­na­tio­nal Lager). Note that sake is not beer, and is not inten­ded for this category.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Green’s Indian Pale Ale, Lake­front New Grist, New Pla­net Pale Ale
Notes
An Alter­na­ti­ve Fer­men­ta­bles Beer is a stan­dard beer (Clas­sic Style or not) with addi­tio­nal or non-stan­dard brewing grains (e.g., rye, oats, buck­wheat, spelt, mil­let, sorghum, rice, etc.) added or used exclu­si­ve­ly. Glu­ten-free (GF) beers made from com­ple­te­ly glu­ten-free ingre­dients may be ent­e­red here, while GF beers using pro­cess-based glu­ten remo­val should be ent­e­red in their respec­ti­ve base style categories.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Alter­na­ti­ve Sugar Beer
Cate­go­ry
Alter­na­ti­ve Fer­men­ta­bles Beer
BJCP Style Code
31 B
Appearan­ce
Same as the base beer, alt­hough some sug­ars will bring addi­tio­nal colors.
Aro­ma
Same as the base beer, except that some addi­tio­nal fer­men­ta­bles (honey, molas­ses, etc.) may add an aro­ma com­po­nent. Wha­te­ver addi­tio­nal aro­ma com­po­nent is pre­sent should be in balan­ce with the beer com­pon­ents, and be a plea­sant combination.
Fla­vour
Same as the base beer, except that some addi­tio­nal fer­men­ta­bles (honey, molas­ses, etc.) may add a fla­vor com­po­nent. Wha­te­ver addi­tio­nal fla­vor com­po­nent is pre­sent should be in balan­ce with the beer com­pon­ents, and be a plea­sant com­bi­na­ti­on. Added sug­ars should not have a raw, unfer­men­ted fla­vor. Some added sug­ars will have unfer­men­ta­ble ele­ments that may pro­vi­de a ful­ler finish; ful­ly fer­men­ta­ble sug­ars may thin out the finish.
Mouth­feel
Same as the base beer, alt­hough depen­ding on the type of sugar added, could incre­a­se or decre­a­se the body.
Over­all Impression
A har­mo­nious mar­ria­ge of sugar and beer, but still reco­gniz­ab­le as a beer. The sugar cha­rac­ter should both be evi­dent but in balan­ce with the beer, not so for­ward as to sug­gest an arti­fi­cial product.
Comments
If the addi­tio­nal fer­men­ta­bles do not add a dis­tin­guis­ha­ble cha­rac­ter to the beer, enter it in the base style cate­go­ry. A honey-based beer should not have so much honey that it reads more like a mead with beer (i.e., a brag­got) than a honey beer. This style should not be used for styles whe­re the alter­na­ti­ve sugar is fun­da­men­tal to the style defi­ni­ti­on, or whe­re a small amount of neu­tral-fla­vo­r­ed sugar is used sim­ply to incre­a­se gra­vi­ty, incre­a­se atte­nua­ti­on, or ligh­ten fla­vor or body; tho­se beers should be ent­e­red as the nor­mal base style.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bell’s Hops­lam, Ful­lers Honey Dew, Lag­u­ni­tas Brown Shugga’
Notes
An Alter­na­ti­ve Fer­men­ta­bles Beer is a stan­dard beer (Clas­sic Style or not) with addi­tio­nal fer­men­ta­ble sug­ars (e.g., honey, brown sugar, invert sugar, molas­ses, treacle, map­le syrup, sorghum, etc.) added.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Clas­sic Style Smo­ked Beer
Cate­go­ry
Smo­ked Beer
BJCP Style Code
32 A
Appearan­ce
Varia­ble. The appearan­ce should reflect the base beer style, alt­hough the color of the beer is often a bit dar­ker than the plain base style.
Aro­ma
The aro­ma should be a plea­sant balan­ce bet­ween the expec­ted aro­ma of the base beer and the smo­ki­ness impar­ted by the use of smo­ked mal­ts. The inten­si­ty and cha­rac­ter of the smo­ke and base beer style can vary, with eit­her being pro­mi­nent in the balan­ce. Smo­ki­ness may vary from low to asser­ti­ve; howe­ver, balan­ce in the over­all pre­sen­ta­ti­on is the key to well-made examp­les. The qua­li­ty and secon­da­ry cha­rac­te­ris­tics of the smo­ke are reflec­ti­ve of the source of the smo­ke (e.g., alder, oak, beech­wood). Sharp, phe­n­o­lic, har­sh, rub­be­ry, or burnt smo­ke-deri­ved aro­ma­tics are inappropriate.
Fla­vour
As with aro­ma, the­re should be a balan­ce bet­ween smo­ki­ness and the expec­ted fla­vor cha­rac­te­ris­tics of the base beer style. Smo­ki­ness may vary from low to asser­ti­ve. Smo­ky fla­vors may ran­ge from woo­dy to some­what bacon-like depen­ding on the type of mal­ts used. The balan­ce of under­ly­ing beer cha­rac­te­ris­tics and smo­ke can vary, alt­hough the resul­ting blend should be some­what balan­ced and enjoya­ble. Smo­ke can add some dry­ness to the finish. Har­sh, bit­ter, burnt, char­red, rub­be­ry, sul­fu­ry, medi­ci­nal, or phe­n­o­lic smo­ky cha­rac­te­ris­tics are gene­ral­ly inap­pro­pria­te (alt­hough some of the­se cha­rac­te­ris­tics may be pre­sent in some base styles; howe­ver, the smo­ked malt shouldn’t con­tri­bu­te the­se flavors).
Mouth­feel
Varies with the base beer style. Signi­fi­cant astrin­gent, phe­n­o­lic smo­ke-deri­ved har­sh­ness is inappropriate.
Over­all Impression
A smo­ke-enhan­ced beer showing good balan­ce bet­ween the smo­ke and beer cha­rac­ter, while remai­ning plea­sant to drink. Balan­ce in the use of smo­ke, hops and malt cha­rac­ter is exhi­bi­ted by the bet­ter examples.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Dif­fe­rent mate­ri­als used to smo­ke malt result in uni­que fla­vor and aro­ma cha­rac­te­ris­tics. Beech­wood, or other hard­wood (oak, map­le, mes­qui­te, alder, pecan, apple, cher­ry, other fruit­woods) smo­ked mal­ts may be used. The various woods may remind one of cer­tain smo­ked pro­ducts due to their food asso­cia­ti­on (e.g., hick­ory with ribs, map­le with bacon or sau­sa­ge, and alder with sal­mon). Ever­green wood should never be used sin­ce it adds a medi­ci­nal, piney fla­vor to the malt. Noti­ce­ab­le peat-smo­ked malt is uni­ver­sal­ly unde­s­i­ra­ble due to its sharp, pier­cing phe­n­o­lics and dirt-like eart­hi­ness. The remai­ning ingre­dients vary with the base style. If smo­ked mal­ts are com­bi­ned with other unusu­al ingre­dients (fruits, vege­ta­bles, spi­ces, honey, etc.) in noti­ce­ab­le quan­ti­ties, the resul­ting beer should be ent­e­red in the Spe­cial­ty Smo­ked Beer.
Histo­ry
The pro­cess of using smo­ked mal­ts has been adap­ted by craft bre­wers to many styles. Ger­man bre­wers have tra­di­tio­nal­ly used smo­ked mal­ts in bock, dop­pel­bock, weiss­bier, dun­kel, schwarz­bier, hel­les, Pils, and other spe­cial­ty styles.
Comments
This style is for any beer that exhi­bits smo­ke as a princi­pal fla­vor and aro­ma cha­rac­te­ris­tic other than the Bam­berg-style Rauch­bier (i.e., beech­wood-smo­ked Mär­z­en), which has its own style. Any style of beer can be smo­ked; the goal is to reach a plea­sant balan­ce bet­ween the smo­ke cha­rac­ter and the base beer style. Ent­ries should be jud­ged on how well that style is repre­sen­ted, and how well it is balan­ced with the smo­ke cha­rac­ter. Ent­ries with a spe­ci­fic type or types of smo­ke cited will be jud­ged on how well that type of smo­ke is reco­gniz­ab­le and mar­ries with the base style. Jud­ges should eva­lua­te the beers most­ly on the over­all balan­ce, and how well the smo­ke cha­rac­ter enhan­ces the base beer.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Alas­kan Smo­ked Por­ter, Schlen­ker­la Wei­zen Rauch­bier and Ur-Bock Rauch­bier, Spe­zi­al Lager­bier, Weiss­bier and Bock­bier, Stone Smo­ked Porter
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Spe­cial­ty Smo­ked Beer
Cate­go­ry
Smo­ked Beer
BJCP Style Code
32 B
Appearan­ce
Varia­ble. The appearan­ce should reflect the base beer style, alt­hough the color of the beer is often a bit dar­ker than the plain base style. The use of cer­tain fruits and spi­ces may affect the color and hue of the beer as well.
Aro­ma
The aro­ma should be a plea­sant balan­ce bet­ween the expec­ted aro­ma of the base beer, the smo­ki­ness impar­ted by the use of smo­ked mal­ts, and any addi­tio­nal ingre­dients. The inten­si­ty and cha­rac­ter of the smo­ke, base beer style, and addi­tio­nal ingre­dients can vary, with any being more pro­mi­nent in the balan­ce. Smo­ki­ness may vary from low to asser­ti­ve; howe­ver, balan­ce in the over­all pre­sen­ta­ti­on is the key to well-made examp­les. The qua­li­ty and secon­da­ry cha­rac­te­ris­tics of the smo­ke are reflec­ti­ve of the source of the smo­ke (e.g., alder, oak, beech­wood). Sharp, phe­n­o­lic, har­sh, rub­be­ry, or burnt smo­ke-deri­ved aro­ma­tics are inappropriate.
Fla­vour
As with aro­ma, the­re should be a balan­ce bet­ween smo­ki­ness, the expec­ted fla­vor cha­rac­te­ris­tics of the base beer style, and the addi­tio­nal ingre­dients. Smo­ki­ness may vary from low to asser­ti­ve. Smo­ky fla­vors may ran­ge from woo­dy to some­what bacon-like depen­ding on the type of mal­ts used. The balan­ce of under­ly­ing beer cha­rac­te­ris­tics and smo­ke can vary, alt­hough the resul­ting blend should be some­what balan­ced and enjoya­ble. Smo­ke can add some dry­ness to the finish. Har­sh, bit­ter, burnt, char­red, rub­be­ry, sul­fu­ry, medi­ci­nal, or phe­n­o­lic smo­ky cha­rac­te­ris­tics are gene­ral­ly inap­pro­pria­te (alt­hough some of the­se cha­rac­te­ris­tics may be pre­sent in some base styles; howe­ver, the smo­ked malt shouldn’t con­tri­bu­te the­se flavors).
Mouth­feel
Varies with the base beer style. Signi­fi­cant astrin­gent, phe­n­o­lic smo­ke-deri­ved har­sh­ness is inappropriate.
Over­all Impression
A smo­ke-enhan­ced beer showing good balan­ce bet­ween the smo­ke, the beer cha­rac­ter, and the added ingre­dients, while remai­ning plea­sant to drink. Balan­ce in the use of smo­ke, hops and malt cha­rac­ter is exhi­bi­ted by the bet­ter examples.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Dif­fe­rent mate­ri­als used to smo­ke malt result in uni­que fla­vor and aro­ma cha­rac­te­ris­tics. Beech­wood, or other hard­wood (oak, map­le, mes­qui­te, alder, pecan, apple, cher­ry, other fruit­woods) smo­ked mal­ts may be used. The various woods may remind one of cer­tain smo­ked pro­ducts due to their food asso­cia­ti­on (e.g., hick­ory with ribs, map­le with bacon or sau­sa­ge, and alder with sal­mon). Ever­green wood should never be used sin­ce it adds a medi­ci­nal, piney fla­vor to the malt. Noti­ce­ab­le peat-smo­ked malt is uni­ver­sal­ly unde­s­i­ra­ble due to its sharp, pier­cing phe­n­o­lics and dirt-like eart­hi­ness. The beer ingre­dients vary with the base style. Other unusu­al ingre­dients (fruits, vege­ta­bles, spi­ces, honey, etc.) used in noti­ce­ab­le quantities.
Comments
Any style of beer can be smo­ked; the goal is to reach a plea­sant balan­ce bet­ween the smo­ke cha­rac­ter and the base beer style. Ent­ries should be jud­ged on how well that style is repre­sen­ted, and how well it is balan­ced with the smo­ke cha­rac­ter. Ent­ries with a spe­ci­fic type or types of smo­ke cited will be jud­ged on how well that type of smo­ke is reco­gniz­ab­le and mar­ries with the base style and added ingre­dients. Jud­ges should eva­lua­te the beers most­ly on the over­all balan­ce, and how well the smo­ke cha­rac­ter and added ingre­dients enhan­ces the base beer.
Notes
A Spe­cial­ty Smo­ked Beer is eit­her a smo­ked beer based on some­thing other than a Clas­sic Style, or any type of smo­ked beer with addi­tio­nal ingre­dients (fruits, vege­ta­bles, spi­ces) or pro­ces­ses employ­ed that trans­form the beer into some­thing more unique.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Wood-Aged Beer
Cate­go­ry
Wood Beer
BJCP Style Code
33 A
Appearan­ce
Varies with base style. Often dar­ker than the unadul­te­ra­ted base beer style, par­ti­cu­lar­ly if toasted/charred bar­rels are used.
Aro­ma
Varies with base style. A low to mode­ra­te wood- or oak-based aro­ma is usual­ly pre­sent. Fresh wood can occa­sio­nal­ly impart raw “green” aro­ma­tics, alt­hough this cha­rac­ter should never be too strong. Other optio­nal aro­ma­tics inclu­de a low to mode­ra­te vanil­la, cara­mel, tof­fee, toast, or cocoa cha­rac­ter from any char on the wood. Any alco­hol cha­rac­ter should be smooth and balan­ced, not hot. Some back­ground oxi­da­ti­on cha­rac­ter is optio­nal, and can take on a plea­sant, sher­ry-like cha­rac­ter and not be pape­ry or card­board-like. Should not have added alco­hol character.
Fla­vour
Varies with base style. Wood usual­ly con­tri­bu­tes a woo­dy or oaky fla­vor, which can occa­sio­nal­ly take on a raw “green” fla­vor if new wood is used. Other fla­vors that may optio­nal­ly be pre­sent inclu­de vanil­la (from vanil­lin in the wood); cara­mel, but­ters­cotch, toas­ted bread or almonds (from toas­ted wood); and cof­fee, cho­co­la­te, cocoa (from char­red wood). The wood and/or other cask-deri­ved fla­vors should be balan­ced, sup­por­ti­ve and noti­ce­ab­le, but should not over­power the base beer style. Some back­ground oxi­da­ti­on cha­rac­ter is optio­nal, alt­hough this should take on a plea­sant, sher­ry-like cha­rac­ter and not be pape­ry or cardboard-like.
Mouth­feel
Varies with base style. Wood can add tan­nins to the beer, depen­ding on age of the cask. The tan­nins can lead to addi­tio­nal astrin­gen­cy (which should never be high), or sim­ply a ful­ler mouth­feel. Tart or aci­dic cha­rac­te­ris­tics should be low to none, and never distracting.
Over­all Impression
A har­mo­nious blend of the base beer style with cha­rac­te­ris­tics from aging in con­ta­ct with wood. The best examp­les will be smooth, fla­vor­ful, well-balan­ced and well-aged. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Varies with base style. Aged in woo­den casks or bar­rels, or using wood-based addi­ti­ves (wood chips, wood staves, oak essence). Ful­ler-bodi­ed, hig­her-gra­vi­ty base styles often are used sin­ce they can best stand up to the addi­tio­nal fla­vors, alt­hough expe­ri­men­ta­ti­on is encouraged.
Histo­ry
A tra­di­tio­nal pro­duc­tion method that is rare­ly used by major bre­we­ries, and usual­ly only with spe­cial­ty pro­ducts. More popu­lar with modern Ame­ri­can craft bre­we­ries loo­king for new, dis­tinc­ti­ve pro­ducts. Oak cask and bar­rels are tra­di­tio­nal, alt­hough other woods are beco­m­ing more popular.
Comments
The base beer style should be appa­rent. The wood-based cha­rac­ter should be evi­dent, but not so domi­nant as to unba­lan­ce the beer. The inten­si­ty of the wood-based fla­vors is based on the con­ta­ct time with the wood; the age, con­di­ti­on, and ori­gin and char level of the bar­rel; and the type of wood. THIS CATEGORY SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR BASE STYLES WHERE WOOD-AGING IS A FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENT FOR THE STYLE (e.g., Flan­ders Red, Lam­bic, etc.). Beers made using eit­her limi­ted wood aging or pro­ducts that only pro­vi­de a sub­t­le back­ground cha­rac­ter may be ent­e­red in the base beer style cate­go­ries as long as the wood cha­rac­ter isn’t pro­mi­n­ent­ly featured.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bush Pres­ti­ge, Cigar City Humi­dor India Pale Ale, Faust Holz­fass­ge­reif­ter Eis­bock, Fire­stone Wal­ker Dou­ble Bar­rel Ale, Gre­at Divi­de Oak Aged Yeti Impe­ri­al Stout, Petrus Aged Pale, Samu­el Smith York­shire Stingo
Notes
This style is inten­ded for beer aged in wood without added alco­hol cha­rac­ter from pre­vious use of the bar­rel. Bour­bon-bar­rel or other simi­lar beers should be ent­e­red as a Spe­cial­ty Wood-Aged Beer.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Spe­cial­ty Wood-Aged Beer
Cate­go­ry
Wood Beer
BJCP Style Code
33 B
Appearan­ce
Varies with base style. Often dar­ker than the unadul­te­ra­ted base beer style, par­ti­cu­lar­ly if whiskey/bourbon bar­rels are used. Beers aged in wine bar­rels or other pro­ducts with dis­tinc­ti­ve colors may also impart a color to the finis­hed beer.
Aro­ma
Varies with base style. A low to mode­ra­te wood- or oak-based aro­ma is usual­ly pre­sent. Other aro­ma­tics often inclu­de a low to mode­ra­te vanil­la, cara­mel, tof­fee, toast, or cocoa cha­rac­ter, as well as any aro­ma­tics asso­cia­ted with alco­hol (distil­led spi­rits, wine, etc.) pre­vious­ly stored in the wood. The added alco­hol cha­rac­ter should be smooth and balan­ced, not hot. Some back­ground oxi­da­ti­on cha­rac­ter is optio­nal, and can take on a plea­sant, sher­ry-like cha­rac­ter and not be pape­ry or cardboard-like.
Fla­vour
Varies with base style. Wood usual­ly con­tri­bu­tes a woo­dy or oaky fla­vor. Other fla­vors that are typi­cal­ly pre­sent inclu­de vanil­la (from vanil­lin in the wood); cara­mel, but­ters­cotch, toas­ted bread or almonds (from toas­ted wood); cof­fee, cho­co­la­te, cocoa (from char­red wood or bour­bon casks); and alco­hol fla­vors from other pro­ducts pre­vious­ly stored in the wood. The wood and/or other cask-deri­ved fla­vors should be balan­ced, sup­por­ti­ve and noti­ce­ab­le, but should not over­power the base beer style. Some back­ground oxi­da­ti­on cha­rac­ter is optio­nal, alt­hough this should take on a plea­sant, sher­ry-like cha­rac­ter and not be pape­ry or cardboard-like.
Mouth­feel
Varies with base style. Wood can add tan­nins to the beer, depen­ding on age of the cask. The tan­nins can lead to addi­tio­nal astrin­gen­cy (which should never be high), or sim­ply a ful­ler mouth­feel. Usual­ly exhi­bits addi­tio­nal alco­hol war­ming. Hig­her alco­hol levels should not result in “hot” beers; aged, smooth fla­vors are most desi­ra­ble. Tart or aci­dic cha­rac­te­ris­tics should be low to none.
Over­all Impression
A har­mo­nious blend of the base beer style with cha­rac­te­ris­tics from aging in con­ta­ct with wood (inclu­ding alco­ho­lic pro­ducts pre­vious­ly in con­ta­ct with the wood). The best examp­les will be smooth, fla­vor­ful, well-balan­ced and well-aged. 
Typi­cal Ingredients
Varies with base style. Aged in woo­den casks or bar­rels pre­vious­ly used to store alco­hol (e.g., whis­key, bour­bon, port, sher­ry, Madei­ra, wine, etc). Ful­ler-bodi­ed, hig­her-gra­vi­ty base styles often are used sin­ce they can best stand up to the addi­tio­nal fla­vors, alt­hough expe­ri­men­ta­ti­on is encouraged.
Histo­ry
A tra­di­tio­nal pro­duc­tion method that is rare­ly used by major bre­we­ries, and usual­ly only with spe­cial­ty pro­ducts. Qui­te popu­lar with modern Ame­ri­can craft bre­we­ries loo­king for new, dis­tinc­ti­ve pro­ducts. Oak cask and bar­rels are tra­di­tio­nal, alt­hough other woods can be used.
Comments
The base beer style should be appa­rent. The wood-based cha­rac­ter should be evi­dent, but not so domi­nant as to unba­lan­ce the beer. The inten­si­ty of the wood-based fla­vors is based on the con­ta­ct time with the wood; the age, con­di­ti­on, pre­vious usa­ge of the bar­rel; and the type of wood. Alco­ho­lic pro­ducts pre­vious­ly stored in the wood should be evi­dent, but should not be so domi­nant as to unba­lan­ce the beer. THIS CATEGORY SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR BASE STYLES WHERE BARREL-AGING IS A FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENT FOR THE STYLE (e.g., Flan­ders Red, Lam­bic, etc.). Spe­cial wood-aged wild ales should be ent­e­red in the Wild Spe­cial­ty style.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Foun­ders Ken­tu­cky Bre­ak­fast Stout, Goo­se Island Bour­bon Coun­ty Stout, J.W. Lees Har­vest Ale in Port, Sher­ry, Lag­a­vu­lin Whis­ky or Cal­va­dos Casks, The Lost Abbey Angel’s Share Ale; many microbre­we­ries have spe­cial­ty beers ser­ved only on pre­mi­ses often direct­ly from the cask.
Notes
This style is inten­ded for beer aged in wood with added alco­hol cha­rac­ter from pre­vious use of the bar­rel. Bour­bon-bar­rel or other simi­lar beers should be ent­e­red here.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Clo­ne Beer
Cate­go­ry
Spe­cial­ty Beer
BJCP Style Code
34 A
Appearan­ce
Based on decla­red clo­ne beer.
Aro­ma
Based on decla­red clo­ne beer.
Fla­vour
Based on decla­red clo­ne beer.
Mouth­feel
Based on decla­red clo­ne beer.
Over­all Impression
Based on decla­red clo­ne beer.
Comments
Inten­ded as a catch-all loca­ti­on for spe­ci­fic beers that are based on uni­que com­mer­cial examp­les that don’t fit exis­ting styles.
Notes
This style is inten­ded for repro­duc­tions of spe­ci­fic com­mer­cial beers that aren’t good repre­sen­ta­ti­ons of exis­ting styles. The use of the word clo­ne does not imply an exact copy; it implies an inter­pre­ta­ti­on of a style repre­sen­ted by a spe­ci­fic beer that does not have a defi­ned style wit­hin the gui­de­li­nes. The beer should be jud­ged as to how well it fits the broa­der style repre­sen­ted by the examp­le beer, not how well it is an exact copy of a spe­ci­fic com­mer­cial pro­duct. If a ‘clo­ne beer’ does fit ano­t­her style, do not enter it here.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Mixed-Style Beer
Cate­go­ry
Spe­cial­ty Beer
BJCP Style Code
34 B
Appearan­ce
Based on the decla­red base styles.
Aro­ma
Based on the decla­red base styles.
Fla­vour
Based on the decla­red base styles.
Mouth­feel
Based on the decla­red base styles.
Over­all Impression
Based on the decla­red base styles. As with all Spe­cial­ty-Type Beers, the resul­ting com­bi­na­ti­on of beer styles needs to be har­mo­nious and balan­ced, and be plea­sant to drink.
Comments
Inten­ded for Spe­cial­ty-Type com­bi­na­ti­ons of styles not descri­bed else­whe­re as Spe­cial­ty-Type Beers, or as hybrid or fusi­on beers bet­ween other exis­ting styles.
Notes
This style is inten­ded for com­bi­na­ti­ons of exis­ting styles (Clas­sic Beers or Spe­cial­ty-Type) that are not defi­ned else­whe­re in the gui­de­li­nes. If a ‘mixed-style beer’ does fit ano­t­her style, do not enter it here. 
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Expe­ri­men­tal Beer
Cate­go­ry
Spe­cial­ty Beer
BJCP Style Code
34 C
Appearan­ce
Varies.
Aro­ma
Varies.
Fla­vour
Varies.
Mouth­feel
Varies.
Over­all Impression
Varies, but should be a uni­que experience.
Comments
This style is the ulti­ma­te in crea­ti­vi­ty, sin­ce it can­not repre­sent a well-known com­mer­cial beer (other­wi­se it would be a clo­ne beer) and can­not fit into any other exis­ting Spe­cial­ty-Type style (inclu­ding tho­se wit­hin this major category).
Notes
This is expli­ci­tly a catch-all cate­go­ry for any beer that does not fit into an exis­ting style descrip­ti­on. No beer is ever “out of style” in this style, unless it fits else­whe­re. This is the last resort for any beer ent­e­red into a competition.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.000 - 0.000 SG
Color
0 - 0 SRM
Alco­hol
0.0 - 0.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
0 - 0 IBU
Name
Pale Kel­ler­bier
Cate­go­ry
Amber Bit­ter Euro­pean Beer
BJCP Style Code
7 C1
Appearan­ce
Slight haze to moder­ate­ly clou­dy, but never extre­me­ly clou­dy or mur­ky. Medi­um yel­low to pale gold color. Crea­my white head with good per­sis­tence. When ser­ved on cask, can have low car­bo­na­ti­on and very low head.
Aro­ma
Moder­ate­ly-low to moder­ate­ly-high spi­cy, flo­ral, or her­bal hop aro­ma. Very low to mode­ra­te dia­ce­tyl, pos­si­ble very low green apple or other yeast deri­ved notes. Plea­s­ant­ly grai­ny-sweet, clean malt aro­ma, with pos­si­ble low back­ground note of DMS.
Fla­vour
Moder­ate­ly mal­ty with a roun­ded, grai­ny-sweet pro­fi­le. Low to moder­ate­ly-high spi­cy, flo­ral, or her­bal hop fla­vor, with a mode­ra­te hop bit­ter­ness that can lin­ger. Finish is crisp and dry, but the after­tas­te remains mal­ty. Very low to mode­ra­te dia­ce­tyl, which should always remain at a plea­sant, drin­ka­ble level that balan­ces some­what with the other cha­rac­te­ris­tics of the beer; over­whel­ming dia­ce­tyl is not appro­pria­te. Pos­si­ble very low green apple or other yeast deri­ved notes, and pos­si­ble low back­ground note of DMS. 
Mouth­feel
Medi­um body. Low to medi­um car­bo­na­ti­on. Depen­ding on the level of yeast in sus­pen­si­on, it may assist in crea­ting a slight­ly crea­my tex­tu­re. A slight slick­ness on the tongue may be pre­sent from the diacetyl.
Over­all Impression
A young, fresh Hel­les, so while still a mal­ty, ful­ly-atte­nua­ted Pils malt show­ca­se, the hop cha­rac­ter (aro­ma, fla­vor and bit­ter­ness) is more pro­noun­ced, and the beer is clou­dy, often with some level of dia­ce­tyl, and pos­si­b­ly has some green apple and/or other yeast-deri­ved notes. As with the tra­di­tio­nal Hel­les, the Kel­ler ver­si­on is still a beer inten­ded to be drunk by the liter, so over­all it should remain a light, refres­hing, easy drin­king gol­den lager.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pils­ner malt, Ger­man hops, Ger­man lager yeast; same as a Munich Helles.
Histo­ry
Modern adap­t­ati­on from the tra­di­tio­nal Fran­co­ni­an style, using Hel­les ins­tead of Mär­z­en. Today, a popu­lar sum­mer sea­so­nal beer. Ori­gi­nal­ly, Kel­ler­bier refer­red to any Lager beer being matu­red in the caves or cel­lars under the bre­we­ry. In the 19th cen­tu­ry, Kel­ler­bier was a strong, aged beer meant to last the sum­mer (Som­mer­bier), stored in rock cel­lars and ser­ved strai­ght from them. But when ref­ri­gera­ti­on began to be used, the term shifted to describ­ing spe­cial beers that were ser­ved young, direct­ly from the cel­lar or lage­ring ves­sel. Today some bre­we­ries use the term pure­ly for mar­ke­ting pur­po­ses to make their beers appe­ar spe­cial. While a kel­ler­bier is some­ti­mes con­si­de­red more of a ser­ving style than a beer style, the ser­ving tech­ni­que is still pre­do­mi­na­te­ly used with cer­tain styles in cer­tain regi­ons (such as Hel­les around the Munich area, or a Mär­z­en in the Fran­co­nia region).
Comments
Most Pale Kel­ler­biers are young, unfil­te­red, unpas­teu­ri­zed ver­si­ons of Munich Hel­les beer, alt­hough Pils or a dif­fe­rent, cus­tom gol­den lager beer desi­gned spe­ci­fi­cal­ly for ser­ving young could also be used. The best examp­les are ser­ved only on tap at many of the Munich area bre­we­ries. Bot­t­led ver­si­ons are not likely to have the fresh­ness, hop cha­rac­ter and young beer notes exhi­bi­ted by the draft versions.
Com­mer­cial Examples
(local) Pau­la­ner, Pau­la­ner Brau­haus, Hof­brau, Tegern­seer Tal. (bot­t­led) Ayin­ger Kel­ler­bier, Hacker-Pschorr Munch­ner Kel­ler­bier Anno 1417, Hof­brau Munch­ner Som­mer Natur­trub, Wolnza­cher Hell Naturtrüb
Notes
A very com­mon sea­so­nal sum­mer beer bre­wed by many of the Munich area bre­we­ries and ser­ved in the beer gar­dens, whe­re they are very popular.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.045 - 1.051 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.012 SG
Color
3 - 7 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
20 - 35 IBU
Name
Amber Kel­ler­bier
Cate­go­ry
Amber Bit­ter Euro­pean Beer
BJCP Style Code
7 C2
Appearan­ce
Moder­ate­ly clou­dy to clear depen­ding on age, but never extre­me­ly clou­dy or mur­ky. Gold to deep red­dish-amber color. Off-white, crea­my head. When ser­ved on cask, can have low car­bo­na­ti­on and very low head.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te inten­si­ty of Ger­man malt, typi­cal­ly rich, brea­dy, some­what toas­ty, with light bread crust notes. Moder­ate­ly-low to mode­ra­te spi­cy pep­pe­ry hop aro­ma. Very low to low dia­ce­tyl, occa­sio­nal­ly low to moder­ate­ly-low sul­fur and very low green apple or other yeast-deri­ved notes. Cara­mel, bis­cui­ty, or roas­ted malt aro­ma is inappropriate.
Fla­vour
Initi­al malt fla­vor may sug­gest sweet­ness, but finish is moder­ate­ly dry to dry, and slight­ly bit­ter. Dis­tinc­ti­ve and com­plex mal­ti­ness often inclu­des a brea­dy-toas­ty aspect. Hop bit­ter­ness is mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly high, and spi­cy or her­bal hop fla­vor is low to moder­ate­ly high. Balan­ce can be eit­her on the malt or hop side, but the finish is not sweet. Noti­ce­ab­le cara­mel or roas­ted malt fla­vors are inap­pro­pria­te. Very low to low dia­ce­tyl. Pos­si­ble very low green apple or other yeast-deri­ved notes. Smooth, mal­ty aftertaste.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um body, with a crea­my tex­tu­re and medi­um car­bo­na­ti­on. Ful­ly fer­men­ted, without a sweet or cloy­ing impression.
Over­all Impression
A young, unfil­te­red, and unpas­teu­ri­zed beer that is bet­ween a Hel­les and Mär­z­en in color, spi­cier in the hops with grea­ter atte­nua­ti­on. Inter­pre­ta­ti­ons ran­ge in color and balan­ce, but remain in the drin­ka­ble 4.8% ABV neigh­bor­hood. Balan­ce ran­ges from the dry, spi­cy and pale-colo­red inter­pre­ta­ti­ons by St. Geor­gen and Löwen­bräu of But­ten­heim, to dar­ker and mal­tier inter­pre­ta­ti­ons in the Frän­ki­sche Schweiz. This style is abo­ve all a method of pro­du­cing simp­le drin­ka­ble beers for neigh­bors out of local ingre­dients to be ser­ved fresh. Balan­ce with a focus on drin­ka­bi­li­ty and diges­ti­bi­li­ty is important.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Grist varies, alt­hough tra­di­tio­nal Ger­man ver­si­ons empha­si­zed Fran­co­ni­an pale and color malt. The noti­on of ele­gan­ce is deri­ved from the high-qua­li­ty local ingre­dients, par­ti­cu­lar­ly the mal­ts. Spalt or other typi­cal­ly spi­cy local hops are most com­mon. Fru­gal Fran­co­ni­an bre­wers rare­ly used deco­c­tion brewing due to the cost of energy.
Histo­ry
This was the clas­sic, his­to­ri­cal style befo­re it was adap­ted in other are­as. This ori­gi­nal, older style of Kel­ler­bier would have sim­ply been beer ser­ved from local taverns that did not lager long enough to drop bright. Many bre­we­ries in Fran­co­nia would use some of this young beer during the sum­mer mon­ths, for fes­ti­vals such as the Anna­fest (est. 1840) in July in Forch­heim, whe­re it was tra­di­tio­nal to drink direct­ly from the lage­ring ves­sels. Ori­gi­nal­ly, Kel­ler­bier refer­red to any Lager beer being matu­red in the caves or cel­lars under the bre­we­ry. In the 19th cen­tu­ry, Kel­ler­bier was a strong, aged beer meant to last the sum­mer (Som­mer­bier), stored in rock cel­lars and ser­ved strai­ght from them. But when ref­ri­gera­ti­on began to be used, the term shifted to describ­ing spe­cial beers that were ser­ved young, direct­ly from the cel­lar or lage­ring ves­sel. Today some bre­we­ries use the term pure­ly for mar­ke­ting pur­po­ses to make their beers appe­ar spe­cial. While a kel­ler­bier is some­ti­mes con­si­de­red more of a ser­ving style than a beer style, the ser­ving tech­ni­que is still pre­do­mi­na­te­ly used with cer­tain styles in cer­tain regi­ons (such as Hel­les around the Munich area, or a Mär­z­en in the Fran­co­nia region).
Comments
The best examp­les of Amber Kel­ler­bier are ser­ved only on tap at many of the small Fran­co­nia area bre­we­ries (as this is a beer best ser­ved fresh and the ser­ving style being an important part of the style). Bot­t­led ver­si­ons are not likely to have the fresh­ness, hop cha­rac­ter and young beer notes exhi­bi­ted by the draft versions.
Com­mer­cial Examples
(local) Greif, Eich­horn, Neder­kel­ler, Hebendanz (bot­t­led) But­ten­hei­mer Kai­ser­dom Kel­ler­bier, Kulm­ba­cher Monchs­hof Kel­ler­bier, Leikeim Kel­ler­bier, Löwen­bräu Kel­ler­bier, Mahr’s Kel­ler­bier, St. Geor­gen Kel­ler­bier, Tucher Kel­ler­bier Naturtrub
Notes
The ori­gi­nal style of Kel­ler­bier from the Fran­co­nia area of Ger­ma­ny. A much older style com­pa­red to the rela­tively more recent pale Hel­les-Style Kel­ler­bier that is popu­lar in the Munich area today.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.048 - 1.054 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.012 - 1.016 SG
Color
7 - 17 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 5.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 40 IBU
Name
Spe­cial­ty IPA - Bel­gi­an IPA
Cate­go­ry
IPA
BJCP Style Code
21 B1
Appearan­ce
Light gol­den to amber in color. Off-white head is mode­ra­te to lar­ge in size and has good reten­ti­on. Cla­ri­ty is fair to qui­te hazy in dry hop­ped examples.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te to high hop aro­ma, often tro­pi­cal, stone fruit, citrus or pine-like typi­cal of Ame­ri­can or New World hop varie­ties. Flo­ral and spi­cy aro­mas are also found indi­ca­ting Euro­pean hops. Gras­sy aro­ma due to dry hop­ping may be pre­sent. Gent­le, grai­ny-sweet malt aro­ma, with litt­le to no cara­mel. Frui­ty esters are mode­ra­te to high and may inclu­de aro­mas of bana­nas, pears and app­les. Light clove-like phe­nols may be noti­ce­ab­le. Bel­gi­an can­di sugar-like aro­mas are some­ti­mes present.
Fla­vour
Initi­al fla­vor is moder­ate­ly spi­cy and este­ry asso­cia­ted with Bel­gi­an yeast strains. Clove-like and pep­pe­ry fla­vors are com­mon. Bana­na, pear and apple fla­vors are also typi­cal. Hop fla­vors are mode­ra­te to high in inten­si­ty and may reflect tro­pi­cal, stone fruit, melon, citru­sy, or piney American/New World varie­ties or flo­ral and spi­cy Saa­zer-type hop fla­vors. Malt fla­vor is light and grai­ny-sweet, some­ti­mes with low toas­ted or cara­mel malt fla­vor but not requi­red. Bit­ter­ness is high and may be accen­tua­ted by spi­cy yeast-deri­ved fla­vors. The finish is dry to medi­um-dry alt­hough some examp­les have a slight sweet­ness mixed with the lin­ge­ring bitterness.
Mouth­feel
The body is medi­um to light and varies due to car­bo­na­ti­on level and adjunct use. Car­bo­na­ti­on level is medi­um to high. Some hig­her alco­hol ver­si­ons may be war­ming alt­hough this may not be rea­di­ly apparent.
Over­all Impression
An IPA with the frui­ti­ness and spi­ci­ness deri­ved from the use of Bel­gi­an yeast. The examp­les from Bel­gi­um tend to be ligh­ter in color and more atte­nua­ted, simi­lar to a tri­pel that has been bre­wed with more hops. This beer has a more com­plex fla­vor pro­fi­le and may be hig­her in alco­hol than a typi­cal IPA.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Bel­gi­an yeast strains used in making tri­pels and gol­den strong ales. Ame­ri­can examp­les tend to use Ame­ri­can or New World hops while Bel­gi­an ver­si­ons tend to use Euro­pean hops and only pale malt.
Histo­ry
A rela­tively new style, star­ted showing up in the mid 2000s. Home­bre­wers and microbre­we­ries sim­ply sub­sti­tu­ted Bel­gi­an yeast in their Ame­ri­can IPA reci­pes. Bel­gi­an bre­we­ries added more hops to their tri­pel and pale ale recipes.
Comments
The choice of yeast strain and hop varie­ties is cri­ti­cal sin­ce many choices will hor­ri­b­ly clash.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bre­we­ry Vivant Triom­phe, Hou­blon Chouf­fe, Epic Brain­less IPA, Green Flash Le Freak, Stone Cali-Bel­gi­que, Urthel Hop It
Notes
Spe­cial­ty IPA isn’t a dis­tinct style, but is more appro­pria­te­ly thought of as a com­pe­ti­ti­on ent­ry cate­go­ry. Beers ent­e­red as this style are not expe­ri­men­tal beers; they are a collec­tion of cur­r­ent­ly pro­du­ced types of beer that may or may not have any mar­ket lon­ge­vi­ty. This cate­go­ry also allows for expan­si­on, so poten­ti­al future IPA vari­ants (St. Patrick’s Day Green IPA, Romu­lan Blue IPA, Zima Clear IPA, etc.) have a place to be ent­e­red without redo­ing the style gui­de­li­nes. The only com­mon ele­ment is that they have the balan­ce and over­all impres­si­on of an IPA (typi­cal­ly, an Ame­ri­can IPA) but with some minor tweak. The term ‘IPA’ is used as a sin­gu­lar descrip­tor of a type of hop­py, bit­ter beer. It is not meant to be spel­led out as ‘India Pale Ale’ when used in the con­text of a Spe­cial­ty IPA. None of the­se beers ever his­to­ri­cal­ly went to India, and many aren’t pale. But the craft beer mar­ket knows what to expect in balan­ce when a beer is descri­bed as an ‘IPA’ – so the modi­fiers used to dif­fe­ren­tia­te them are based on that con­cept alone.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.058 - 1.080 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.016 SG
Color
5 - 15 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 9.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
50 - 100 IBU
Name
Spe­cial­ty IPA - Black IPA
Cate­go­ry
IPA
BJCP Style Code
21 B2
Appearan­ce
Color ran­ges from dark brown to black. Should be clear, alt­hough unfil­te­red dry-hop­ped ver­si­ons may be a bit hazy; if opa­que, should not be mur­ky. Good head stand with light tan to tan color should persist. 
Aro­ma
A mode­ra­te to high hop aro­ma, often with a stone fruit, tro­pi­cal, citru­sy, resin­ous, piney, ber­ry, or melon cha­rac­ter. If dry hop­ped, can have an addi­tio­nal flo­ral, her­bal, or gras­sy aro­ma, alt­hough this is not requi­red. Very low to mode­ra­te dark malt aro­ma, which can optio­nal­ly inclu­de light cho­co­la­te, cof­fee, or toast notes. Some clean or light­ly cara­mel­ly mal­ty sweet­ness may be found in the back­ground. Frui­ti­ness, eit­her from esters or from hops, may also be detec­ted in some ver­si­ons, alt­hough a neu­tral fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter is also acceptable.
Fla­vour
Medi­um-low to high hop fla­vor with tro­pi­cal, stone fruit, melon, citru­sy, ber­ry, piney or resin­ous aspects. Medi­um-high to very high hop bit­ter­ness, alt­hough dark mal­ts may con­tri­bu­te to the per­cei­ved bit­ter­ness. The base malt fla­vor is gene­ral­ly clean and of low to medi­um inten­si­ty, and can optio­nal­ly have low cara­mel or tof­fee fla­vors. Dark malt fla­vors are low to medi­um-low; restrai­ned cho­co­la­te or cof­fee fla­vors may be pre­sent, but the roas­ted notes should not be inten­se, ashy, or burnt, and should not clash with the hops. Low to mode­ra­te frui­ti­ness (from yeast or hops) is accep­ta­ble but not requi­red. Dry to slight­ly off-dry finish. The finish may inclu­de a light roast cha­rac­ter that con­tri­bu­tes to per­cei­ved dry­ness, alt­hough this is not requi­red. The bit­ter­ness may lin­ger into the after­tas­te but should not be har­sh. Some clean alco­hol fla­vor can be noted in stron­ger versions. 
Mouth­feel
Smooth, medi­um-light to medi­um-bodi­ed mouth­feel without signi­fi­cant hop- or (espe­cial­ly) roas­ted malt-deri­ved astrin­gen­cy. Dry-hop­ped ver­si­ons may be a bit resi­ny. Medi­um car­bo­na­ti­on. A bit of crea­m­i­ness may be pre­sent but is not requi­red. Some smooth alco­hol war­ming can and should be sen­sed in stron­ger (but not all) versions. 
Over­all Impression
A beer with the dry­ness, hop-for­ward balan­ce, and fla­vor cha­rac­te­ris­tics of an Ame­ri­can IPA, only dar­ker in color – but without stron­gly roas­ted or burnt fla­vors. The fla­vor of dar­ker mal­ts is gent­le and sup­por­ti­ve, not a major fla­vor com­po­nent. Drin­ka­bi­li­ty is a key characteristic.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Debit­te­red roast mal­ts for color and some fla­vor without har­sh­ness and burnt qua­li­ties; Ame­ri­can or New World hop varie­ties that don’t clash with roas­ted mal­ts. Hop cha­rac­te­ris­tics cited are typi­cal of the­se type of hops; others cha­rac­te­ris­tics are pos­si­ble, par­ti­cu­lar­ly if deri­ved from newer varietals.
Histo­ry
A varia­ti­on of the Ame­ri­can IPA style first com­mer­cial­ly pro­du­ced by Greg Noo­n­an as Black­watch IPA around 1990. Popu­la­ri­zed in the Paci­fic Nor­thwest and Sou­thern Cali­for­nia of the US star­ting in the ear­ly-mid 2000s. This style is some­ti­mes known as Cas­ca­di­an Dark Ale (CDA), main­ly in the Paci­fic Northwest. 
Comments
Most examp­les are stan­dard strength. Strong examp­les can some­ti­mes seem like big, hop­py por­ters if made too extre­me, which hurts their drin­ka­bi­li­ty. The hops and malt can com­bi­ne to pro­du­ce inte­res­ting interactions.
Com­mer­cial Examples
21st Amend­ment Back in Black (stan­dard), Deschu­tes Hop in the Dark CDA (stan­dard), Rogue Dad’s Litt­le Hel­per (stan­dard), Sou­thern Tier Ini­qui­ty (dou­ble), Wid­mer Pitch Black IPA (stan­dard)
Notes
Spe­cial­ty IPA isn’t a dis­tinct style, but is more appro­pria­te­ly thought of as a com­pe­ti­ti­on ent­ry cate­go­ry. Beers ent­e­red as this style are not expe­ri­men­tal beers; they are a collec­tion of cur­r­ent­ly pro­du­ced types of beer that may or may not have any mar­ket lon­ge­vi­ty. This cate­go­ry also allows for expan­si­on, so poten­ti­al future IPA vari­ants (St. Patrick’s Day Green IPA, Romu­lan Blue IPA, Zima Clear IPA, etc.) have a place to be ent­e­red without redo­ing the style gui­de­li­nes. The only com­mon ele­ment is that they have the balan­ce and over­all impres­si­on of an IPA (typi­cal­ly, an Ame­ri­can IPA) but with some minor tweak. The term ‘IPA’ is used as a sin­gu­lar descrip­tor of a type of hop­py, bit­ter beer. It is not meant to be spel­led out as ‘India Pale Ale’ when used in the con­text of a Spe­cial­ty IPA. None of the­se beers ever his­to­ri­cal­ly went to India, and many aren’t pale. But the craft beer mar­ket knows what to expect in balan­ce when a beer is descri­bed as an ‘IPA’ – so the modi­fiers used to dif­fe­ren­tia­te them are based on that con­cept alone.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.050 - 1.085 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.018 SG
Color
25 - 40 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 9.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
50 - 90 IBU
Name
Spe­cial­ty IPA - Brown IPA
Cate­go­ry
IPA
BJCP Style Code
21 B3
Appearan­ce
Color ran­ges from red­dish-brown to dark brown but not black. Fre­quent­ly opa­que, but should be clear if visi­ble. Unfil­te­red dry-hop­ped ver­si­ons may be a bit hazy. Medi­um-sized, cream-colo­red to tan head with good persistence.
Aro­ma
A mode­ra­te to moder­ate­ly-strong fresh hop aro­ma fea­turing one or more cha­rac­te­ris­tics of Ame­ri­can or New World hops, such as tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, citrus, flo­ral, spi­cy, ber­ry, melon, pine, resin­ous, etc. Many ver­si­ons are dry hop­ped and can have an addi­tio­nal fresh hop aro­ma; this is desi­ra­ble but not requi­red. Gras­si­ness should be mini­mal, if pre­sent. A medi­um-low to medi­um mal­ty-sweet aro­ma mixes in well with the hop selec­tion, and often fea­tures cho­co­la­te, nuts, dark cara­mel, tof­fee, toas­ted bread, and/or dark fruit cha­rac­ter. Frui­ti­ness from yeast may also be detec­ted in some ver­si­ons, alt­hough a neu­tral fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter is also accep­ta­ble. A restrai­ned alco­hol note may be pre­sent, but this cha­rac­ter should be mini­mal at best. Any Ame­ri­can or New World hop cha­rac­ter is accep­ta­ble; new hop varie­ties con­ti­nue to be released and should not cons­train this style.
Fla­vour
Hop fla­vor is medi­um to high, and should reflect an Ame­ri­can or New World hop cha­rac­ter, such as citrus, flo­ral, pine, resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, melon, etc. Medi­um-high to high hop bit­ter­ness. Malt fla­vor should be medi­um-low to medi­um, and is gene­ral­ly clean but mal­ty-sweet up front with milk cho­co­la­te, cocoa, tof­fee, nut­ty, bis­cui­ty, dark cara­mel, toas­ted bread and/or dark fruit malt fla­vors. The cha­rac­ter malt choices and the hop selec­tions should com­ple­ment and enhan­ce each other, not clash. The level of malt fla­vor should near­ly balan­ce the hop bit­ter­ness and fla­vor pre­sen­ta­ti­on. Low yeast-deri­ved frui­ti­ness is accep­ta­ble but not requi­red. Dry to medi­um finish; resi­du­al sweet­ness should be medi­um-low to none. The bit­ter­ness and hop fla­vor may lin­ger into the after­tas­te but should not be har­sh. A very light, clean alco­hol fla­vor may be noted in stron­ger ver­si­ons. No roas­ted, burnt, or har­sh-bit­ter malt character.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body, with a smooth tex­tu­re. Medi­um to medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on. No har­sh hop-deri­ved astrin­gen­cy. Very light, smooth alco­hol war­ming not a fault if it does not intru­de into over­all balance.
Over­all Impression
Hop­py, bit­ter, and moder­ate­ly strong like an Ame­ri­can IPA, but with some cara­mel, cho­co­la­te, tof­fee, and/or dark fruit malt cha­rac­ter as in an Ame­ri­can Brown Ale. Retai­ning the dryish finish and lean body that makes IPAs so drin­ka­ble, a Brown IPA is a litt­le more fla­vor­ful and mal­ty than an Ame­ri­can IPA without being sweet or heavy.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Simi­lar to an Ame­ri­can IPA, but with medi­um or dark crys­tal mal­ts, light­ly roas­ted cho­co­la­te-type mal­ts, or other inter­me­dia­te color cha­rac­ter mal­ts. May use sugar adjuncts, inclu­ding brown sugar. Ame­ri­can or New World finis­hing hops with tro­pi­cal, frui­ty, citru­sy, piney, ber­ry, or melon aspects; the choice of hops and cha­rac­ter mal­ts is syn­er­gistic – they very much have to com­ple­ment each other and not clash.
Histo­ry
A more modern craft beer name for a style that has long been popu­lar with US home­bre­wers, when it was known as a hop­pier Ame­ri­can Brown Ale or some­ti­mes Texas Brown Ale (des­pi­te ori­gins in California).
Comments
Pre­vious­ly might have been a sub-gen­re of Ame­ri­can Brown Ales, hop­pier and stron­ger than the nor­mal pro­ducts, but still main­tai­ning the essen­ti­al drin­ka­bi­li­ty by avoiding sweet fla­vors or a hea­vy body or finish. The hops and malt can com­bi­ne to pro­du­ce inte­res­ting interactions.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Dog­fi­sh Head Indian Brown Ale, Grand Teton Bitch Creek, Har­poon Brown IPA, Rus­si­an River Janet’s Brown Ale
Notes
Spe­cial­ty IPA isn’t a dis­tinct style, but is more appro­pria­te­ly thought of as a com­pe­ti­ti­on ent­ry cate­go­ry. Beers ent­e­red as this style are not expe­ri­men­tal beers; they are a collec­tion of cur­r­ent­ly pro­du­ced types of beer that may or may not have any mar­ket lon­ge­vi­ty. This cate­go­ry also allows for expan­si­on, so poten­ti­al future IPA vari­ants (St. Patrick’s Day Green IPA, Romu­lan Blue IPA, Zima Clear IPA, etc.) have a place to be ent­e­red without redo­ing the style gui­de­li­nes. The only com­mon ele­ment is that they have the balan­ce and over­all impres­si­on of an IPA (typi­cal­ly, an Ame­ri­can IPA) but with some minor tweak. The term ‘IPA’ is used as a sin­gu­lar descrip­tor of a type of hop­py, bit­ter beer. It is not meant to be spel­led out as ‘India Pale Ale’ when used in the con­text of a Spe­cial­ty IPA. None of the­se beers ever his­to­ri­cal­ly went to India, and many aren’t pale. But the craft beer mar­ket knows what to expect in balan­ce when a beer is descri­bed as an ‘IPA’ – so the modi­fiers used to dif­fe­ren­tia­te them are based on that con­cept alone.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.056 - 1.070 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.016 SG
Color
11 - 19 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 7.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
40 - 70 IBU
Name
Spe­cial­ty IPA - Red IPA
Cate­go­ry
IPA
BJCP Style Code
21 B4
Appearan­ce
Color ran­ges from light red­dish-amber to dark red­dish-cop­per. Should be clear, alt­hough unfil­te­red dry-hop­ped ver­si­ons may be a bit hazy. Medi­um-sized, off-white to cream-colo­red head with good persistence.
Aro­ma
A mode­ra­te to strong fresh hop aro­ma fea­turing one or more cha­rac­te­ris­tics of Ame­ri­can or New World hops, such as tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, citrus, flo­ral, spi­cy, ber­ry, melon, pine, resin­ous, etc. Many ver­si­ons are dry hop­ped and can have an addi­tio­nal fresh hop aro­ma; this is desi­ra­ble but not requi­red. Gras­si­ness should be mini­mal, if pre­sent. A medi­um-low to medi­um mal­ty-sweet aro­ma mixes in well with the hop selec­tion, and often fea­tures cara­mel, tof­fee, toas­ty, and/or dark fruit cha­rac­ter. Frui­ti­ness from yeast may also be detec­ted in some ver­si­ons, alt­hough a neu­tral fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter is also accep­ta­ble. A restrai­ned alco­hol note may be pre­sent, but this cha­rac­ter should be mini­mal at best. Any Ame­ri­can or New World hop cha­rac­ter is accep­ta­ble; new hop varie­ties con­ti­nue to be released and should not cons­train this style.
Fla­vour
Hop fla­vor is medi­um to very high, and should reflect an Ame­ri­can or New World hop cha­rac­ter, such as citrus, flo­ral, pine, resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, melon, etc. Medi­um-high to very high hop bit­ter­ness. Malt fla­vor should be medi­um-low to medi­um, and is gene­ral­ly clean but mal­ty-sweet up front with medi­um-dark cara­mel, tof­fee, toas­ty and/or dark fruit malt fla­vors. The cha­rac­ter malt choices and the hop selec­tions should com­ple­ment and enhan­ce each other, not clash. The level of malt fla­vor should not adver­se­ly cons­train the hop bit­ter­ness and fla­vor pre­sen­ta­ti­on. Low yeast-deri­ved frui­ti­ness is accep­ta­ble but not requi­red. Dry to medi­um-dry finish; resi­du­al sweet­ness should be medi­um-low to none. The bit­ter­ness and hop fla­vor may lin­ger into the after­tas­te but should not be har­sh. A very light, clean alco­hol fla­vor may be noted in stron­ger versions. 
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body, with a smooth tex­tu­re. Medi­um to medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on. No har­sh hop-deri­ved astrin­gen­cy. Very light, smooth alco­hol war­ming not a fault if it does not intru­de into over­all balance.
Over­all Impression
Hop­py, bit­ter, and moder­ate­ly strong like an Ame­ri­can IPA, but with some cara­mel, tof­fee, and/or dark fruit malt cha­rac­ter. Retai­ning the dryish finish and lean body that makes IPAs so drin­ka­ble, a Red IPA is a litt­le more fla­vor­ful and mal­ty than an Ame­ri­can IPA without being sweet or heavy.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Simi­lar to an Ame­ri­can IPA, but with medi­um or dark crys­tal mal­ts, pos­si­b­ly some cha­rac­ter mal­ts with a light toas­ty aspect. May use sugar adjuncts. Ame­ri­can or New World finis­hing hops with tro­pi­cal, frui­ty, citru­sy, piney, ber­ry, or melon aspects; the choice of hops and cha­rac­ter mal­ts is syn­er­gistic – they very much have to com­ple­ment each other and not clash.
Histo­ry
A modern Ame­ri­can craft beer style, based on Ame­ri­can IPA but with the malt fla­vors of an Ame­ri­can Amber Ale.
Comments
Pre­vious­ly might have been a sub-gen­re of Ame­ri­can Amber Ales or Dou­ble Red Ales, hop­pier and stron­ger than the nor­mal pro­ducts, but still main­tai­ning the essen­ti­al drin­ka­bi­li­ty by avoiding sweet fla­vors or a hea­vy body or finish.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Green Flash Hop Head Red Dou­ble Red IPA (dou­ble), Mid­ni­ght Sun Sockeye Red, Sier­ra Neva­da Flip­si­de Red IPA, Sum­mit Hori­zon Red IPA, Odell Run­off Red IPA
Notes
Spe­cial­ty IPA isn’t a dis­tinct style, but is more appro­pria­te­ly thought of as a com­pe­ti­ti­on ent­ry cate­go­ry. Beers ent­e­red as this style are not expe­ri­men­tal beers; they are a collec­tion of cur­r­ent­ly pro­du­ced types of beer that may or may not have any mar­ket lon­ge­vi­ty. This cate­go­ry also allows for expan­si­on, so poten­ti­al future IPA vari­ants (St. Patrick’s Day Green IPA, Romu­lan Blue IPA, Zima Clear IPA, etc.) have a place to be ent­e­red without redo­ing the style gui­de­li­nes. The only com­mon ele­ment is that they have the balan­ce and over­all impres­si­on of an IPA (typi­cal­ly, an Ame­ri­can IPA) but with some minor tweak. The term ‘IPA’ is used as a sin­gu­lar descrip­tor of a type of hop­py, bit­ter beer. It is not meant to be spel­led out as ‘India Pale Ale’ when used in the con­text of a Spe­cial­ty IPA. None of the­se beers ever his­to­ri­cal­ly went to India, and many aren’t pale. But the craft beer mar­ket knows what to expect in balan­ce when a beer is descri­bed as an ‘IPA’ – so the modi­fiers used to dif­fe­ren­tia­te them are based on that con­cept alone.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.056 - 1.070 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.016 SG
Color
11 - 19 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 7.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
40 - 70 IBU
Name
Spe­cial­ty IPA - Rye IPA
Cate­go­ry
IPA
BJCP Style Code
21 B5
Appearan­ce
Color ran­ges from medi­um gold to light red­dish-amber. Should be clear, alt­hough unfil­te­red dry-hop­ped ver­si­ons may be a bit hazy. Medi­um-sized, white to off-white head with good persistence.
Aro­ma
A pro­mi­nent to inten­se hop aro­ma fea­turing one or more cha­rac­te­ris­tics of Ame­ri­can or New World hops, such as citrus, flo­ral, pine, resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, melon, etc. Many ver­si­ons are dry hop­ped and can have an addi­tio­nal fresh hop aro­ma; this is desi­ra­ble but not requi­red. Gras­si­ness should be mini­mal, if pre­sent. It may have low pep­pe­ry rye malt aro­ma. A low to medi­um-low clean grai­ny-mal­ty aro­ma may be found in the back­ground. Frui­ti­ness from yeast may also be detec­ted in some ver­si­ons, alt­hough a neu­tral fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter is also accep­ta­ble. A restrai­ned alco­hol note may be pre­sent, but this cha­rac­ter should be mini­mal at best. Any Ame­ri­can or New World hop cha­rac­ter is accep­ta­ble; new hop varie­ties con­ti­nue to be released and should not cons­train this style.
Fla­vour
Hop fla­vor is medi­um to very high, and should reflect an Ame­ri­can or New World hop cha­rac­ter, such as citrus, flo­ral, pine, resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, melon, etc. Medi­um-high to very high hop bit­ter­ness. Malt fla­vor should be low to medi­um-low, and is gene­ral­ly clean and grai­ny-mal­ty alt­hough some light cara­mel or toas­ty fla­vors are accep­ta­ble. A light grai­ny spi­ci­ness from rye malt should be pre­sent. Low yeast-deri­ved frui­ti­ness is accep­ta­ble but not requi­red. Rye malt con­tri­bu­tes to a dry finish; resi­du­al sweet­ness should be low to none. The bit­ter­ness, hop fla­vor and dry­ness may lin­ger into the after­tas­te but should not be har­sh. A very light, clean alco­hol fla­vor may be noted in stron­ger versions. 
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light to medi­um body, with a smooth tex­tu­re. Medi­um to medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on. No har­sh hop-deri­ved astrin­gen­cy. Very light, smooth alco­hol war­ming not a fault if it does not intru­de into over­all balance.
Over­all Impression
A deci­ded­ly hop­py and bit­ter, moder­ate­ly strong Ame­ri­can pale ale, show­ca­sing modern Ame­ri­can and New World hop varie­ties and rye malt. The balan­ce is hop-for­ward, with a clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le, dry finish, and clean, sup­por­ting malt allowing a crea­ti­ve ran­ge of hop cha­rac­ter to shi­ne through.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pale ale or 2-row bre­wers malt as the base, 15-20% Rye malt, Ame­ri­can or New World hops, Ame­ri­can or Eng­lish yeast with a clean or slight­ly frui­ty pro­fi­le. Gene­ral­ly all-malt, but mas­hed at lower tem­pe­ra­tures for high atte­nua­ti­on. Sugar addi­ti­ons to aid atte­nua­ti­on are accep­ta­ble. Water cha­rac­ter varies from soft to moder­ate­ly sul­fa­te. Restrai­ned use of crys­tal mal­ts, if any, as high amounts can lead to a sweet finish and clash with the hop character.
Histo­ry
Loo­king to add com­ple­xi­ty and varie­ty to their IPAs, craft bre­wers and home­bre­wers sub­sti­tu­ted rye malt for a por­ti­on of their base malt. Rye IPAs, Rye­PAs or RIPAs have found a place in many craft bre­we­ries sea­so­nal rotations.
Comments
A modern Ame­ri­can craft beer varia­ti­on of Ame­ri­can IPA. Rye malt cha­rac­ter should be noti­ce­ab­le, other­wi­se enter in Ame­ri­can IPA. Oak is inap­pro­pria­te in this style; if noti­ce­ab­ly oaked, enter in wood-aged category.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Arca­dia Sky High Rye, Bear Repu­blic Hop Rod Rye, Foun­ders Reds Rye, Gre­at Lakes Rye of the Tiger, Sier­ra Neva­da Ruth­less Rye
Notes
Spe­cial­ty IPA isn’t a dis­tinct style, but is more appro­pria­te­ly thought of as a com­pe­ti­ti­on ent­ry cate­go­ry. Beers ent­e­red as this style are not expe­ri­men­tal beers; they are a collec­tion of cur­r­ent­ly pro­du­ced types of beer that may or may not have any mar­ket lon­ge­vi­ty. This cate­go­ry also allows for expan­si­on, so poten­ti­al future IPA vari­ants (St. Patrick’s Day Green IPA, Romu­lan Blue IPA, Zima Clear IPA, etc.) have a place to be ent­e­red without redo­ing the style gui­de­li­nes. The only com­mon ele­ment is that they have the balan­ce and over­all impres­si­on of an IPA (typi­cal­ly, an Ame­ri­can IPA) but with some minor tweak. The term ‘IPA’ is used as a sin­gu­lar descrip­tor of a type of hop­py, bit­ter beer. It is not meant to be spel­led out as ‘India Pale Ale’ when used in the con­text of a Spe­cial­ty IPA. None of the­se beers ever his­to­ri­cal­ly went to India, and many aren’t pale. But the craft beer mar­ket knows what to expect in balan­ce when a beer is descri­bed as an ‘IPA’ – so the modi­fiers used to dif­fe­ren­tia­te them are based on that con­cept alone.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.056 - 1.075 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.008 - 1.014 SG
Color
6 - 14 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 8.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
50 - 75 IBU
Name
Spe­cial­ty IPA - White IPA
Cate­go­ry
IPA
BJCP Style Code
21 B6
Appearan­ce
Pale to deep gol­den color, typi­cal­ly hazy. Mode­ra­te to lar­ge, den­se white head that persists.
Aro­ma
Mode­ra­te frui­ty esters – bana­na, citrus, perhaps apri­cot. May have light to mode­ra­te spi­ce aro­ma such as cori­an­der or pep­per from actu­al spi­ce addi­ti­ons and/or Bel­gi­an yeast. Hop aro­ma is moder­ate­ly-low to medi­um, usual­ly Ame­ri­can or New World type with stone fruit, citrus and tro­pi­cal aro­mas. Esters and spi­ces may redu­ce hop aro­ma per­cep­ti­on. Light clove-like phe­n­o­lics may be present.
Fla­vour
Light malt fla­vor, perhaps a bit brea­dy. Frui­ty esters are mode­ra­te to high, with citrus fla­vors simi­lar to grape­fruit and oran­ge, or stone fruit like apri­cot. Some­ti­mes bana­na-like fla­vors are pre­sent. Hop fla­vor is medi­um-low to medi­um-high with citru­sy or frui­ty aspects. Some spi­cy clove-like fla­vors from Bel­gi­an yeast may be pre­sent. Cori­an­der and oran­ge peel fla­vors may be found as well. Bit­ter­ness is high which leads to a moder­ate­ly dry, refres­hing finish.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-light body with medi­um to medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on. Typi­cal­ly no astrin­gen­cy, alt­hough high­ly spi­ced examp­les may exhi­bit a light astrin­gen­cy which is not distracting. 
Over­all Impression
A frui­ty, spi­cy, refres­hing ver­si­on of an Ame­ri­can IPA, but with a ligh­ter color, less body, and fea­turing eit­her the dis­tinc­ti­ve yeast and/or spi­ce addi­ti­ons typi­cal of a Bel­gi­an witbier.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Pale and wheat mal­ts, Bel­gi­an yeast, citru­sy Ame­ri­can type hops.
Histo­ry
Ame­ri­can craft bre­wers deve­lo­ped the style as a late winter/spring sea­so­nal beer to appeal to Wit and IPA drin­kers alike.
Comments
A craft beer inter­pre­ta­ti­on of Ame­ri­can IPA cros­sed with a witbier.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Blue Point White IPA, Deschu­tes Chain­brea­ker IPA, Har­poon The Long Thaw, New Bel­gi­um Accumulation
Notes
Spe­cial­ty IPA isn’t a dis­tinct style, but is more appro­pria­te­ly thought of as a com­pe­ti­ti­on ent­ry cate­go­ry. Beers ent­e­red as this style are not expe­ri­men­tal beers; they are a collec­tion of cur­r­ent­ly pro­du­ced types of beer that may or may not have any mar­ket lon­ge­vi­ty. This cate­go­ry also allows for expan­si­on, so poten­ti­al future IPA vari­ants (St. Patrick’s Day Green IPA, Romu­lan Blue IPA, Zima Clear IPA, etc.) have a place to be ent­e­red without redo­ing the style gui­de­li­nes. The only com­mon ele­ment is that they have the balan­ce and over­all impres­si­on of an IPA (typi­cal­ly, an Ame­ri­can IPA) but with some minor tweak. The term ‘IPA’ is used as a sin­gu­lar descrip­tor of a type of hop­py, bit­ter beer. It is not meant to be spel­led out as ‘India Pale Ale’ when used in the con­text of a Spe­cial­ty IPA. None of the­se beers ever his­to­ri­cal­ly went to India, and many aren’t pale. But the craft beer mar­ket knows what to expect in balan­ce when a beer is descri­bed as an ‘IPA’ – so the modi­fiers used to dif­fe­ren­tia­te them are based on that con­cept alone.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.056 - 1.065 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.016 SG
Color
5 - 8 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 7.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
40 - 70 IBU
Name
Spe­cial­ty IPA – Brut IPA
Cate­go­ry
IPA
BJCP Style Code
21 B8
Appearan­ce
Very pale to light gol­den in color; tho­se with added fruit may reflect fruit color, but it’s usual­ly pale. White to off-white foam may be volu­min­ous due to high car­bo­na­ti­on and can have good to mode­ra­te reten­ti­on, depen­ding upon alco­hol. Cla­ri­ty can ran­ge from bril­li­ant to moder­ate­ly hazy from late-hop and dry-hop oils.
Fla­vour
Initi­al fla­vor should pri­ma­ri­ly reflect hop oils or added fruit. Grape, citrus, tro­pi­cal, and stone fruit fla­vors are com­mon, while bit­ter­ness should be restrai­ned. Low bit­te­ring hops will be exa­g­ge­ra­ted by the very dry finis­hing gra­vi­ty as well as car­bo­nic acid, but the­re should not be an aggres­si­ve bit­ter­ness as one would tas­te in a West Coast–style Ame­ri­can IPA. Malt fla­vor is all but absent; cara­mel or jui­cy sweet­ness should not be pre­sent, though alco­hol may pro­vi­de a sen­sa­ti­on of sweet­ness. Hop fla­vors should exhi­bit dry, some­ti­mes wine-like frui­ti­ness. Low tar­t­ness may be pre­sent from the pre­sence of real fruit but is not requi­red. Finish is dry to very dry (1°P or less) with low hop bitterness.
Mouth­feel
Body should be light to very light and, along with high car­bo­na­ti­on (up to 3.5 vol.), should lend a Cham­pa­gne-like qua­li­ty. Alco­hol may be high, with a sen­sa­ti­on of spar­k­ling wine-like vola­ti­li­ty, but should not be hot or har­sh. Resi­du­al malt sweet­ness or dex­trin full­ness should be absent.
Over­all Impression
A very pale, very dry, high­ly efferve­scent vari­ant of Ame­ri­can IPA, usual­ly high­ly hop­ped with aro­ma­tic hops, but with far less actu­al bit­ter­ness. Aro­ma: Mode­ra­te to inten­se hop aro­ma fea­turing one or more cha­rac­te­ris­tics of Ame­ri­can or New World hops, inclu­ding citrus, flo­ral, pine resin­ous, spi­cy, tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, ber­ry, melon, etc. Any Ame­ri­can or New World hop cha­rac­ter is accep­ta­ble; new hop varie­ties con­ti­nue to be released and should not cons­train this style. Most are hea­vi­ly hop­ped after fla­me­out, eit­her during whirl­pool, dry-hop­ped, or both. Some “Cham­pa­gne” styles may incor­po­ra­te fruit aro­ma­tics from addi­ti­ons of actu­al fruit in addi­ti­on to or ins­tead of hop-deri­ved fruit; gra­pes or grape must may be used in the­se ver­si­ons to bridge the gap bet­ween spar­k­ling wines and beer. A low to medi­um-low clean mal­ty-grai­ny aro­ma may be found in the back­ground. Sweet, grai­ny aro­ma­tics of corn or rice may be pre­sent but are not requi­red, as a mode­ra­te to high per­cen­ta­ge of adjuncts in the grain bill are often used as a means of incre­a­sing atte­nua­ti­on. Some bre­wers have repor­ted aro­mas of coco­nut from high amounts of rice in the grain bill.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Very pale base malt, some­ti­mes mar­ried with rice or corn adjuncts, high car­bo­na­ti­on and oil-hea­vy fla­vor and aro­ma hops added post-fla­me­out. Man­da­ri­na Bava­ria, Hüll Melon, and Nel­son Sau­vin are popu­lar. Sugar addi­ti­ons to aid atte­nua­ti­on are accep­ta­ble but must be kept low to avoid hot or har­sh alco­hols. Amyla­se enzy­mes such as Fer­mfast Glu­co­a­myla­se, White Labs Ultra-Ferm, or Amy­lo 300 are used to pro­du­ce a bone-dry finish, which is fur­ther ampli­fied by high car­bo­na­ti­on. Crys­tal or dex­trin mal­ts, lac­to­se, or any ingre­dients that will thi­c­ken or swee­ten the beer, or pre­vent com­ple­te atte­nua­ti­on, are not to style.
Histo­ry
This is very new sub­gen­re of IPA that has ties to the rela­tively rare Euro­pean style biè­re de Cham­pa­gne, but is gene­ral­ly attri­bu­t­ed to bre­wer Kim Stur­da­vant at San Francisco’s Social Kit­chen and Bre­we­ry. He is said to have used amyla­se enzy­mes to make his trip­le IPA more drin­ka­ble and won­de­red what effect they would have on a stan­dard-strength IPA. Some see it as a bone-dry West Coast back­lash to the New Eng­land IPA and milks­ha­ke IPA trends that favor sweet, full-bodi­ed, “jui­cy” fla­vors in a hea­vi­ly late-hop­ped beer.
Comments
Amyla­se enzy­mes, spe­ci­fi­cal­ly glu­co­a­myla­se or amy­log­lu­co­si­da­se, are used in the mash and/or fer­men­ter along with high­ly fer­men­ta­ble wort and often adjuncts like rice and corn to achie­ve clo­se to 100% atte­nua­ti­on. Clean, high-atte­nua­ting yeast strains are pre­fer­red, though the style will likely evol­ve as more bre­wers expe­ri­ment with more cha­rac­ter­ful strains. Bit­te­ring hops should be used with restraint sin­ce, even though it is an IPA, the low finis­hing gra­vi­ties will accen­tua­te hop bit­ter­ness; gene­ral­ly at or below about 20 IBUs.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Bear Repu­blic Brut Squad IPA, Black­stack Bot­tom­less Brut, Weld­Werks Char­don­nay Brut, Match­less Fan­cy Stuff Brut IPA, Bar­rel Bro­thers Cham­pa­de­ra­de Brut IPA, Three Wea­vers Post­co­lo­ni­al Friendship, Dan­ge­rous Man Brut Bel­li­ni, Four Quar­ters Padd­le On
Notes
Hop­ped in a simi­lar fashion to New Eng­land IPA, but without sweet­ness. Pale, some­ti­mes slight­ly hazy like a West Coast IPA, but without high bit­ter­ness. High­ly car­bo­na­ted like a Bel­gi­an Gol­den Strong ale, but even dri­er, and without Bel­gi­an spi­ce and phe­nol character.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.060 - 1.080 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
0.990 - 1004.000 SG
Color
5 - 15 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 12.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
15 - 25 IBU
Name
Spe­cial­ty IPA - New Eng­land IPA - NEIPA
Cate­go­ry
IPA
BJCP Style Code
21 B7
Appearan­ce
Color ran­ges from straw to yel­low, some­ti­mes with an oran­ge hue. Hazy, often opa­que, cla­ri­ty; should not be clou­dy or mur­ky. The opa­ci­ty can add a ‘shi­ne’ to the beer and make the color seem dar­ker. Any visi­ble floa­ting par­ti­cu­la­tes (hop mat­ter, yeast clumps, etc.) are a fault. Medi­um to rocky merin­gue white head with high to very high retention.
Aro­ma
Inten­se hop aro­ma, typi­cal­ly with frui­ty qua­li­ties (stone fruit, tro­pi­cal fruit, and citrus are most com­mon­ly pre­sent) reflec­ti­ve of newer Ame­ri­can and New World hop varie­ties without being gras­sy or her­bace­ous. Clean, neu­tral malt in the back­ground, poten­ti­al­ly with a light brea­dy sweet­ness without cara­mel or toast. Absence of any malt cha­rac­ter is a fault. Neu­tral to frui­ty fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter that is well-inte­gra­ted with the hops. A crea­my, but­te­ry, or aci­dic aro­ma is inap­pro­pria­te. Any per­cei­ved alco­hol cha­rac­ter should be restrai­ned and never hot.
Fla­vour
The hop fla­vor is high to very high, and reflects the same cha­rac­te­ris­tics as the aro­ma (empha­sis on fruit, with ripe tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, and citrus being most com­mon). The per­cei­ved bit­ter­ness can be some­what low to medi­um-high, often being mas­ked by the body and finish of the beer. The hop cha­rac­ter in the after­tas­te should not be sharp or har­sh. Low to medi­um malt fla­vor, gene­ral­ly neu­tral, some­ti­mes having a brea­dy, grai­ny, light­ly sweet fla­vor. Noti­ce­ab­le toast or cara­mel fla­vors are a flaw. Fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter is neu­tral to frui­ty, but as with the aro­ma, sup­por­ti­ve of the hops. Off-dry to medi­um finish. Crea­my, star­chy, or suga­ry-sweet fla­vors are inap­pro­pria­te, alt­hough a high ester level and lower bit­ter­ness may give the impres­si­on of up to mode­ra­te sweet­ness. A mode­ra­te, sup­por­ti­ve alco­hol cha­rac­ter is accep­ta­ble but should never be hot or dominating.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-full body with a smooth cha­rac­ter. No har­sh, hop-deri­ved astrin­gen­cy. Alco­hol warm­th may be pre­sent in stron­ger ver­si­ons, but should never be hot. Medi­um car­bo­na­ti­on is stan­dard. The beer should not have a crea­my or vis­cous mouth­feel, an aci­dic twang, or a raw starch texture.
Over­all Impression
An Ame­ri­can IPA with inten­se fruit fla­vors and aro­mas, a soft body, and smooth mouth­feel, and often opa­que with sub­stan­ti­al haze. Less per­cei­ved bit­ter­ness than tra­di­tio­nal IPAs but always mas­si­ve­ly hop for­ward. This empha­sis on late hop­ping, espe­cial­ly dry hop­ping, with hops with tro­pi­cal fruit qua­li­ties lends the spe­ci­fic ‘jui­cy’ cha­rac­ter for which this style is known.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Simi­lar to many newer Ame­ri­can IPAs but often with more oats or wheat in the grist, and less cara­mel or spe­cial­ty mal­ts. Restric­ted hop choice to Ame­ri­can or New World varie­ties with a tro­pi­cal fruit, stone fruit, or citrus cha­rac­ter. Neu­tral to este­ry yeast strain. Water ran­ges from balan­ced bet­ween sul­fa­te and chlo­ri­de to using more chlo­ri­des. Hea­vi­ly dry-hop­ped, part­ly during acti­ve fer­men­ta­ti­on, using a varie­ty of hop­ping doses and tem­pe­ra­tures to empha­sis hop depth of aro­ma and fla­vor over bit­ter­ness. Bio­trans­for­ma­ti­on of hop oils during fer­men­ta­ti­on may add to the fruit character.
Histo­ry
A modern craft beer style ori­gi­na­ting in the New Eng­land regi­on of the United Sta­tes. Alche­mist Hea­dy Top­per is belie­ved to be the ori­gi­nal examp­le and inspi­ra­ti­on for many other inter­pre­ta­ti­ons that grew in popu­la­ri­ty in the ear­ly to mid-2010s. Bre­wers are con­ti­nuing to inno­va­te and evol­ve the style, with the style tren­ding towards a less bit­ter pre­sen­ta­ti­on to the point of making a mocke­ry of the term “IPA”.
Comments
The style is still evol­ving, but this style is essen­ti­al­ly a smoot­her, hazier, jui­cier Ame­ri­can IPA. In this con­text, ‘jui­cy’ refers to a men­tal impres­si­on of fruit juice or eating fresh, ful­ly ripe fruit. Hea­vy examp­les sug­ges­ti­ve of milks­hakes, cream­si­cles, or fruit smoot­hies are bey­ond this ran­ge; IPAs should always be drin­ka­ble. Hazi­ness comes from the dry hop­ping regime, not sus­pen­ded yeast, starch haze, set pec­tins, or other tech­ni­ques; a hazy shi­ne is desi­ra­ble, not a clou­dy, mur­ky mess.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Hill Farm­s­tead Sus­an, Other Half Green Dia­monds Dou­ble IPA, Tired Hands Ali­en Church, Tree House Juli­us, Tril­li­um Con­gress Street, Weld­Werks Jui­cy Bits
Notes
Com­pa­red to Ame­ri­can IPA, New Eng­land IPA has a ful­ler, sof­ter mouth­feel, a more fruit-for­ward late hop expres­si­on, a more restrai­ned per­cei­ved bit­ter­ness balan­ce, and a hazier appearan­ce. Many modern Ame­ri­can IPAs are frui­ty and some­what hazy; if they have a dry, crisp finish, at most medi­um body, and high per­cei­ved bit­ter­ness, the­se examp­les should be ent­e­red as Ame­ri­can IPAs. Noti­ce­ab­le addi­ti­ons of fruit, lac­to­se, or other mate­ri­als to incre­a­se the frui­ty, smooth cha­rac­ter should be ent­e­red in ano­t­her cate­go­ry defi­ned by the addi­ti­ve (e.g., Fruit Beer, Spe­cial­ty Beer).
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.060 - 1.085 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.010 - 1.015 SG
Color
3 - 7 SRM
Alco­hol
6.0 - 9.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 60 IBU
Name
Catha­ri­na Sour
Cate­go­ry
Pro­vi­sio­nal Styles
BJCP Style Code
0 X4
Appearan­ce
The color can vary based on the fruit used, but is often fair­ly pale. Cla­ri­ty can vary from qui­te clear to hazy, depen­ding on the age and the type of fruit used. Always efferve­scent. The head is medi­um to high with good reten­ti­on, and varies from white to shades of color depen­ding on the fruit used.
Aro­ma
The fruit cha­rac­ter should be immedia­te­ly noti­ce­ab­le and reco­gniz­ab­le at a medi­um to high level. A clean lac­tic sour­ness should be detec­ta­ble at a low to medi­um level, in sup­port of the fruit. Malt is typi­cal­ly absent, but can be pre­sent at a low level as a sup­por­ti­ve grai­ny or brea­dy cha­rac­ter. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on cha­rac­ter requi­red. No wild or fun­ky yeast notes, no hop cha­rac­ter, no sharp alcohol.
Fla­vour
Fresh fruit fla­vor domi­na­tes, from a medi­um to high level, with a sup­por­ting clean lac­tic sour­ness (low to medi­um-high, but always noti­ce­ab­le). The fruit should have a fresh cha­rac­ter and not seem coo­ked, jam-like, or arti­fi­cial. The malt fla­vor is often absent, but can pro­vi­de a low grai­ny or brea­dy fla­vor. Howe­ver, the malt should never com­pe­te with the fruit or sour­ness. Hop bit­ter­ness is very low, below sen­so­ry thres­hold. Dry finish with a clean, tart, and frui­ty after­tas­te. Should not have any hop fla­vor, ace­tic notes, or dia­ce­tyl. Fun­ky Brett­ano­my­ces fla­vors are inappropriate.
Mouth­feel
Low to medi­um-low body. Medi­um to high car­bo­na­ti­on. Alco­hol warm­th is inap­pro­pria­te. Aci­di­ty is low to medi­um-high, without being aggres­si­ve or astringent.
Over­all Impression
A light and refres­hing wheat ale with a clean lac­tic sour­ness that is balan­ced by a fresh fruit addi­ti­on. The low bit­ter­ness, light body, mode­ra­te alco­hol con­tent, and moder­ate­ly high car­bo­na­ti­on allow the fla­vor and aro­ma of the fruit to be the pri­ma­ry focus of the beer. The fruit is often, but not always, tro­pi­cal in nature.
Typi­cal Ingredients
The grist is typi­cal­ly Pils­ner malt and wheat (mal­ted or unmal­ted), fre­quent­ly in equal per­cen­ta­ges. Kett­le sou­ring is the most com­mon tech­ni­que of pro­duc­tion using some strain of Lac­to­ba­c­il­lus, fol­lo­wed by a neu­tral ale yeast. Fruit addi­ti­ons post-fer­men­ta­ti­on are most com­mon, as a fresh and uncoo­ked fruit cha­rac­ter is desi­ra­ble. One or two fruits are most com­mon­ly used, and are often tro­pi­cal types, but any fresh fruit can be used.
Histo­ry
Ori­gi­na­ting in the Bra­zi­li­an sta­te of San­ta Cata­ri­na in 2015 as a col­la­bo­ra­ti­on bet­ween craft bre­wers and home­bre­wers to crea­te a beer fea­turing local ingre­dients that was well-sui­ted to the warm cli­ma­te. The style has spread to other sta­tes wit­hin Bra­zil and else­whe­re, and is a popu­lar style both com­mer­cial­ly and in home­brew competitions.
Comments
If a Ber­li­ner weis­se type beer was made with fruit, it should be ent­e­red as a Fruit Beer. This beer is stron­ger and typi­cal­ly fea­tures fresh fruit. The kett­le sou­ring method allows for fast pro­duc­tion of the beer, so this is typi­cal­ly a pre­sent-use style. It may be bot­t­led or can­ned, but it should be con­su­med while fresh.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Ita­ja­hy Catha­ri­na Ara­ca Sour, Blu­men­au Catha­ri­na Sour Sun of a Peach, Lohn Bier Catha­ri­na Sour Jabo­ti­ca­ba, Lif­fey Coroa Real, UNIKA Tan­ge­ri­na, Arma­da Daenerys
Notes
Like a stron­ger Ber­li­ner weis­se, but with fresh fruit. Less sour than lam­bic and gueu­ze, and without Brett­ano­my­ces character.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.039 - 1.048 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.002 - 1.008 SG
Color
2 - 7 SRM
Alco­hol
4.0 - 6.0 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
2 - 8 IBU
Name
New Zea­land Pilsner
Cate­go­ry
Pro­vi­sio­nal Styles
BJCP Style Code
0 X5
Appearan­ce
Straw to deep gold in color, but most examp­les are yel­low-gold. Gene­ral­ly qui­te clear to bril­li­ant cla­ri­ty; hazi­ness is a fault. Crea­my, long-las­ting white head.
Aro­ma
Medi­um to high hop aro­ma reflec­ti­ve of modern New World hop varie­ties, often show­ca­sing tro­pi­cal fruit, citrus (lime, white grape­fruit), goo­se­ber­ry, honey­dew melon, with a light green bell pep­per or gras­sy aspect. Medi­um-low to medi­um malt in sup­port, with a neu­tral to brea­dy-cra­cke­ry qua­li­ty. Very low DMS accep­ta­ble but not requi­red. Neu­tral, clean yeast cha­rac­ter, optio­nal­ly with a very light sul­fu­ry qua­li­ty. The hop cha­rac­ter should be most pro­mi­nent in the balan­ce, but some malt cha­rac­ter must be evident.
Fla­vour
Medi­um to high hop bit­ter­ness, clean­ly bit­ter not har­sh, most pro­mi­nent in the balan­ce and las­ting into the after­tas­te. Medi­um to high hop fla­vor with simi­lar cha­rac­te­ris­tics as the aro­ma (tro­pi­cal, citrus, goo­se­ber­ry, melon, grass). Medi­um to medi­um-low malt fla­vor, grai­ny-sweet, brea­dy, or cra­cke­ry. Clean fer­men­ta­ti­on pro­fi­le (fer­men­ta­ti­on esters are a fault). Dry to off-dry with a clean, smooth finish and bit­ter but not har­sh after­tas­te. The malt may sug­gest an impres­si­on of sweet­ness but the beer should not be liter­al­ly sweet. The finish may be dry but not seem crisp or bit­ing. The balan­ce should always be bit­ter, but the malt fla­vor must be noticeable.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um to medi­um-light body. Medi­um to medi­um-high car­bo­na­ti­on. Smooth­ness is the most pro­mi­nent impres­si­on. Never har­sh nor astringent.
Over­all Impression
A pale, dry, gol­den-colo­red, clean­ly-fer­men­ted beer show­ca­sing the cha­rac­te­ris­tic tro­pi­cal, citru­sy, frui­ty, gras­sy New Zea­land-type hops. Medi­um body, soft mouth­feel, and smooth pala­te and finish, with a neu­tral to brea­dy malt base pro­vi­de the sup­port for this very drin­ka­ble, refres­hing, hop-for­ward beer.
Typi­cal Ingredients
New Zea­land hop varie­ties, such as Motue­ka, Riwa­ke, Nel­son Sau­vin, often with Paci­fic Jade for bit­te­ring. Other new world varie­ties from Aus­tra­lia or the US may be used, if they have simi­lar cha­rac­te­ris­tics. Pale base mal­ts, Pils­ner or pale types, perhaps with a small per­cen­ta­ge of wheat malt. Fair­ly low-mine­ral water, typi­cal­ly with more chlo­ri­de than sul­fa­te. Clean lager yeast or very neu­tral ale yeast.
Histo­ry
Lar­ge­ly defi­ned by the ori­gi­nal crea­ted at Emerson’s Bre­we­ry in the mid-1990s, New Zea­land Pils­ner has expan­ded in cha­rac­ter as the varie­ties of New Zea­land hops have expan­ded in num­ber and popularity.
Comments
The hop aro­ma­tics often have a simi­lar qua­li­ty as many New Zea­land Sau­vi­gnon Blanc wines, with tro­pi­cal fruit, gras­sy, melon, and lime aro­ma­tics. Often bre­wed as a hybrid style in New Zea­land using a neu­tral ale yeast at cool tem­pe­ra­tures. Limi­t­ing the sul­fur con­tent of the finis­hed pro­duct is important sin­ce it can clash with the hop cha­rac­ter. If jud­ging in com­pe­ti­ti­on, this style fits best wit­hin Cate­go­ry 12. Pale Com­mon­wealth Beer.
Com­mer­cial Examples
Crou­cher New Zea­land Pils­ner, Emerson’s Pils­ner, Liber­ty Halo Pils­ner, Pan­head Port Road Pils­ner, Saw­mill Pils­ner, Tua­ta­ra Mot Eureka
Notes
Com­pa­red to a Ger­man Pils, not as crisp and dry in the finish with a sof­ter, mal­tier pre­sen­ta­ti­on and a ful­ler body. Com­pa­red to a Czech Pre­mi­um Pale Lager, less malt com­ple­xi­ty, a clea­ner fer­men­ta­ti­on. Simi­lar in balan­ce to a Kolsch or Bri­tish Gol­den Ale, but with a hop­pier aro­ma. Com­pa­red to any of the­se Ger­man styles, show­ca­sing New Zea­land hop varie­ties with tro­pi­cal, citru­sy, frui­ty, gras­sy cha­rac­te­ris­tics, often with a white wine-like cha­rac­ter. Should not be as hop­py or bit­ter in balan­ce as an IPA.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.044 - 1.056 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.009 - 1.014 SG
Color
2 - 7 SRM
Alco­hol
4.5 - 5.8 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
25 - 45 IBU
Name
Bur­ton Ale
Cate­go­ry
Strong Bri­tish Ale
BJCP Style Code
17 A1
Appearan­ce
Light cop­per to dark brown in color. Dar­ker ver­si­ons can be near­ly opa­que, but cla­ri­ty should be good when noted. Mode­ra­te-sized, fine-tex­tu­red, cream-colo­red head, persistent.
Aro­ma
Moder­ate­ly strong, rich, and sweet mal­ty aro­ma with deep toast or dark cara­mel notes. No roas­ty or burnt malt appa­rent, but a brea­dy and bis­cui­ty base is com­mon. Dark or dried fruit (plums, figs, pru­nes, raisins) often pre­sent at up to a mode­ra­te level. A light alco­hol pre­sence may be noted, but should not be sharp. Hops can be light to mode­ra­te, and reflec­ti­ve of frui­ty, flo­ral, woo­dy, or spi­cy Eng­lish varie­ties. The malt makes the stron­gest impres­si­on in the balan­ce, but the other aspects add an aro­ma­tic complexity.
Fla­vour
Simi­lar to the aro­ma, the malt is initi­al­ly noted with a rich cha­rac­ter and a some­what sweet finish. The bit­ter­ness level is medi­um-high to high and hel­ps balan­ce the strong malt fla­vor. The malt fla­vors have a brea­dy and bis­cui­ty cha­rac­ter with sub­stan­ti­al deep toast or dark cara­mel fla­vors; over­ly roas­ted and burnt fla­vors are inap­pro­pria­te. Hop fla­vor can be medi­um to low, with a frui­ty, flo­ral, spi­cy, or woo­dy Eng­lish qua­li­ty. Dark or dried fruit fla­vors (plum, pru­ne, fig, or rai­sin) are often pre­sent at up to a mode­ra­te level. A light alco­hol fla­vor might be detec­ted, but the sweet­ness in the finish usual­ly masks it. The sweet­ness should be balan­ced by hops and never be cloy­ing or clashing.
Mouth­feel
Medi­um-full to full body with a smooth, rich, luscious cha­rac­ter. War­ming alco­hol should be noti­ce­ab­le in stron­ger ver­si­ons. Mode­ra­te car­bo­na­ti­on, lower when ser­ved on hand pump.
Over­all Impression
A rich, mal­ty, sweet, and bit­ter dark ale of moder­ate­ly strong alco­hol. Full bodi­ed and che­wy with a balan­ced hop­py finish and com­plex mal­ty and hop­py aro­ma. Frui­ty notes accen­tua­te the malt rich­ness, while the hops help balan­ce the swee­ter finish.
Typi­cal Ingredients
Brea­dy and bis­cui­ty Eng­lish base mal­ts. Sub­stan­ti­al por­ti­on of ‘high kil­ned’ malt. His­to­ri­cal ver­si­ons often used brewing sug­ars and corn. More modern ver­si­ons can use crys­tal mal­ts for fla­vor and cho­co­la­te malt for color. Eng­lish ale yeast. Tra­di­tio­nal Eng­lish hops, often dry hopped.
Histo­ry
Popu­lar in Bur­ton befo­re IPAs were inven­ted, wide­ly expor­ted to the Bal­tic coun­tries. After 1822, refor­mu­la­ted to be less sweet and strong. Most popu­lar in the Vic­to­ri­an Era, with several dif­fe­rent strengths avail­ab­le in the fami­ly. The stron­gest ver­si­ons evol­ved into Eng­lish Bar­ley­wi­nes. Beca­me less popu­lar after WWII, even­tual­ly dying out around 1970. Some ver­si­ons exist as Win­ter War­mers, Bar­ley­wi­nes, or Old Ales, but the name has lost favor in the market.
Comments
The beer has a long and sto­ried histo­ry and many ver­si­ons exis­ted over time. The style repre­sen­ted her most­ly repres­ents the beer at its peak befo­re WWI, alt­hough the para­me­ters allow for later era lower-gra­vi­ty ver­si­ons as well. A kee­ping ale, the beer was typi­cal­ly aged befo­re consuming.
Com­mer­cial Examples
The Labo­ra­to­ry Gone for a Burton
Notes
Has some simi­la­ri­ty in malt fla­vor to Wee Hea­vy, but with sub­stan­ti­al­ly more bit­ter­ness. Less strong than an Eng­lish Barleywine.
Ori­gi­nal Gravity
1.055 - 1.075 SG
Final Gra­vi­ty
1.018 - 1.024 SG
Color
14 - 22 SRM
Alco­hol
5.0 - 7.5 %vol
Bit­ter­ness
40 - 50 IBU